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A Comprehensive Account of upwards of One Hundred 

and Sixty Secret Organisations Religious, Political, 

and Social from the most Remote Ages 

down to the Present Time 

Embracing the Mysteries of Ancient India, China, Japan, Egypt, Mexico, 
Peru, Greece, and Scandinavia, the Cabbalists, Early Christians, 
Heretics, Assassins, Thugs, Templars, the Vehm and 
Inquisition, Mystics, Rosicrucians, Illuminati, Free- 
masons, Skopzi, Camorristi, Carbonari, Nihilists, 
Fenians, French, Spanish, 

And other Mysterious Sects 



i i 





The numbers preceding analytical leadings refer to the sections. 





I. THE LEGEND OF THE TEMPLE. 383. Ancestry of Hiram Abiff . 

384. Hiram, Solomon, and the Queen of Sheba. 385. Murder of 
Hiram 3-7 

II. ORIGIN AND TRADITIONS. 386. The First Masons. 387. Periods of 

Freemasonry. 388. Freemasonry derived from many Sources. 389. 
True History of Masonry 8-12 

III. RITES AND CUSTOMS. 390. List of Rites. 391. Masonic Customs. 

392. Masonic Alphabet I 3~ I 5 

IV. THE LODGE. 393. Interior Arrangement of Lodge. 394. Modern 
Lodge. 395. Officers. 396. Opening the Lodge . . . 16-18 

V. GENUINE AND SPURIOUS MASONRY. 397. Distinction between Genuine 

and Spurious Masonry. 398. Some Rites only deserve Special 
Mention ........... 19 

VI. CEREMONIES OF INITIATION. 399. Ceremonies 'of Initiation The 
Apprentice. 400. Ceremonies of Initiation The Fellow - Graf t. 
401. Ceremony of Initiation and Story of Hiram's Murder The 
Master Mason. 402. The Legend Explained. 403. The Raising of 
Osiris. 404. The Blazing Star 21-29 

VII. THE HOLY ROYAL ARCH. 405. Officers. 406. Ceremonies. 407. Pass- 
ing the Veils 3O~33 

VIII. GRAND MASTER ARCHITECT. 408. Ceremonial . . . 34-36 

IX. GRAND ELECT KNIGHT OF KADOSH. 409. The Term Kadosh. 410. 
Reception into the Degree. 411. The Mysterious Ladder. 412. The 
Seven Steps 37~39 



X. PRINCE OF ROSE-CROIX. 413. Distinct from Rosicrucian, and has 

various Names. 414. Officers and Lodges. 415. Reception in the First 
Apartment 416. Second Apartment. 417. Reception in the Third 
Apartment 40-43 

XI. THE RITES OF MISRAIM AND MEMPHIS. 418. Anomalies of the Rite of 
Misraim. 419. Organisation. 420. History and Constitution. 421. 
Rites and Ceremonies. 422. Rite of Memphis .... 44-46 

XII. MODERN KNIGHTS TEMPLARS. 423. Origin. 424. Revival of the 
Order. 425. The Leviticon. 426. Ceremonies of Initiation . 47~5O 

England. 428. Freemasonry in Scotland. 429. Modern Free- 
masonry SI-S3 

XIV. FREEMASONRY IN FRANCE. 430. Introduction into France. 431. 
Chevalier Ramsay. 432. Philosophical Rite. 433. The Duke 

de Chartres 54~56 

Jesuitical Influence. 435. The Strict Observance ... 57, 58 

XVI. THE RELAXED OBSERVANCE. 436. Organisation of Relaxed Obser- 
vance. 437. Disputes in German Lodges. 438. Rite of Zinzendorf. 

439. African Architects ........ 59~6o 

XVII. THE CONGRESS OF WILHELMSBAD. 440. Various Congresses. 441. 
Discussions at Wilhelmsbad. 442. Result of Convention. 443. 
Frederick William III. and the Masons 61-63 

XVIII. MASONRY AND NAPOLEONISM. w\. Masonry protected by Napoleon. 
445. Spread of Freemasonry. 446. The Clover Leaves. 447. Obse- 
quiousness of Freemasonry. 448. Anti-Napoleonic Freemasonry 64-67 

The Society of "France Regenerated." 450. Priestly Opposition to 
Masonry. 451. Political Insignificance of Masonry. 452. Free- 
masonry and Napoleon IIL 453. Jesuitical Manoeuvres . . 68-7 1 

XX. FREEMASONRY IN ITALY. 454. Whimsical Masonic Societies. 455. 
Illuminati in Italy. 456. Freemasonry at Naples. 457. Details of 
Document. 458. Freemasonry at Venice. 459. Abatement under 
Napoleon. 460. The Freemasonry of the Present in Italy. 461. Re- 
form needed 72-77 

463. The Egyptian Rite. 464. Cagliostro's Hydromancy. 465. Lodges 
founded by Cagliostro 78-81 

XXII. ADOPTIVE MASONRY. 466. Historical Notice. 467. Organisation. 
468. Jesuit Degrees 82, 83 

XXIII. ANDROGYNOUS MASONRY. 469. Origin and Tendency. 470. Earliest 
Androgynous Societies. 471. Other Androgynous Societies. 472. 
Various other Androgynous Societies. 473. Knights and Nymphs of 
the Rose. 474. German Order of the Rose. 475. Pretended Objects 

of the Order. 476. Order of Harmony. 477. Mason's Daughter 84-90 



XXIV. SCHISMATIC RITES AND SECTS. 478. Schismatic Rites and Sects. 
479. Farmassoni. 480. The Gormogones. 481. The Noachites, or 
Noachidae. 482. Argonauts. 483. The Grand Orient and Atheism. 
484. Ludicrous Degree 91-95 

XXV. DIFFUSION OF THE ORDER. 485. Freemasonry in Spain and 
Portugal. 486. Freemasonry in Russia. 487. Freemasonry in Switzer- 
land. 488. Freemasonry in Sweden and Poland. 489. Freemasonry 
in Holland and Germany. 490. Freemasonry in Turkey, Asia, Africa, 

and Oceania. 491. Freemasonry in America .... 96-99 

XXVI. PERSECUTIONS OF FREEMASONRY. 492. Causes of Persecution. 
493. Instances of Persecution. 494. Anti-Masonic Publications 100-105 

of Modern Freemasonry. 496. Vanity of Masonic Ceremonial. 
497. Masonry diffuses no Knowledge. 498. Decay of Freemasonry. 
499. Masonic Opinions of Masonry. 500. Masonic Literature. 
5OO. The Quatuor Coronati Lodge 106-110 



501. Introductory Remarks. 502. Socialistic Schemes. 503. History of the 
International. 504. Objects and Aims of International. 55- The 
International in England. 506. The International Abroad. 507. The 
International and the Empire. 508. The International and the War. 
509. The International and the Commune. 510. Budget of the 
International. 511. Attempt to Revive the International. 512. 
Anarchists . . . . . . . . . . 111-127 



I. CHINESE SOCIETIES. 513. Earliest Secret Chinese Societies. 514. More 

recent Societies. 515. Lodges. 516. Government. 517. Seal of the 
Hung League. 518. The Ko lao Hui 128-138 

II. The COMUNEROS. 519. Introductory Remarks. 520. Earliest Secret 

Societies in Spain. 521. Freemasonry in Spain, the Forerunner of the 
Comuneros. 522. The Comuneros. 523. Clerical Societies . 139-142 

III. THE HETAIRIA. 524. Origin. 525. The Hetairia of 1812. 526. The 
Hetairia of 1814. 527. Signs and Passwords. 528. Short Career of 
Galatis. 529. Proceedings of the Grand Arch. 530. Ipsilanti's Pro- 
ceedings. 531. Ipsilanti's Blunders. 532. Progress of the Insurrection. 
533. Ipsilanti's Approaching Fall. 534. Advance of the Turks. 535. 
Ipsilanti's Difficulties. 536. Ipsilanti's Fall. 537. Ipsilanti's Manifesto. 
538. Ipsilanti's Imprisonment and Death. 539. Fate of the Hetairists. 
540. Georgakis' Death. 541. Farmakis' Death. 542. Final Success of 

the Hetairia 143-156 


IV. THE CARBONARI. 543. History of the Association. 544. Real Origin of 
the Carboneria. 545. The Vendita or Lodge. 546. Ritual of Initiation. 
547. First Degree. 548. The Second Degree. 549. The Degree of 
Grand Elect. 550. Degree of Grand Master Grand Elect. 551. Sig- 
nification of the Symbols. 55 2 - Other Ceremonies and Regulations. 
553. The Ausonian Republic. 554. Most Secret Carbonaro Degree. 
555. De Witt, Biographical Notice of. 556. Carbonaro Charter pro- 
posed to England. 557. Carbonarism and Murat. 558. Trial of 
Carbonari. 559. Carbonarism and the Bourbons. 560. The King's 
Revenge. 561. Revival of Carbonarism. 562. Carbonarism and the 
Church. 563. Carbonarism in Northern Italy. 564. Carbonarism in 
France. 565. Carbonarism in Germany. 566. Carbonarism in Spain. 

567. Giardiniere .......... 157-177 

V. MISCELLANEOUS ITALIAN SOCIETIES. 568. Guelphic Knights. 569. 

Guelphs and Carbonari. 570. The Latini. 571. The Centres. 572. 
Italian Litterateurs. 573. Societies in Calabria and the Abruzzi. 574. 
Giro Annichiarico. 575. Certificates of the Decisi. 576. The Calderari. 
577. The Independents. 578. The Delphic Priesthood. 579. Egyptian 
Lodges. 580. American Hunters. 581. Secret Italian Society in 
London. 582. Secret Italian Societies in Paris. 583. Mazzini and 
Young Italy. 584. Mazzini, the Evil Genius of Italy. 585. Assassi- 
nation of Rossi. 586. Sicilian Societies. 587. The Consistorials. 588. 
The Roman Catholic Apostolic Congregation. 589. Sanfedisti . 178-195 

delphians. 591. The Rays. 592. Secret League in Tirol. 593. 
Societies in Favour of Napoleon. 594. The Illuminati. 595. Various 
other Societies. 596. The Accoltellatori 196-201 

VII. FRENCH SOCIETIES. 597. Various Societies after the Restoration. 
598. The Acting Company. 599. Communistic Societies. 600. Causes 

of Secret Societies in France 202-206 

VIII. POLISH SOCIETIES. 60 1. Polish Patriotism. 602. Various Revolu- 
tionary Sects. 603. Secret National Government . . . 207-209 

IX. THE OMLADINA. 604. The Panslavists ' 210,211 

X. TURKISH SOCIETIES. 605. Young Turkey. 606. Armenian Society 212,213 

XI. THE UNION OF SAFETY. 607. Historical Sketch of the Society . 214-216 

XII. THE NIHILISTS. 608. Meaning of the term Nihilist. 609. Founders 
of Nihilism. 610. Sergei Nechayetf. 6ll. Going among the People. 
612. Nihilism becomes Aggressive. 613. Sophia Bardina's and other 
Trials. 614. The Party of Terror. 615. Vera Zassulic. 6 1 6. Officials 
Killed or Threatened by the Nihilists. 617. First Attempts against the 
Emperor's Life. 6 1 8. Numerous Executions. 619. The Moscow Attempt 
against the Emperor. 620. Various Nihilist Trials. 621. Explosion in 
the Winter Palace. 622. Assassination of the Emperor. 623. The Mine 
in Garden Street. 624. Constitution said to have been Granted by 
late Emperor. 625. The Nihilist Proclamation. 626. The Emperor's 
Reply thereto. 627. Attempt against General Tcherevin. 628. Trials 
and other Events in 1882. 629. Coronation, and Causes of Nihilistic 



Inactivity. 630. Colonel Sudeikin shot by Nihilists. 631. Attempt 
against the Emperor at Gatshina. 632. Trial of the Fourteen. 633. 
Reconstruction of the Nihilist Party. 634. Extension of Nihilism. 
635. Decline of Nihilism. 636. Nihilistic Proceedings in 1887. 637. 
Nihilism in 1888. 638. Slaughter of Siberian Exiles, and Hunger- 
Strikes. 639. Occurrences in 1890. 640. Occurrences from 1891 to 
Present Date. 641. Nihilistic Finances. 642. The Secret Press. 
643. Nihilistic Measures of Safety. 644. The Nihilists in Prison. 
645. Nihilistic Emigrants. 646. Nihilistic Literature. 647. Trials of 
Nihilists 217-256 

XIII. GERMAN SOCIETIES. 648. The Mosel Club. 649. German Feeling 
against Napoleon. 650. Formation and Scope of Tugendbund. 651. 
Divisions among Members of Tugendbund. 652. Activity of the 
Tugendbund. 653. Hostility of Governments against Tugendbund 257-262 

XIV. THE BABIS. 654. Bab, the Founder. 655. Progress of Babism. 
656. Babi Doctrine. 657. Recent History of Babism . . . 263-269 

XV. IRISH SOCIETIES. 658. The White-Boys. 659. Right-Boys and Oak- 
Boys. 660. Hearts-of-Steel, Threshers, Break-of-Day-Boy.s, Defenders, 
United Irishmen, Ribbonmen. 661. Saint Patrick Boys. 662. The 
Orangemen. 663. Molly Maguires. 664. Ancient Order of Hibernians. 
665. Origin and Organisation of Fenianism. 666. Origin of Name. 
667. Fenian Litany. 668. Events from 1865 to 1871. 669. The Soi- 
disant General Cluseret. 670. Phosnix Park Murders, and Conse- 
quences. 671. Dynamite Outrages. 672. The National League. 673. 
Comic Aspects of Fenianism. 674. Events from 1888 to 1896. 675. 
Most Recent Revelations ........ 270-287 



676. The ABC Friends. 677. Abelites. 678. Academy of the Ancients. 
679. Almusseri. 680. Anonymous Society. 68 1. Anti-Masonic Party. 
682. Anti-Masons. 683. Apocalypse, Knights of the. 684. Areoiti. 
685. Avengers, or Vendicatori. 686. Belly Paaro. 687. Californian 
Society. 688. Cambridge Secret Society. 689. Charlottenburg, Order 
of. 690. Church Masons. 691. Congourde, The. 692. Druids, Modern. 
693. Duk-Duk. 694. Egbo Society. 695. Fraticelli. 696. Goats, 
The. 697. Grand Army of the Republic. 698. Green Island. 699. 
Harugari. 700. Hemp-smokers, African. 701. Heroine of Jericho. 
702. Human Leopards. 703. Hunters, the. 704. Husdanawer. 705. 
Indian (North American) Societies. 706. Invisibles, the. 707. Jehu, 
Society of. 708. Karpokratians. 709. Klobbergoll. 710. Knights, 
the Order of. 711. Know-Nothings. 712. Ku-Klux-Klan. 713. Kurnai 
Initiation. 714. Liberty, Knights of. 715. Lion, Knights of the. 
716. Lion, the Sleeping. 717. Ludlam's Cave. 718. Mad Councillors. 
719. Magi, Order of the. 720. Mahttrajas. 721. Mano Negra. 722. 



Melanesian Societies. 723. Mumbo - Jumbo. 724. Odd Fellows. 
725. O-Kee-Pa. 726. Pantheists. 727. Patriotic Order Sons of 
America. 728. Phi-Beta-Kappa. 729. Pilgrims. 730. Police, Secret. 
731. Portuguese Societies. 732. Purrah, the. 733. Pythias, Knights 
of. 734. Rebeccaites. 735. Redemption, Order of. 736. Red Men. 
737. Regeneration, Society of Universal. 738. Saltpetrers. 739. 
Sikh Fanatics. 740. Silver Circle, Knights of the. 741. Sonderbare 
Gesellen. 742. Sophisiens. 743. Star of Bethlehem. 744. Thirteen, 
the. 745. Tobaccological Society. 746. Turf, Society of the. 747. 
Utopia. 748. Wahabees 288-326 



Page 36 Buddha's Image ; Work on Buddhist Religion ; Budda's Birth- 
place recently discovered ....... 3 2 7 

Page 45 Temple of Hathor 327 

Page 142 Family of Waldo 328 

Page 1 68 Vehm, Lindner's work on the ....... 328 

Page 169 Beati Paoli John of Parma 328 

Page 198 Astrological Society in London 328 

Page 230 Master Pianco and the Rosicrucians 329 

Page 231 Asiatic Brethren and their Custodian of Archives . . . 329 

Page 258 Meaning of term Garduna ........ 329 

Page 270 The Camorra, Laws against the 329 

Page 273 The Camorra, Grant's " Stories of Naples and the Camorra" . 330 

Page 315 The German Union : Bahrdtand his mysterious correspondents 330 


Page 60 African Architects and their sections ...... 330 

Page 132 Tae-ping-wang, the Chinese Artista 331 

Page 139 Europe after the Congress of Vienna 331 

Page 159 The Carbonari: the author of "The Memoirs of the Secret 

Societies of the South of Italy, particularly the Carbonari " . 33 1 
Page 207 Polish Patriotism : Courriere's opinion thereof . . . -331 
Page 259 Baron von Stein on the Tugendbund and secret societies Baron 

von Stein, Privy Councillor to the Count Palatine of Cologne 332 

Page 260 The Tugendbund and the German rising 332 

Page 278 Fenians : O'Leary's " Recollections of Fenians and Fenianism " 333 
Page 299 Human Leopards ; why so called many secret societies on West 

coast of Africa 333 

Page 301 Indian (North American) Societies : the legend of Manabozko 

and Chibiabos 333 


N.B. The books to the titles of which an * is prefixed are in the author's 

aim library. 


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383. Ancestry of Hiram Abiff. Solomon having deter- 
mined on the erection of the temple, collected artificers, 
divided them into companies, and put them under the com- 
mand of Adoniram or Hiram Abiff, the architect sent to him 
by his friend and ally Hiram, king of Tyre. According to 
mythical tradition, the ancestry of the builders of the mystical 
temple was as follows : One of the Elohim, or primitive genii, 
married Eve and had a son called Cain ( 1 20) ; whilst Jehovah 
or Adonai, another of the Elohim, created Adam and united 
him with Eve to bring forth the family of Abel, to whom 
were subjected the sons of Cain, as a punishment for the 
transgression of Eve. Cain, though industriously cultivat- 
ing the soil, yet derived little produce from it, whilst Abel 
leisurely tended his flocks. Adonai rejected the gifts and 
sacrifices of Cain, and stirred up strife between the sons of 
the Elohim, generated out of fire, and the sons formed out of 
the earth only. Cain killed Abel, and Adonai, pursuing his 
sons, subjected to the sons of Abel the noble family that in- 
vented the arts and diffused science. 1 Enoch, a son of Cain, 
taught men to hew stones, construct edifices, and form civil 
;societies. Irad and Mehujael, his son and grandson, set 
boundaries to the waters and fashioned cedars into beams. 
Methusael, another of his descendants, invented the sacred 
characters, the books of Tau and the symbolic T, by which 
the workers descended from the genii of fire recognised each 
other. Lamech, whose prophecies are inexplicable to the 

1 In the Purdnas the ingenuity of the descendants of Cain, and the 
degree of perfection to which they carried the arts of civil life, are highly 


profane, was the father of Jabal, who first taught men how 
to dress camels' skins ; of Jubal, who discovered the harp ; 
of Naamah, who discovered the arts of spinning and weaving ; 
of Tubal-Cain, who first constructed a furnace, worked in 
metals, and dug subterranean caves in the mountains to save 
his race during the Deluge ; but it perished nevertheless, and 
only Tubal-Cain and his son, the sole survivors of the glorious 
and gigantic family, came out alive. The wife of Ham, 
second son of Noah, thought the son of Tubal-Cain hand- 
somer than the sons of men, and he became progenitor of 
Nimrod, who taught his brethren the art of hunting, and 
founded Babylon. Adoniram, the descendant of Tubal- 
Cain, seemed called by God to lead the militia of the free 
men, connecting the sons of fire with the sons of thought, 
progress, and truth. 

384. Hiram, Solomon, and the Queen of Sheba. By Hiram 
was erected a marvellous building, the Temple of Solomon. 
He raised the golden throne of Solomon, most beautifully 
wrought, and built many other glorious edifices. But, 
melancholy amidst all his greatness, he lived alone, under- 
stood and loved by few, hated by many, and among others, 
by Solomon, envious of his genius and glory. Now the 
fame of the wisdom of Solomon spread to the remotest ends 
of the earth ; and Balkis, the Queen of Sheba, came to Jeru- 
salem to greet the great king and behold the marvels of his 
reign. She found Solomon seated on a throne of gilt cedar 
wood, arrayed in cloth of gold, so that at first she seemed 
to behold a statue of gold with hands of ivory. Solomon 
received her with every kind of festive preparation, and led 
her to behold his palace and then the grand works of the 
temple, and the queen was lost in admiration. The king 
was captivated by her beauty, and in a short time offered her 
his hand, which the queen, pleased at having conquered this 
proud heart, accepted. But on again visiting the temple, 
she repeatedly desired to see the architect who had wrought 
such wondrous things. Solomon delayed as long as possible 
presenting Hiram Abiff to the queen, but at last he was 
obliged to do so. The mysterious artificer was brought 
before her, and cast on the queen a look that penetrated her 
very heart. Having recovered her composure, she questioned 
and defended him against the ill-will and rising jealousy of 
the king. When she wished to see the countless host of 
workmen that wrought at the temple, Solomon protested the 
impossibility of assembling them all at once ; but Hiram, 
leaping on a stone to be better seen, with his right hand 


described in the air the symbolical Tau, and immediately the 
men hastened from all parts of the works into the presence 
of their master. At this the queen wondered greatly, and 
secretly repented of the promise she had given the king, 
for she felt herself in love with the mighty architect. 
Solomon set himself to destroy this affection, and to prepare 
his rival's humiliation and ruin. For this purpose he em- 
ployed three fellow-crafts, envious of Hiram, because he had 
refused to raise them to the degree of masters on account 
of their want of knowledge and their idleness. They were 
Fanor, a Syrian and a mason ; Amru, a Phoenician and a 
carpenter ; and Metusael, a Hebrew and a miner. The 
black envy of these three projected that the casting of the 
brazen sea, which was to raise the glory of Hiram to its 
utmost height, should turn out a failure. A young work- 
man, Benoni, discovered the plot and revealed it to Solomon, 
thinking that sufficient. The day for the casting arrived, 
and Balkis was present. The doors that restrained the 
molten metal were opened, and torrents of liquid fire poured 
into the vast mould wherein the brazen sea was to assume 
its form. But the burning mass ran over the edges of the 
mould, and flowed like lava over the adjacent places. The 
terrified crowd fled from the advancing stream of fire. 
Hiram, calm, like a god, endeavoured to arrest its advance 
with ponderous columns of water, but without success. The 
water and the fire mixed, and the struggle was terrible ; the 
water rose in dense steam and fell down in the shape of 
fiery rain, spreading terror and death. The dishonoured 
artificer needed the sympathy of a faithful heart ; he sought 
Benoni, but in vain ; the proud youth perished in endeavour- 
ing to prevent the horrible catastrophe when he found that 
Solomon had done nothing to hinder it. 

Hiram could not withdraw himself from the scene of his 
discomfiture. Oppressed with grief, he heeded not the 
danger, he remembered not that this ocean of fire might 
speedily engulph him ; he thought of the Queen of Sheba, 
who came to admire and congratulate him on a great triumph, 
and who saw nothing but a terrible disaster. Suddenly 
he heard a strange voice coming from above, and crying, 
" Hiram, Hiram, Hiram ! " He raised his eyes and beheld 
a gigantic human figure. The apparition continued, " Come, 
my son, be without fear, I have rendered thee incombustible ; 
cast thyself into the flames." Hiram threw himself into the 
furnace, and where others would have found death, he tasted 
ineffable delights ; nor could he, drawn by an irresistible 


force, leave it, and asked him that drew him into the abyss, 
" Whither do you take me ? " " Into the centre of the 
earth, into the soul of the world, into the kingdom of great 
Cain, where liberty reigns with him. There the tyrannous 
envy of Adonai ceases ; there can we, despising his anger, 
taste the fruit of the tree of knowledge ; there is the home 
of thy fathers." " Who then am I, and who art thou ? " 
" I am the father of thy fathers, I am the son of Lamech, I 
am Tubal-Cain." 

Tubal-Cain introduced Hiram into the sanctuary of fire, 
where he expounded to him the weakness of Adonai and the 
base passions of that god, the enemy of his own creature 
whom he condemned to the inexorable law of death, to avenge 
the benefits the genii of fire had bestowed on him. Hiram 
was led into the presence of the author of his race, Cain. The 
angel of light that begat Cain was reflected in the beauty of this 
son of love, whose noble and generous mind roused the envy 
of Adonai. Cain related to Hiram his experiences, sufferings, 
and misfortunes, brought upon him by the implacable Adonai. 
Presently he heard the voice of him who was the offspring of 
Tubal-Cain and his sister Naam ah : "A son shall be born 
unto thee whom thou shalt indeed not see, but whose nume- 
rous descendants shall perpetuate thy race, which, superior 
to that of Adam, shall acquire the empire of the world ; for 
many centuries they shall consecrate their courage and genius 
to the service of the ever-ungrateful race of Adam, but at 
last the best shall become the strongest, and restore on the 
earth the worship of fire. Thy sons, invincible in thy name, 
shall destroy the power of kings, the ministers of the Adonais' 
tyranny. Go, my son, the genii of fire are with thee ! " Hiram 
was restored to the earth. Tubal-Cain before quitting him 
gave him the hammer with which he himself had wrought 
great things, and said to him : " Thanks to this hammer and 
the help of the genii of fire, thou shalt speedily accomplish 
the work left unfinished through man's stupidity and malig- 
nity." Hiram did not hesitate to test the wonderful efficacy 
of the precious instrument, and the dawn saw the great 
mass of bronze cast. The artist felt the most lively joy, the 
queen exulted. The people came running up, astounded at 
this secret power which in one night had repaired every- 

385. Murder of Hiram. One day the queen, accompanied 
by her maids, went beyond Jerusalem, and there encountered 
Hiram, alone and thoughtful. The encounter was decisive, 
they mutually confessed their love. Had-Had, the bird who 


filled with the queen the office of messenger of the genii of 
fire, seeing Hiram in the air make the sign of the mystic T, 
flew around his head and settled on his wrist. At this 
Sarahil, the nurse of the queen, exclaimed : " The oracle is 
fulfilled. Had-Had recognises the husband which the genii 
of fire destined for Balkis, whose love alone she dare accept ! " 
They hesitated no longer, but mutually pledged their vows, 
and deliberated how Balkis could retract the promise given 
to the king. Hiram was to be the first to quit Jerusalem ; 
the queen, impatient to rejoin him in Arabia, was to elude 
the vigilance of the king, which she accomplished by with- 
drawing from his finger, while he was overcome with wine, 
the ring wherewith she had plighted her troth to him. 
Solomon hinted to the fellow-crafts that the removal of his 
rival, who refused to give them the master's word, would be 
acceptable unto himself; so when the architect came into 
the temple he was assailed and slain by them. Before his 
death, however, he had time to throw the golden triangle 
which he wore round his neck, and on which was engraven 
the master's word, into a deep well. They wrapped up his 
body, carried it to a solitary hill and buried it, planting over 
the grave a sprig of acacia. 

Hiram not having made his appearance for seven days, 
Solomon, against his inclination, but to satisfy the clamour 
of the people, was forced to have him searched for. The 
body was found by three masters, and they, suspecting that 
he had been slain by the three fellow-crafts for refusing 
them the master's word, determined nevertheless for greater 
security to change the word, and that the first word acci- 
dentally uttered on raising the body should thenceforth be 
the word. In the act of raising it, the skin came off the 
body, so that one of the masters exclaimed " Macbenach ! " 
(" the flesh is off the bones," or the "brother is smitten "), and 
this word became the sacred word of the masters' degree. 
The three fellow-crafts were traced, but rather than fall into 
the hands of their pursuers, they committed suicide, and their 
heads were brought to Solomon. The triangle not having 
been found on the body of Hiram, it was sought for and at 
last discovered in the well into which the architect had cast 
it. The king caused it to be placed on a triangular altar 
erected in a secret vault, built under the most retired part of 
the temple. The triangle was further concealed by a cubical 
stone, on which had been inscribed the sacred law. The 
vault, the existence of which was only known to the twenty- 
seven elect, was then walled up. 



386. The First Masons. All nations, all states, all corpora- 
tions, to increase their power and deduce from above their 
raison d'etre, attribute to themselves a very ancient origin. 
This wish must be all the stronger in a society altogether 
ideal and moral, living the life of principles, which needs 
rather to seem to be, not coeval with, but anterior and 
superior to all others. Hence the claim set up by Free- 
masonry of being, not contemporary with the creation of 
man, but with that of the world ; because light was before 
man, and prepared for him a suitable habitation, and light is 
the scope and symbol of Freemasonry. Lest non-Masonic 
readers should think we are joking as regards Masonic asser- 
tions concerning the antiquity of the craft, we will quote from 
two Masonic writers, one more than a century old, and one 
quite of recent date : Edward Spratt, in his " Book of Con- 
stitutions for the Use of Lodges in Ireland," 1751, makes 
Adam the first Mason, who " even after his expulsion from 
paradise retained great knowledge, especially in geometry." 
Dr. J. A. Weisse, in " The Obelisk and Freemasonry," pub- 
lished in 1880, says: "Freemasonry commenced from the 
Creation, and was established by the family of Seth. The 
Masonic apron originated from the covering or apron of fig- 
leaves, adopted by Adam and Eve after the Fall." Need I 
quote more ? 

Now in the Introduction (6, 7) I have stated that there 
was from the very first appearance of man on the earth a 
highly favoured and civilised race, possessing a full know- 
ledge of the laws and properties of nature, and which know- 
ledge was embodied in mystical figures and schemes, such as 
were deemed appropriate emblems for its preservation and 
propagation. These figures and schemes are preserved in 
Masonry, but not in the pseudo-Masonry of the majority 
of craft members. The truest Masons at the present day 
are found without the lodge. I shall endeavour in these 


pages as much as possible to teach Masons the real truths 
hidden under the symbols and enigmatical forms, which, 
without a key, appear but as absurd and debasing rites and 
ceremonies. The aim of all the secret societies of which 
accounts have been as yet or will be given in this work, 
except of those which were purely political or anti-social, 
was to preserve such knowledge as still survived, or to re- 
cover what had been lost. And since Freemasonry is, so 
to speak, the resume of the teachings of all those societies, 
dogmas in accordance with one or more of those taught in 
the ancient mysteries and other associations are to be found 
in Masonry ; hence also it is impossible to attribute its origin 
to one or other specific society preceding it. Freemasonry 
is or rather ought to be the compendium of all primitive 
and accumulated human knowledge. 

387. Periods of Freemasonry. Masonic writers generally 
divide the history of the Order into two periods, the first 
comprising the time from its assumed foundation to the be- 
ginning of the last century, during which the Order admitted 
only masons, i.e. operative masons and artificers in some way 
connected with architecture. The second or present period, 
they denominate the period of Speculative Masonry, when 
the Order no longer chooses its members only amongst .men 
engaged in the raising of material structures, but receives 
into its ranks all who are willing to assist in building a 
spiritual temple, the temple of universal harmony and know- 
ledge. Yet persons not working masons had ere then been 
admitted, for the records of a lodge at Warrington, as old 
as 1648, note the admission of Colonel Main waring and the 
great antiquary Ashmole. Charles L, Charles II., and James 
II. also were initiated. But from what has been said above, 
it follows that true Masonry always was speculative, and that 
to deduce its origin from the ancient Dionysiac or any other 
kindred college is only partly correct. The name " masonic " 
was adopted by the society on its reconstruction in the last 
century, because the brotherhood of builders who erected 
the magnificent cathedrals and other buildings that arose 
during the Middle Ages had lodges, degrees, landmarks, 
secret signs, and passwords, such as the builders of the 
temple of Solomon are said to have made use of. The Free- 
masons have also frequently been said to be descended from 
the Knights Templars, and thus to have for their object to 
avenge the destruction of that Order, and so to be dangerous 
to Church and State ; yet this assertion was repudiated as 
early as 1535 in the "Charter of Cologne," wherein the 


Masons call themselves the Brethren of St. John, because 
St. John the Baptist was the forerunner of the Light. Ac- 
cording to the same document, the name of Freemasons was 
first given to the Brethren chiefly in Flanders, because some 
of them had been instrumental in erecting in the province 
of Hainault hospitals for persons suffering from St. Vitus's 
dance. And though some etymologists pretend the name to 
be derived from massa, a club, with which the doorkeeper 
was armed to drive away uninitiated intruders, we can only 
grant this etymology on the principle enunciated by Vol- 
taire, that in etymology vowels go for very little, and conso- 
nants for nothing at all. The derivation from mai-son is as 
probable as any other that is alleged. 

388. Freemasonry derived from many Sources. But con- 
sidering that Freemasonry is a tree the roots of which spread 
through so many soils, it follows that traces thereof must be 
found in its fruit ; that its language and ritual should retain 
much of the various sects and institutions it has passed 
through before arriving at their present state, and in 
Masonry we meet with Indian, Egyptian, Jewish, and Chris- 
tian ideas, terms, and symbols. 

389. True History of Masonry. The plain history of Free- 
masonry, without the varnish and tinsel Masonic writers 
have bedizened it with, may be summed up as follows : 

In antiquity there were corporations of architects and 
engineers, who undertook the building of temples and sta- 
dia ; the " Dionysiacs " in Greece, the " Collegium Muriorum " 
in Rome were such. They were the prototypes of the asso- 
ciations of masons, builders, carpenters, who in the Middle 
Ages flourished, chiefly in Germany and England. These, 
sometimes numbering six to eight hundred members, made 
contracts with monks, chapters, and other ecclesiastical 
authorities for the erection of cathedrals or churches. Even- 
tually they made themselves independent of the Church, and 
in the thirteenth century they formed an extensive building 
association, originating at Cologne, and having lodges, as 
they called the directing members, at Strasbourg, Vienna, 
Cologne, and Zurich. There were other lodges, but these 
were the most important. They called themselves Free 
masons, and had ceremonies of initiation. Towards the end 
of the sixteenth century non-operative masons were admitted 
into the fraternity, who were called "accepted" Masons; 
they included men distinguished for learning or high posi- 
tion. Thus the work in the lodges became more symbolical 
than operative. The really working masons and builders 


gradually dispersed, and the accepted masons, whose expec- 
tations of being initiated into esoteric knowledge in the 
lodges were disappointed, withdrew from them, so that in 
1717 there were only four lodges in London, which Dr. 
Desaguliers, James Anderson, and George Payne formed 
into a Grand Lodge, with which modern Freemasonry, purely 
symbolical, though retaining the technical terms of archi- 
tecture, may be said to begin. 

The fraternity was soon persecuted ; the Popes, beginning 
with Clement XII., and ending with the present one, cast 
their thunderbolts at it ; despotic rulers tried to suppress it. 
Of course the Masons themsilpil^b a great extent invited 
this persecution by the mystery in which they attempted to 
shroud their principles and proceedings, as also by the in- 
troduction of the "high degrees." The original Masons had 
confined themselves to the three degrees existing among 
operative builders apprentice, fellow-craft, and master. But 
these did not satisfy the vanity of some of the aristocratic 
members, or the ambition of such as wished to use the Order 
for party purposes. The chevalier Andreas Ramsay, a par- 
tisan of the exiled Stuarts, who asserted the Freemasons to 
be descended from the Crusaders, first gave the impulse to 
the starting of high degrees, in which political objects were 
aimed at, and which, after the country of the Stuarts, were 
called Scotch degrees. They were greatly multiplied, and 
the pursuit of these party purposes, of superstitious rites, 
and of personal vanity, invested every one with still 
increasing mysteries. At last they fell into the hands 
of impostors and adventurers, such as, for instance, Cag- 

In Germany the Order was made use of by three parties 
Reactionaries, Revolutionaries, and knightly fanatics. The 
Reactionaries founded Rosicrucianism, in which magic, astro- 
logy, alchemy, spiritism, and superstition in general occupied 
its cheats and dupes, opposing religious, political, and scienti- 
fic progress. The Revolutionaries, by means of the Illuminati, 
who insinuated themselves into the Masonic order, en- 
deavoured to bring about a new political and religious era. 
Knightly fanaticism was transplanted from France into 
Germany by the well-intentioned but visionary Baron Hund, 
who about the middle of the last century founded the Masonic 
system of the so-called Strict Observance (435), which 
followed the lines of the Knights Templars, from whom 
Hund wished to derive the Masonic order ; we shall see 
that at the Congress of Wilhelmsbad (441) this assertion was 


negatived. The mystery of the ritual, and the splendour of 
some of the rites, gained Freemasonry many adherents in 
France, where the lodges were at last united under a Grand 
Lodge, called the Grand Orient, the first Grand Master of 
which was the Duke of Chartres, afterwards Philippe Egalite*. 
Napoleon, when in power, appointed his brother Joseph 
Grand Master (444). 



390. List of Rites. Anciently, that is, before the rise of 
modern Masonry at the beginning of the last century, there 
was but one rite, that of the " Ancient, Free and Accepted 
Masons," or blue or symbolic Masonry ; but vanity, fancy, or 
interest soon led to the introduction of many new rites or 
modifications of the three ancient degrees. The following 
are the names of the rites now practised in Europe and 
America : 

I. York rite, or Craft Masonry, of which an account will 
be given. In America it consists of seven degrees : 
The first three as in this country ; 4. Mark Master ; 5. Past 
Master ; 6. Most Excellent Master ; 7. Holy Royal Arch. 
All these also obtain in this country ; the Royal Arch, being 
the most important, will be treated of in full (405 et seq.). 

II. French or Modern rite. It consists of seven de- 
grees : The first three the same as in Craft Masonry ; 
4. Elect ; 5. Scotch Master ; 6. Knight of the East ; 7. Rose 
Croix. They are all astronomical. 

III. Ancient and Accepted Scotch rite. It was organised 
in its present form in France early in the last century, though 
it derives its title from the claim of its 'founders that it was 
originally instituted in Scotland. It is, next to the York 
rite, the most widely diffused throughout the Masonic world. 
The administrative power is vested in Supreme Grand Coun- 
cils, and the rite consists of thirty-three degrees, of which 
the 1 2th, Grand Master Architect; the i8th, Prince Rose- 
Croix ; and the 3Oth, Grand Elect Knight of Kadosh, are the 
most interesting, and particulars of which will be given under 
separate heads. 

IV. Philosophic Scotch rite. 

V. Primitive Scotch rite, practised in Belgium. 

VI. Ancient Reformed rite. 

VII. Fessler's rite. 

VIII. Rite of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes at 



IX. Rite of Perfection. 

X. Rite of Misraim (418-42). 

XI. Rite of the Order of the Temple. 

XII. Swedish rite. 

XIII. Reformed rite. 

XIV. Schroeder's rite. 

XV. Rite of Swedenborg (see 264). 

XVI. Rite of Zinzendorf. Count Zinzendorf, physician 
of the Emperor Charles VI., invented this rite, which was 
a modification of the Illuminism of Avignon, adding to it the 
mysteries of Swedenborg. His system consisted of seven 
degrees, divided into three sections : i. Blue Masonry ; 
2. Red Masonry ; 3. Capitular Masonry. The rite was never 
introduced into this country. 

XVII. Eclectic rite. This was established at Frankfurt in 
1783 by Baron de Knigge, for the purpose of checking the 
spread of the haut\s grades, or philosophic rites, which were 
increasing excessively. Eclectic Masonry acknowledged the 
three symbolic degrees only, but permitted each lodge to 
select at its option any of the higher degrees, provided it 
did not interfere with the uniformity of the first three. But 
the founder was disappointed in his expectations the high 
degrees continued to flourish, and but few Eclectic lodges 
ever existed. 

391. Masonic Customs. Some Masonic peculiarities may 
conveniently be mentioned here. Freemasons frequently 
attend in great state at the laying of the foundation stones 
of public buildings; they follow a master to the grave, 
clothed with all the paraphernalia of their respective degrees ; 
they date from the year of light. The Knights of the Sun, 
the 28th degree of the Scotch rite, acknowledge no era, but 
always write their date with seven noughts, 0,000,000. No 
one can be admitted into the Masonic order before the age 
of twenty-one, but an exception is made in this country and 
in France in favour of the sons of Masons, who may be 
initiated at the age of eighteen. Such a person is called a 
Lewis in England, and a Louveteau in France. This latter 
word signifies a young wolf ; and the reader will remember 
that in the mysteries of I sis the candidate was made to wear 
the mask of a wolf's head. Hence a wolf and a candidate in 
these mysteries were synonymous. Macrobius, in his " Satur- 
nalia," says that the ancients perceived a relationship 
between the sun, the great symbol of those mysteries, and 
-a wolf ; for as the flocks of sheep and cattle disperse at the 
.sight of the wolf, so the flocks of stars disappear at the 


approach of the sun's light. We have seen in the account of 
the French Workmen's Unions (369) that the sons of Solomon 
still call themselves wolves. The adoption of the louveteau 
into the lodge takes place with a ceremony resembling that 
of baptism. The temple is covered with flowers, incense is 
burnt, and the godfather is enjoined not only to provide for 
the bodily wants of the new-born member, but also to bring 
him up in the school of truth and justice. The child receives 
a new name, generally that of a virtue, such as Veracity, 
Devotion, Beneficence ; the godfather pronounces for him 
the oath of apprentice, in which degree he is received into 
the Order, which, in case he should become an orphan, sup- 
ports and establishes him in life. In the United States the 
rights of a lewis do not exist. 

392. Masonic Alphabet. The Masonic alphabet preserves 
the angular character of primitive alphabets. Thirteen 
characters (9 + 4) compose the Masonic system of writing. 
Hence all the sounds can only be represented by means of 
lines and points, in the following manner : 










The letter a is written _J ; the same sign with a dot in it, 
_il, means b. The sign > means u, and with a dot ;>, v. 
Masonic abbreviations are always indicated by three dots, 
placed triangularly ; thus, brother is abbreviated B .'. Lodge 
is written L .'. or Q .'. ; in the plural LL .'. or [3 .*. Our 
common alphabet has an equally simple origin, as well as 
the Arabic numerals ; they are all contained in the figure 

A. b<n-B, C, dm-D, E, F, C, H, I, 

J. K, L,M,N, D.Porr, q,R, X, 
T,U,V,X,Y,Z,D,I, Z,Z,A 


393. Interior Arrangement of Lodge. The arrangement of 
the lodge varies and will vary according to periods and de- 
grees, but certain general rules are always followed in its 
construction. In an ancient French catechism the lodge is 
thus described: The lodge must have a vaulted ceiling, 
painted blue and covered with golden stars, to represent the 
heavens. The floor is called a mosaic floor; the term 
"mosaic" being derived from Moses, i.e. "drawn from the 
water," because by its variegated colours it represents the 
earth as covered with flowers again after the withdrawal of 
the waters of the Nile. There are three windows one east, 
one west, and a third south. There must also be two or 
three antechambers, so that the profane may catch no 
glimpse of what is going on in the lodge ; and if some 
'stranger should nevertheless intrude, the master exclaims, 
" It rains ! " and the lodge is ipso facto dissolved. The lodge 
should be always hung with black ; the brethren take their 
places according to their rank ; the grand master in the east, 
the master in the south, and the novices at the north, because 
they cannot yet stand the heat of the sun, which only the initi- 
ated can. When an apprentice is made, the lodge is brightly 
illuminated. The grand master, seated in his place, wears on 
his neck, appended to a large ribbon, a small square and com- 
passes ; before him stands a table, on which lie the Gospel 
of St. John and a small hammer. At his side are the two 
stewards, the first of whom wears a level and the second 
a plumb of gold or silver. The masters and fellow-crafts 
stand around with the apprentices, all wearing white aprons 
of lamb's skin, and each carrying a naked sword. On the 
floor are designed figures, representing the steps that led to 
Solomon's temple, and the two pillars Jachin and Boaz, but 
which in reality symbolise the summer and winter solstices, 
the pillars of Hercules, the two pillars of Seth. Above are 
seen the sun, moon, and a large star. In the midst of the 


floor is a coffin, in which lies a man apparently dead, with 
his face turned upward and covered with his white apron 
smeared with blood, one hand resting on his breast, and the 
other extended towards the knee. In the corners of the 
room are substances easily combustible, such as sulphur, to 
kindle a fire instantaneously. This apparatus is somewhat 
altered when a fellow-craft or a master is to be made. 

394. Modern Lodge. The modern lodge is a large square 
hall, always, if possible, situated due east and west. Upon 
a dai's ascended by three steps, opposite to the door of 
ingress, is seated the worshipful master ; the altar is placed 
in the centre on four steps. A sky-blue canopy, dotted 
with stars, and having above it the shining triangle with 
the sacred name inscribed therein, covers the throne. To 
the left of the canopy is seen the sun, and to the right 
the moon. Another ornament is the blazing star, and the 
point within a circle, symbolising the sun or the universe. 
A chest or ark also forms part of the masonic furniture. 
It represents the ark that was carried in the processions 
of ancient Egypt, and contained seeds of various plants, 
a winnowing fan, and Osiridis pudendum. To the west, 
at the sides of the door of ingress, stand two pillars of 
bronze, whose capitals represent pomegranates, and bear- 
ing on their fronts the initials J. and B. (Jachin and Boaz). 
The senior and junior wardens sit near the two columns, 
having before them a triangular table, covered with masonic 
emblems. Around the lodge there are ten other pillars 
connected by an architrave with the two pillars above men- 
tioned. On the altar are placed a Bible, a square, a pair of 
compasses, and swords ; three candelabra with long tapers 
are placed, one at the east at the foot of the steps, the 
second at the west, near the first warden, and the third at 
the south. The room is surrounded with benches for the 
members. In the lodges called Scotch, and in English and 
American lodges, the canopy that covers the master's throne 
is of crimson silk. In the United States, the worshipful 
master wears a cap adorned with black feathers and a large 
cockade of the same colour. The senior and junior wardens 
are seated in niches with fringed drapery, and wear, like 
heralds, staves of ebony sculptured like pillars. 

395- Officers. Besides the Master and the Wardens, who 
are figuratively called the three lights, the lodge has other 
officers the Orator, Secretary, Treasurer, Master of the 
Ceremonies, Keeper of the Seals, Architect, Steward, Captain 
of the Host, Principal Sojourner, Inner and Outer Guard or 



Tyler, and others. Every official occupies a place assigned 
to him, and has his proper jewels and badges, like the 
Egyptian, Hebrew, and Greek priests. Thus beside the 
jewels already mentioned, the treasurer wears cross keys; 
the secretary, cross pens ; the senior deacon, a square and 
compass, with a sun in the centre ; the junior deacon, a 
square and compass, with a moon in the centre ; the steward, 
a cornucopia ; the tyler, cross swords, &c. The names of 
most of the officers sufficiently indicate their duties ; those 
that do not will be explained as they occur. 

396. Opening the Lodge. The meetings are generally held 
at night. The worshipful master, striking the altar with 
his mallet, "opens the labours," and after having ascer- 
tained that the lodge is tyled, he turns to the junior 
warden and says : " Brother junior warden, your constant 
place in the lodge ? " " In the south." " Why are you 
placed there?" "To mark the sun at its meridian, to call 
the brethren from labour to refreshment, and from re- 
freshment to labour, that profit and pleasure may be the 
result." " Brother senior warden, your constant place in 
the lodge ? " " In the west." " Why are you placed 
there?" "To mark the setting sun; to close the lodge 
by the command of the worshipful master, after seeing 
that every one has his just dues." "Why is the master 
placed in the east?" " As the sun rises in the east to open 
and enliven the day, so the worshipful master is placed in 
the east to open and enlighten his lodge, to employ and 
instruct the brethren." "At what hour are Masons accus- 
tomed to begin their labours ? " " At mid-day." " What 
hour is it, brother junior warden ? " " It is mid-day." 
" Since this is the hour, and all is proved right and just, I 
declare the lodge open." The purely astronomical bearing 
of all this is self-evident, but will be more fully discussed 


397. Distinction between Genuine and Spurious Masonry. 
Modern Freemasonry is divided into genuine and spurious. 
The former embraces the degrees of Entered Apprentice, 
Fellow-Craft, and Master Mason, which are known by the 
comprehensive name of Symbolic, and also of Blue Masonry, 
because the decorations are of that colour, the colour of the 
celestial canopy (27, 42, 85), which Blue Masonry is the only 
Masonry acknowledged by the Grand Lodge of England ; 
the latter term, i.e. spurious, is applied to all other degrees. 
Without the Royal Arch degree Blue Masonry is incom- 
plete, for we have seen in the Legend of the Temple that, 
through the murder of Hiram, the Master's word was lost ; 
that word is not recovered in the Master's degree, its sub- 
stitute only being given; but that lost word is recovered 
in the Royal Arch degree. Blue Masonry, in fact, answers 
to the lesser mysteries of the ancients, where in reality 
nothing but the exoteric doctrines were revealed ; whilst 
spurious Masonry, or all subsequent degrees for no 
one can be initiated into them who has not passed 
through the first three degrees answers to the greater 

398. Some Eites only deserve Special Mention. It would 
be a useless and unprofitable task to fully detail all the 
ceremonies practised in the lodges of Blue Masonry ; and 
I shall, therefore, confine myself to giving such particulars 
of the three degrees as are most characteristic of the in- 
stitution. As to spurious Masonry, its almost countless 
degrees form an incoherent medley of opposite principles, 
founded chiefly on Christian traditions and institutions, 
orders of knighthood, contested theological opinions, his- 
torical events ; in fact, every important event or institution 
has afforded models for masonic mimicry. Of such as 



have been distinguished either by a philosophical spirit or 
influential action on the progress of mankind I shall speak 
at some length. The reader will, however, bear in mind 
that the ceremonies vary in different lodges and different 
countries, and that much that follows must be taken as 
typical, being modified according to local and other con- 
ditions and circumstances. 



399. Ceremonies of Initiation. The Apprentice. The 
novice that is to be initiated into the first or apprentice 
degree is led into the lodge building by a stranger, and 
introduced into a remote chamber, where he is left alone 
for a few minutes. He is then deprived of all metal he 
has about him ; his right knee, and sometimes his left side, 
are uncovered, and the heel of his left shoe is trodden 
down. These ceremonies are supposed by some writers 
on the craft to be of Jesuitical origin. The deprivation of 
metals is to typify the vow of poverty, the baring of the 
breast and knee is intended to prevent the admission of 
women, and the treading down the heel of the shoe to 
remind the candidate that Ignatius de Loyola, who had a 
bad foot, thus began his pilgrimage. His eyes are ban- 
daged, and he is led into the closet of reflection, where 
he is told to stay without taking off the bandage, until 
he hears three knocks. At the signal, on uncovering his 
eyes he beholds on the walls, hung with black, inscriptions 
like the following: "If idle curiosity draw thee hither, 
depart ! " "If thou be afraid of being enlightened con- 
cerning thy errors, it profits thee not to stay here." "If 
thou value human distinctions, go hence ; here they are 
not known." After a deal of palaver between the brother 
who introduces the novice and the master, the candidate, 
having his eyes again bandaged and a cord passed round 
his neck, is introduced into the middle of the brethren, 
his guide pointing a naked sword to his breast. He is 
then questioned as to his object in coming hither, and on 
answering that he comes to be initiated into the secrets 
of Masonry, he is led out of the lodge and back again to 
confuse him. A large square frame covered with paper, 
such as circus-riders use, is then brought forward and held 


by two brethren. The guide then asks the master : " What 
shall we do with the profane ? " To which the master 
replies: "Shut him up in the cave." Two brethren seize 
the postulant and throw him through the paper-screen into 
the arms of two other brethren who stand ready to receive 
him. The folding doors, hitherto left open, are then shut 
with great noise, and, by means of an iron ring and bar, 
the closing with massive locks is imitated, so that the 
candidate fancies himself shut up in a dungeon. Some 
time then elapses in sepulchral silenca All at once the 
master strikes a smart blow, and orders the candidate to be 
placed beside the junior warden, and to be made to kneel. 
The master then addresses several questions to him, and 
instructs him on his duties towards the Order. The candi- 
date is then offered a beverage, with the intimation that if 
any treason lurks in his heart, the drink will turn to poison. 
The cup containing it has two compartments, the one hold- 
ing sweet, the other bitter water; the candidate is then 
taught to say : "I bind myself to the strict and rigorous 
observance of the duties prescribed to Freemasons; and if 
ever I violate my oath" (here his guide puts the sweet 
water to his lips, and having drunk some, the candidate 
continues) "I consent that the sweetness of this drink 
be turned into bitterness, and that its salutary effect be- 
come for me that of a subtle poison." The candidate is 
then made to drink of the bitter water, whereupon the 
master exclaims: "What do I see? What means the 
sudden alteration of your features? Perhaps your con- 
science belies your words? Has the sweet drink already 
turned bitter? Away with the profane! This oath is 
only a test; the true one comes after." The candidate 
persisting nevertheless in his determination, he is led three 
times round the lodge; then he is dragged over broken 
chairs, stools, and blocks of wood ; this trial over, he is told 
to mount the "endless stairs," and having, as he supposes, 
attained a great height, to cast himself down, when he only 
falls a few feet. This trial is accompanied by great noise, 
the brethren striking on the attributes of the order they 
carry in their hands, and uttering all kinds of dismal skputs. 
As a further trial, he is then passed through fire, rencfcred 
harmless by well-known conjuring tricks ; his arm is sligretly 
pricked, and a gurgling noise being produced by one of the 
brethren, the candidate fancies that he is losing much blood. 
Finally, he takes the oath, the brethren standing around 
him with drawn swords. The candidate is then led between 


the two pillars, and the brethren place their swords against 
his breast. The master of the ceremonies loosens the ban- 
dage without taking it off. Another brother holds before 
him a lamp that sheds a brilliant light. The master re- 
sumes : " Brother senior warden, deem you the candidate 
worthy of forming part of our society?" "Yes." "What 
do you ask for him?" "Light."" "Then let there be 
light ! " The master gives three blows with the mallet, and 
at the third the bandage is taken off, and the candidate 
beholds the light, which is to symbolise that which is to 
fill his understanding. The brethren drop their swords, 
and the candidate is led to the altar, where he kneels, whilst 
the master says : " In the name of the Grand Architect 
of the universe, and by virtue of the powers vested in 
me, I create and constitute thee masonic apprentice and 
member of this lodge." Then striking three blows with 
his mallet on the blade of the sword, he raises the new 
brother, girds him with the apron of white lamb's skin, 
gives him a pair of white gloves to be worn in the lodge, 
and another to be given to the lady he esteems most, a 
symbolical gift which need not be further explained. He 
is then again led between the two pillars, and received by 
the brethren as one of them. Such is the proceeding the 
apprentice has to go through ; a few more details may be 

One question put to him is : " Have you seen your master 
to-day ? " " Yes." " How was he clothed ? " " In a yellow 
jacket and blue pair of breeches." The explanation is: the 
master is the compasses, the yellow jacket is the brass body, 
and the blue breeches are the steel points. He is also asked : 
" How old are you ? " " Under seven." This answer implies 
that he has not passed to the fellow-crafts degree, seven years 
being the term of an apprenticeship in Freemasonry, as it is 
in other trades. The password is Boaz, the sign holding 
the hand horizontally, with the thumb turned up towards the 
right ear, to remind the apprentice of his oath, on taking which 
he promises : " These several points [keeping the secrets of 
the order] I solemnly swear to observe without evasion, 
equivocation, or mental reservation, under no less a penalty 
on the violation of any of them, than to have my throat cut 
across, my tongue torn out by the root, and my body buried in 
the sand of the sea." The grip is given by a distinct pressure 
of the right hand thumb on the first joint from the wrist of 
the right hand forefinger, grasping the finger with the hand. 

400. Ceremonies of Initiation. The Fellow-Craft. The 


second degree of symbolic Freemasonry is that of fellow -craft. 
The apprentice, who asks for an increase of salary, is not 
conducted to the lodge like the profane by an unknown 
brother, nor are his eyes bandaged, because the light was 
made for him, but moves towards the lodge holding in his 
hand a rule, one of whose ends he rests on the left shoulder. 
Having reached the door, he gives the apprentice's knock, 
and having been admitted and declared the purpose for which 
he comes, he five times perambulates the lodge, whereupon 
he is told by the master to perform his last apprentice's work. 
He then pretends to square the rough ashlar. After a deal 
of instruction, very useless and pointless, he takes the oath, 
in which he swears to keep the secrets entrusted to him. 
Then there follows some more lecturing on the part of the 
master, chiefly on geometry, for which Masons profess a great 
regard, and to which the letter G seen in the lodge within an 
irradiation or star is said to refer. 

The oath of the fellow- craft is rather more atrocious than 
that of the apprentice. He swears, in addition to his former 
obligations, to keep the secrets of the crafts, and to do so 
under no less a penalty than to have his left breast cut open, 
his heart torn therefrom and given to the ravenous birds of 
the air and the devouring beasts of the field. With reference 
to this oath the sign is given by placing the hand with the 
thumb turned up on his breast ; the password is Jachin, 
sometimes Shibboleth. The grip is given by a distinct 
pressure of the thumb of the right hand between the joints 
of the first and middle fingers of the right hand. 

40 1 . Ceremony of Initiation and Story of Hiram's Murder. 
Tlie Master Mason. At the reception of a master, the lodge 
or "middle chamber" is draped with black, wi f b death's 
heads, skeletons, and cross bones painted on the walls. A 
taper of yellow wax, placed in the east, and a dark lantern 
formed of a skull having a light within, which shines forth 
through the eye-holes, placed on the altar of the most worship- 
ful master, give just sufficient light to reveal a coffin, wherein 
the corpse is represented either by a lay-figure, a serving 
brother, or the brother last made a master. On the coffin is 
placed a sprig of acacia, at its head is a square, and at its foot, 
towards the east, an open compass. The masters are clothed 
in black, and wear large azure sashes, on which are represented 
masonic emblems, the sun, moon, and seven stars. The 
object of the meeting is said to be the finding of the word 
of the master that was slain. The postulant for admission is 
introduced after some preliminary ceremonies, having his 


two arms, breasts, and knees bare, and both heels slipshod. 
He is told that the brethren assembled are mourning the 
death of their grand master, and asked whether perhaps he 
was one of the murderers ; at the same time he is shown the 
body or figure in the coffin. Having declared his innocence 
of any share in that crime, he is informed that he will on this 
occasion have to enact the part of Hiram (385), who was 
slain at the building of Solomon's temple, and whose history 
he is about to be told. The brother or figure in the coffin 
has in the meantime been removed, so that when the aspirant 
looks at it again, he finds it empty. The story of the murder 
of Hiram is then related. But the deed is not, as in the 
Legend of the Temple, attributed to Solomon's jealousy, 
but simply to Hiram's refusal to communicate the master's 
word to three fellow-crafts. The various incidents of the 
story are scenically enacted on the postulant. " Hiram," the 
master continues, " having entered the temple at noon, the 
three assassins placed themselves at the east, west, and south 
doors, and Hiram refusing to reveal the word, he who stood 
at the east door cut Hiram across the throat with a twenty- 
four-inch gauge. Hiram flew to the south door, where he 
received similar treatment, and thence to the west door, 
where he was struck on the head with a gavel, which occa- 
sioned his death." The applicant, at this part of the recital, 
is informed that he too must undergo trials, and is not to 
sink under the influence of terror, though the hand of death 
be upon him. He is then struck in the forehead and thrown 
down, and shams a dead man. The master continues : " The 
ruffians carried the body out at the west door, and buried it 
at the side of a hill " here the postulant is placed in the 
coffin "in a grave, on which they stuck a sprig of acacia to 
mark the spot. Hiram not making his appearance as usual, 
Solomon caused search to be made for him by twelve trusty 
fellow-crafts that were sent out, three east, three west, three 
south, and three north. Of the three who went east, one 
being weary, sat down on the brow of a hill to rest himself, 
and in rising caught hold of a twig " here a twig of that 
plant is put into the hand of the aspirant lying in the coffin 
"which coming up easily, showed that the ground had been 
recently disturbed, and on digging he and his companions 
found the body of Hiram." A similar occurrence is related in 
^Eneis, iii. 22-29, where ^Eneas, in plucking up a shrub on the 
side of a hill, discovers the murder of Polydorus. " Hiram's 
body was in a mangled condition, having lain fourteen days, 
whereupon one of those present exclaimed Macbenach / which 


means ' the flesh is off the bones,' or ' the brother is smitten,' 
and became the master's word, as the former one was lost 
through Hiram's death ; for though the other two masters, 
Solomon and Hiram, king of Tyre, knew it, it could only be 
communicated by the three grand masters conjointly." The 
covering of the grave being green moss and turf, other 
bystanders exclaimed, Muscus domus, Dei gratia ! which, 
according to Masonry, is, " Thanks be unto God, our master 
has got a mossy house ! " The exclamation shows that 
the Hebrew builders of Solomon's temple possessed a familiar 
knowledge of the Latin tongue ! The body of Hiram could 
not be raised by the apprentice's or fellow-craft's grip, but 
only by the master's, or the lion's grip, as it is called. All 
this is then imitated by the master raising the aspirant in the 
coffin, who is then told the word, signs, and grips, and takes 
the oath, promising to keep the masonic secrets under no 
less' a penalty than to have his body severed in two, his 
bowels torn thereout and burnt to ashes, and those ashes 
scattered to the four cardinal points. The grip is given by 
a distinct pressure of the thumb between the joints of the 
middle and ring fingers. The password is "Tubal-Cain." 
There are three signs, the most important being the penal 
sign, which is given by drawing the hand across the centre 
of the body, dropping it to the side, and then raising it again 
to place the point of the thumb on the navel. The grip is 
the first of the five points of fellowship, and consists in 
taking hold of each other's wrists with the points of the 
fingers. The second point is placing the right foot parallel 
with the right foot on the inside ; the third, right knee to 
right knee ; the fourth, right breast to right breast ; and 
the fifth, hand over shoulder, supporting the back. It is 
in this position, and only in a whisper, that the word " Maha- 
bone," or " Macbenach," is given, the first meaning " the 
death of a brother," and the second "the brother is 

402. The Legend Explained. Taken literally, the story of 
Hiram would offer nothing so extraordinary as to deserve to 
be commemorated after three thousand years throughout 
the world by solemn rites and ceremonies. The death of an 
architect is not so important a matter as to have more honour 
paid to it than is shown to the memory of so many philo- 
sophers and learned men who have lost their lives in the 
cause of human progress. But history knows nothing of 
him. His name is only mentioned in the Bible, and it is 
simply said of him that he was a man of understanding and 


cunning in working in brass. Tradition is equally silent 
concerning him. He is remembered nowhere except in 
Freemasonry ; the legend, in fact, is purely allegorical, and 
may bear a twofold interpretation, cosmological and astro- 

Cosmologically, we find represented therein the dualism of 
the two antagonistic powers, which is the leading feature 
of all Eastern initiations. The dramatic portion of the 
mysteries of antiquity is always sustained by a deity or 
man who perishes as the victim of an evil power, and rises 
again into a more glorious existence. In the ancient 
mysteries, we constantly meet with the record of a sad 
event, a crime which plunges nations into strife and grief, 
succeeded by joy and exultation. 

Astronomically, again, the parallel is perfect, and is in fact 
only another version of the legend of Osiris. Hiram represents 
Osiris, i.e. the sun. The assassins place themselves at the west, 
south, and east doors, that is, the regions illuminated by the 
sun ; they bury the body, and mark the spot with a sprig of 
acacia. Twelve persons play an important part in the tragedy, 
viz. the three murderers (fellow-crafts), and nine masters. 
This number is a plain allusion to the twelve signs of the 
zodiac, and the three murderers are the three inferior signs 
of winter, Lifoa, Scorpio, and Sagittarius. Hiram is slain at 
the west door, the sun descends in the west. The acacia 
of Freemasonry is the plant found in all the ancient solar 
allegories, and symbolising the new vegetation to be antici- 
pated by the sun's resurrection. The acacia being looked 
upon by the ancients as incorruptible, its twigs were preferred 
for covering the body of the god-man to the myrtle, laurel, 
and other plants mentioned in the ancient mysteries. Hiram's 
body is in a state of decay, having lain fourteen days ; the 
body of Osiris was cut into fourteen pieces (51). But accord- 
ing to other statements, the body was found on the seventh 
day ; this would allude to the resurrection of the sun, which 
actually takes place in the seventh month after his passage 
through the inferior signs, that passage which is called his 
descent into hell. Hiram can only be raised by the lion's 
grip. It is through the instrumentality of Leo that Osiris is 
raised ; it is when the sun re-enters that sign that he regains 
his former strength, that his restoration to life takes place. 
Masons in this degree call themselves the "children of the 
widow," the sun on descending into his tomb leaving nature 
of which Masons consider themselves the pupils a widow ; 
but the appellation may also have its origin in the Mani- 


chasan sect, whose followers were known as the " sons of the 
widow" (112). 

403. The Raising of Osiris. A painting found on an 
Egyptian mummy, now in Paris, represents the death and 
resurrection of Osiris, and the beginning, progress, and end 
of the inundation of the Nile. The sign of the Lion is trans- 
formed into a couch, upon which Osiris is laid out as dead ; 
under the couch are four canopi or jars of various capacities, 
indicating the state of the Nile at different periods. The 
first is terminated by the head of Sirius, or the Dog- Star, 
which gives warning of the approach of the overflow of the 
river ; the second by the head of the Hawk, the symbol of 
the Etesian wind, which tends to swell the waters ; the third 
by the head of a Heron, the sign of the south wind, which 
contributes to propel the water into the Mediterranean ; and 
the fourth by that of the Virgin, which indicates that when 
the sun had passed that sign the inundation would have 
nearly subsided. To the above is superadded a large Anubis, 
who with an emphatic gesture, turning towards Isis, who has 
an empty throne on her head, intimates that the sun, by the 
aid of the Lion, had cleared the difficult pass of the tropic of 
Cancer, and was now in the sign of the latter ; and although 
in a state of exhaustion, would soon be in a condition to 
proceed on his way to the south. The empty throne is 
indicative of its being vacated by the supposed death of 
Osiris. The reason why the hawk represents the north 
wind is, because about the summer solstice, when the wind 
blows from north to south, the bird flies with the wind 
towards the south (Job xxxix. 26). The heron signifies 
the south wind, because this bird, living on the worms 
hatched in the mud of the Nile, follows the course of the 
river down to the sea, just as the south wind does. To know 
the state of the Nile, and therefore their own personal 
prospects, the Egyptians watched the birds ; hence among 
other nations, who did not know the principle by which the 
Egyptians went, arose divination by the flight of birds. 1 

404. The Blazing Star. The representation of a blazing 
star found in every masonic lodge, and which Masons declare 

1 Hamlet says, "lam but mad north-north-west; when the wind is 
southerly I know a hawk from a hand-saw." Thomas Capell, the editor of 
the Oxford edition of Shakespeare, changes "hand-saw to "hernshaw," 
which renders the passage intelligible ; for hernshaw is only another name 
for the heron ; and Hamlet, though feigning madness, yet claims sufficient 
sanity to distinguish a hawk from a hernshaw, when the wind is southerly 
that is, in the time of the migration of the latter to the north and when 
the former is not to be seen. 


to signify prudence though why a star should have such a 
meaning they would be at a loss to tell is the star Sirius, 
the dog-star, mentioned above, the inundation of the Nile 
occurring when the sun was under the stars of the Lion. 
Near the stars of the Cancer, though pretty far from the 
band of the zodiac towards the south, and a few weeks after 
their rising, the Egyptians saw in the morning one of the 
most brilliant stars in the whole heavens ascending the 
horizon. It appeared a little before the rising of the sun ; 
they therefore pitched upon this star as the infallible sign of 
the sun's passing under the stars of Leo, and the beginning 
of the inundation. As it thus seemed to be on the watch 
and give warning, they called it " Barker," "Anubis," " Thot," 
all meaning the " dog." Its Hebrew name, " Sihor," in Greek 
became "Seirios," and in Latin "Sirius." It taught the 
Egyptians the prudence of retiring into the higher grounds ; 
and thus Masons, ignorant of the origin of the symbol, yet 
give it its original emblematic signification. 


405. Officers. The members of this degree (founded about 
the year 1766) are denominated "companions." There are 
nine officers, the chief of whom (in England) is Zerubbabel, 
a compound word, meaning "the bright lord, the sun." He 
rebuilds the temple, and therefore represents the sun risen 
again. The next officer is Jeshua, the high-priest ; the third, 
Haggai, the prophet. These three compose the grand council 
Principals and senior and junior sojourners form the base; 
Ezra and Nehemiah, senior and junior scribes, one on each 
side ; janitor or tyler without the door. The companions 
assembled make up the sides of the arch, representing the 
pillars Jachin and Boaz. In front of the principals stands 
an altar, inscribed with the names of Solomon, Hiram, king 
of Tyre, and Hiram Abiff. 

406. Ceremonies. On entering the chapter, the com- 
panions give the sign of sorrow, in imitation of the ancients 
mourning for the loss of Osiris. Nine companions must be 
present at the opening of a royal arch chapter ; not more nor 
less than three are permitted to take this degree at the same 
time, the two numbers making up the twelve, the number 
of zodiacal signs. The candidates are prepared by tying a 
bandage over their eyes, and coiling a rope seven times 
round the body of each, which unites them together, with 
three feet of slack rope between them. They then pass 
under the living arch, which is made by the companions 
either joining their hands and holding them up, or by 
holding their rods or swords so as to resemble a Gothic 
arch. This part of the ceremony used to be attended 
in some lodges with a deal of tomfoolery and rough horse- 
play. The companions would drop down on the candidates, 
who were obliged to support themselves on their hands 
and knees ; and if they went too slowly, it was not un- 
usual for one or more of the companions to apply a sharp 

point to their bodies to urge them on. Trials, such as the 



candidates for initiation into the ancient mysteries had to go 
through, were also imitated in the royal arch. But few, if 
any, lodges now practise these tricks, fit only for Christmas 
pantomimes. The candidates, after taking the oath, de- 
clare that they come in order to assist at the rebuilding of 
Solomon's temple, whereupon they are furnished with pick- 
axes, shovels, and crowbars, and retire. After a while, 
during which they are supposed to have been at work and 
to have made a discovery, they return, and state that on 
digging for the new foundation they discovered an under- 
ground vault, into which one of them was let down and 
found a scroll, which on examination turns out to be the 
long-lost book of the law. They set to work again, and 
discover another vault, and under that a third. The sun 
having now gained his meridian height, darts his rays to the 
centre and shines on a white marble pedestal, on which is a 
plate of gold. On this plate is a double triangle, and within 
the triangles some words they cannot understand ; they 
therefore take the plate to Zerubbabel. There the whole 
mystery of Masonry as far as known to Masons is un- 
veiled; what the Masons had long been in search of is found, 
for the mysterious writing in a triangular form is the long- 
lost sacred word of the Master Mason, which Solomon and 
King Hiram deposited there, as we have seen in the master's 
degree (402). This word Jabulon = Jah + Bel -f- On, Hebrew, 
Assyrian, and Egyptian names of the sun, is the logos 
of Plato and St. John, the omnific word ; but the above 
compound name, intended to bear the same import, is 
substituted by modern Masons. It is communicated to the 
candidates in this way : The three principals and each three 
companions form the triangles, and each of the three takes 
his left-hand companion by the right-hand wrist, and his 
right-hand companion by the left-hand wrist, forming two 
distinct triangles with the hands, and a triangle with their 
right feet, amounting to a triple triangle, and then pro- 
nounce the following words, each taking a line in turn : 

" As we three did agree, 
In peace, love, and unity, 
The sacred word to keep, 
So we three do agree, 
In peace, love, and unity, 
The sacred word to search, 
Until we three, 

Or three such as we, shall agree 
This royal arch chapter to close." 


The right hands, still joined as a triangle, are raised as high 
as possible, and the word given at low breath in syllables, so 
that each companion has to pronounce the whole word. It 
is not permitted to utter this omnific word above the breath ; 
like the name "Jehovah" or "Oum," it would shake heaven 
and earth if pronounced aloud. Zerubbabel next makes the 
new companions acquainted with the five signs used in this 
degree, and invests them with the badges of Royal Arch 
Masonry the apron, sash, and jewel. The character on the 
apron is the triple Tau, one of the most ancient of emblems, 
and Masons call it the emblem of emblems, "with a depth 
that reaches to the creation of the world and all that is 
therein." This triple Tau is a compound figure of three T's, 
called Tau in Greek. Now this Tau or T is the figure of the 
old Egyptian Nilometer, used to ascertain the height of the 
inundation. It was a pole crossed with one or more trans- 
verse pieces. As on the inundation depended the subsistence, 
the life of the inhabitants, the Nilometer became the symbol 
of life, health, and prosperity, and was thought to have the 
power of averting evil. It thence became an amulet, and in 
this manner was introduced among masonic symbols. 

407. Passing the Veils. In some chapters the ceremony 
called " passing the veils " is omitted, but to make the 
account of Royal Arch Masonry complete I append it here. 
The candidate is introduced blindfold, his knees bare, and 
his feet slipshod, with a cable-tow round his waist. The 
high-priest reads Exod. iii. 1-6, and 13, 14, and the candi- 
date is informed that " I am that I am " is the password 
from the first to the second veil. He is also shown a bush 
on fire. He is then led to the second veil, which, on giving 
the password, he passes, and beholds the figure of a serpent 
and Aaron's rod. The high-priest reads Exod. iv. 1-5, and 
the candidate is told to pick up the rod cast down before 
him, that the act is the sign of passing the second veil, and 
that the passwords are " Moses, Aaron, and Eleazar." He 
then passes the guard of the third veil. The high-priest 
reads Exod. iv. 6-9, and the candidate is informed that the 
leprous hand and the pouring out of the water are the signs 
of the third veil, and that " Holiness to the Lord " are the 
passwords to the sanctum sanctorum. He is shown the ark 
of the covenant, the table of shewbread, the burning in- 
cense, and the candlestick with seven branches. Then 
follow long lectures to explain the words and symbols, but 
their quality may be inferred from the following specimen : 
" This triangle is also an emblem of geometry. And here 


we find the most perfect emblem of the science of agri- 
culture ; not a partial one like the Basilidean, calculated for 
one particular clime, but universal ; pointed out by a pair of 
compasses issuing from the centre of the sun, and suspending 
a globe denoting the earth, and thereby representing the in- 
fluence of that luminary over the creation, admonishing us 
to be careful to perform every operation in its proper season, 
that we lose not the fruits of our labour." What a farmer 
would say to, or what profit he could derive from, this uni- 
versal " science of agriculture," or whether he needs the 
" admonishing " symbol, I am at a loss to imagine. The 
triple Tau, according to the lecture, means templum Hieroso- 
lyince, also clavis ad thesaurum, res ipsa pretiosa, and several 
other things equally true. " But," continues the lecturer, 
"these are all symbolical definitions of the symbol, which 
is to be simply solved into an emblem of science in the 
human mind, and is the most ancient symbol of that 
kind, the prototype of the Cross, and the first object in 
every religion or human system of worship. This is the 
grand secret of Masonry, which passes by symbols from 
superstition to science." How far all this is from the true 
meaning of the cross and triple Tau may be seen by refer- 
ence to 53. 



408. Ceremonial. In this, the twelfth degree of the ancient 
Scotch rite, the chapter, or lodge, represents the Temple of 
Solomon in three compartments. The first to the west, hung 
with white, is the vestibule. On its northern side is the 
tomb of Hiram, also white ; to the south stands the Brazen 
Sea. The centre of the lodge, divided from the vestibule by 
a white, and from the Holy of Holies by a red, curtain 
represents the interior of the temple. On its floor is the 
Scotch carpet, showing the three walls round the temple ; to 
the north of the carpet stands the golden table with the 
shewbread, to the south the candlestick with seven branches. 
The altar of incense is placed on the carpet itself, and above 
it hangs the Blazing Star, strongly illuminated. The east 
is the Holy of Holies. In the centre is an altar, raised on 
seven steps ; the altar represents the ark of the covenant, 
on which are placed two cherubims, surmounted by the sign 
of the glory of God, consisting of a transparent disc, having 
in its centre a triangle, inscribed with 7, 7, 74. The per- 
petual holy fire burns in a vase on the ark. Eighty-one 
lights burn on the steps, which, however, are lighted up only 
when the candidate is to be shown the light of the Holy of 
Holies. The Master sits at a small table, with a red cloth, 
and having on this the word of the Order and the vestment 
of the candidate. The brethren wear an apron embroidered 
and lined with red. From a sash, worn from the right 
shoulder to the left hip, the pentagon is suspended, or a gold 
medal, on both sides of which are engraved the orders of 
architecture. The master is called " The Most Powerful 
Grand Architect," the two wardens are called "Ancient 
Scotch Grand Masters," and the brethren "Perfect Archi- 

The usual questions and answers are put at the opening 
of the lodge. Here are a few of them : 

" Where does the Most Powerful Grand Architect dwell ? " 



"In the east, in the Holy of Holies." 

" Why ? " 

" That he, being placed close to the fountain of all light, 
may point out to the brethren the way by which they may 
emerge from darkness into light." 

" How is this done ? " 

" By opening the temple ; by advice, direction, and exa- 
mination of the work of the Scotch Architects." 

" Give me the password." 

" Zididiac, or Zedekiah." Occasionally it is "Rabacim." 

" Give me the holy word." 

The brethren form a chain to the Grand Master, and 
whisper the word into each other's ears. We shall presently 
see what it is. 

The questions are continued : " What hour is it ? " 

"The first hour of the last day of the last year in which 
Solomon's temple was finished." 

The brethren hold up their swords and greet one another 
by crossing them ; then rest them on their left arms, take 
off their hats, kneel down, and during the prayer that follows 
make the Grand Scotch sign, i.e. the hand at the forehead. 
The prayer being over, the brethren rise, put on their hats, 
and the lodge is declared to be open for the reception of the 
candidate, who is introduced with a great deal of ceremony, 
being blindfolded, wearing the master's apron, and slippers 
on his feet, and whom the Grand Master of Ceremony 
declares to be a Hiramite, called by the unanimous voice 
of the Ancient Scotch to become a perfect Architect, to 
assist in building up the Holy of Holies. He is made to 
kneel with his right knee on a stool in front of the tomb or 
coffin, where he is catechised as to his intentions, and all 
being satisfactory, he is led five times, and then again 
seven times round the apartment, and finally his eyes are 
unbandaged, the tomb of Hiram is pointed out to him, as 
also the letter G in the Blazing Star, which letter stands 
for "Gnosis," the "inheritance of Perfect Architects." 
Then ensues a good deal more catechising and lecturing, 
and finally the new brother has to take the oath, which 
binds him, however, to nothing more than to secrecy, and 
the fulfilment of certain moral duties. The members again 
go through a number of evolutions round or on the carpet ; 
their swords are drawn, held up, crossed, and sheathed again. 
Then the candidate has his eyes bandaged again ; the 
brethren kneel down, their faces being turned to the Holy 
of Holies, in which the eighty-one lights are now lighted ; 


the curtain is drawn up, a handful of powder is thrown on 
the altar of incense, and the bandage taken off the can- 
didate's eyes ; the Grand Master makes an edifying moral 
speech, the brethren flourish their swords, and forming a 
circle bring them as much as possible in a point over the 
new brother's head, who is now declared a Perfect Ancient 
Scotch Architect, touched with the sword on the right and 
left shoulder, the breast and the back, and the sword is then 
handed to him by the Grand Master, who concludes with 
another long speech. As the candidate naturally expects to 
be let into some kind of secret, he is told that the holy 
word is "Jehovah," which however is never pronounced out 
of the Holy of Holies. There is also the word " Gomer," but 
its meaning is not explained. 

Such is an outline of the twelfth degree of the Ancient 
Scotch rite. It reminds me of what Lessing, the celebrated 
German author, said after he had been made a Mason. The 
master having expressed a hope that Lessing had found 
nothing against the state, religion, and morals in the Order, 
Lessing replied, " No, I wish I had, for then I should have 
found at least something ! " 


409. The Term Kadosh. This degree, the thirtieth of the 
ancient and accepted Scotch rite, contains a beautiful astro- 
nomical allegory, and is probably derived from Egypt. The 
term Kadosh means "holy" or "elect." (Every person in 
the East, preferred to a post of honour, carried a staff, to 
indicate that he was Kadosh or elect, or that his person was 
sacred ; whence eventually the name came to be applied to 
the staff itself, and hence the derivation of caduceus, the staff 
of Mercury, the messenger of the gods.) 

410. Reception into the Degree. There are four apartments ; 
the initiation takes place in the fourth. They symbolise the 
seasons. The first apartment is hung with black, lit up by a 
solitary lamp of triangular form, and suspended to the vaulted 
ceiling. It communicates with a kind of cave or closet of 
reflection, containing symbols of destruction and death. The 
candidate, after having been left there some time, passes 
into the second apartment, which is draped with white ; two 
altars occupy the centre ; on one is an urn filled with burn- 
ing spirits of wine, on the other a brazier with live coal, and 
incense beside it. The candidate now faces the sacrificing 
priest, who addresses some words of admonition to him, and 
having burned some incense, directs him to the third apart- 
ment. It is hung with blue, and the vaulted ceiling covered 
with stars. Three yellow tapers light up this room. This is 
the areopagus. The candidate, having here given the requi- 
site explanation as to the sincerity of his intentions and pro- 
mises of secrecy, is introduced into the fourth apartment, 
hung with red. At the east is a throne surmounted by a 
double eagle, crowned, with outspread wings and holding a 
sword in his claw. In this room, lighted up with twelve 
yellow tapers, the chapter takes the title of " senate " ; the 
brethren are called "knights." In this room also stands the 
mysterious ladder. 

411. The Mysterious Ladder. It has seven steps, which 



symbolise the sun's progress through the seven signs of the 
zodiac from Aries to Libra, both inclusive. This the candi- 
date ascends, receiving at every step the explanation of its 
meaning from a hierophant, who remains invisible to the 
candidate, just as in the ancient mysteries the initiating 
priest remained concealed, and as Pythagoras delivered his 
instructions from behind a veil. When the candidate has 
ascended the ladder, and is on the last step, the ladder is 
lowered and he passes over it, because he cannot retire the 
same way, as the sun does not retrograde. He then reads 
the words at the bottom of the ladder, Ne plus ultra. The 
last degree manufactured is always the nc plus ultra, till 
somebody concocts one still more sublime, which then is the 
ne plus ultra, till it is superseded by another. What sublimity 
masonic degrees will yet attain, and where they will stop, no 
one can tell. 

412. The Seven Steps. The name of the first step is 
Isedakah, which is defined "righteousness," alluding to the 
sun in the vernal equinox in the month of March, when the 
days and nights are equal all over the world, and the sun 
dispenses his favours equally to all. 

The second step is Shor-laban, "white ox" figuratively. 
This is the only step the definition of which is literally true, 
which, as it might lead to a clue to the meaning of the mys- 
terious ladder, is thus falsely denominated figurative. Taurus, 
the bull, is the second sign of the zodiac, into which the sun 
enters on the 2ist April. His entry into this sign is marked 
by the setting of Orion, who in mythological language is 
said to be in love with the Pleiades ; and by the rising of 
the latter. 

The third step is called Mathok, " sweetness." The third 
sign is Gemini, into which the sun enters in the pleasant 
month of May. " Canst thou hinder the sweet influences 
of the Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion ? " (Job). Now, 
the Pleiades were denominated by the Romans Vergilice, 
from their formerly rising when the spring commenced, and 
their sweet influences blessed the year by the beginning of 

The fourth step is Emunah, "truth in disguise." The 
fourth sign is Cancer, into which the sun enters in June. 
Egypt at this period is enveloped in clouds and dust, by 
which means the sun, which figuratively may be called truth, 
is obscured or disguised. 

The fifth step is Hamal saggi, "great labour." The fifth 
sign is Leo. The great labour and difficulties to which the 


sun was supposed to be subject in passing this sign have 
already been alluded to (403). 

The sixth step is Sabbal, " burden or patience." The sixth 
sign through which the sun passes is Virgo, marked by the 
total disappearance of the celestial Hydra, called the Hydra 
of Lerna, from whose head spring up the Great Dog and 
the Crab. Hercules destroys the Hydra of Lerna, but is 
annoyed by a sea-crab, which bites him in the foot. When- 
ever Hercules lopped off one of the monster's heads two 
others sprang up, so that his labour would have been endless, 
had he not ordered his companion lolas to sear the blood 
with fire. 

The seventh step is named Gcmunah^ Binah, Jebunah, 
"retribution, intelligence, prudence." The seventh sign is 
Libra, into which the sun enters at the commencement of 
autumn, indicated by the rising of the celestial Centaur, the 
same that treated Hercules with hospitality. This constella- 
tion is represented in the heavens with a flask full of wine 
and a thyrsus, ornamented with leaves and grapes, the sym- 
bols of the products of the seasons. The sun has now arrived 
at the autumnal equinox, bringing in his train the fruits of 
the earth ; and recompense is made to the husbandman in 
proportion to his prudence and intelligence. 

The ladder will remind the reader of the ladder of the 
Indian mysteries ; of the ladder seen by Jacob in his dream ; 
the pyramids with seven steps ; and the seven caverns of 
various nations. 

Formerly it may be so now in some lodges one of the 
tests the aspirant to this degree had to undergo was to kill 
the murderer of Hiram with a dagger, to bring his head to 
the altar, and drink blood out of a skull. The candidate, 
being blindfolded, had to place his hand on the beating 
heart of a sheep, the wool around that part having been 
shaved off, and, having stabbed the victim, he was freed from 
the bandage, and was shown a bleeding head, made of wax, 
which, however, was immediately removed, to prevent his 
discovering the deception. 



413. Distinct from Rosicrucian, and has various Names. 
This, the eighteenth degree of the ancient and accepted 
Scotch rite, is one of the most generally diffused of the 
higher degrees of Masonry. It is often confounded with 
the cabalistic and alchemistic sect of the Rosicrucians ; but 
there is a great distinction between the two. The name is 
derived from the rose and the cross, and has no connection 
with alchemy ; the import of the rose has been given in 
another place. The origin of the degree is involved in the 
greatest mystery, as already pointed out. The degree is 
known by various names, such as " Sovereign Princes of 
Rose-Croix," "Princes of Rose-Croix de Heroden," i.e. the 
holy house, i.e. the Temple, and sometimes " Knights of the 
Eagle and Pelican." It is considered the ne plus ultra of 
Masonry, which, however, is the case with several other 

414. Officers and Lodges. The presiding officer is called 
the "Ever Most Perfect Sovereign," and the two wardens 
are styled "Most Excellent and Perfect Brothers." The 
degree is conferred by a body called a "Chapter of the 
Sovereign Princes of Rose-Croix," and in three apartments, 
the first representing Mount Calvary, the second the site 
and scene of the Resurrection, and the third Hell. It will 
thus be seen that it is a purely Christian degree, and there- 
fore not genuine Masonry, but an attempt to christianise 
Freemasonry. The first apartment is hung with black, and 
lighted with thirty-three lights upon three candlesticks of 
eleven branches. Each light is enclosed in a small tin box, 
and issues its light through a hole of an inch diameter. 
These lights denote the age of Christ. In three angles of 
the room, north-east, south-east, and south-west, are three 
pillars of the height of a man, on the several chapiters of 
which are inscribed the names of Faith, Hope, and Charity. 
Every lodge has its picture descriptive of its form, and of 


the proper place of its officers and emblems. On the east, 
at the south and north angles, the sun and moon and a sky 
studded with stars are painted ; the clouds very dark. An 
eagle is seen beating the air with his wings, as an emblem 
of the supreme power. Besides other allegorical paintings, 
there is also one of a cubic stone, sweating blood and water. 
On the stone is a rose, and the letter J, which means the 
expiring Word. The space round the picture, representing 
the square of the lodge, is filled with darkness, to represent 
what happened at the crucifixion. Below it are all the 
ancient tools of masonry, with the columns divided and 
broken into many parts. Lower down is the veil of the 
temple rent in twain. Before the master is a little table, 
lighted by three lights, upon which the Gospel, compasses, 
square, and triangle are placed. All the brethren are clothed 
in black, with a black scarf from the left shoulder to the 
right side. An apron, white, bordered with black : on the 
flap are a skull and cross-bones, between three red roses ; on 
the apron is a globe surmounted by a serpent, and above the 
letter J. The master and the other officers wear on the neck 
a wide ribbon of black mohair, from which hangs the jewel, 
a golden compass, surmounted by a triple crown, with a 
cross between the legs, its centre being occupied by a full- 
blown rose ; at the foot of the cross is a pelican feeding its 
young from its breast ; on the other side is an eagle with 
wings displayed. The eagle is the emblem of the sun, the 
" sun of righteousness " ; the pelican, of course, alludes to 
Christ shedding His blood for the human race ; the cross 
and the rose explain themselves. 

415. Reception in the First Apartment. The candidate 
is clothed in black, decorated with a red ribbon, an apron 
doubled with the same colour, and a sword and scarf. After 
much preliminary ceremony, he is introduced into the apart- 
ment, and told by the master that the word that is lost and 
which he seeks cannot be given, because confusion reigns 
among them, the veil of the temple is rent, darkness covers 
the earth, the tools are broken, &c. ; but that he need not 
despair, as they will find out the new law, that thereby they 
may recover the word. He is then told to travel for thirty- 
three years. The junior warden thereupon conducts him 
thirty-three times round the lodge, pointing out to him the 
three columns, telling him their names, Faith, Hope, and 
Charity, and bidding him remember them, as henceforth 
they must be his guides. After a little more talk, he is 
made to kneel with his right knee upon the Gospel and take 


the following oath : " I promise by the same obligations I 
have taken in the former degrees of Masonry never to reveal 
the secrets of the Knight of the Eagle, under the penalty 
of being for ever deprived of the true word ; that a river of 
blood and water shall issue continually from my body, and, 
under the penalty of suffering anguish of soul, of being 
steeped in vinegar and gall, of having on my head the most 
piercing thorns, and of dying upon the cross ; so help me 
the Grand Architect of the Universe." The candidate then 
receives the apron and sash, both symbols of sorrow for the 
loss of the word. A dialogue ensues, wherein the hope of 
finding the word is foreshadowed ; whereupon the master 
and brethren proceed to the second apartment, where they 
exchange their black aprons and sashes to take red ones. 

416. Second Apartment. This apartment is hung with 
tapestry ; three chandeliers, with thirty-three lights, but 
without the boxes, illuminate it. In the east there is a 
cross surrounded with a glory and a cloud ; upon the cross 
is a rose of paradise, in the middle of which is the letter G. 
Below are three squares, in which are three circles, having 
three triangles, to form the summit, which is allegorical of 
Mount Calvary, upon which the Grand Architect of the 
Universe expired. Upon this summit is a blazing star with 
seven rays, and in the middle of it the letter G again. The 
eagle and pelican also reappear here. Below is the tomb. 
In the lower part of the square are the compasses, drawing- 
board, crow, trowel, and square. The cubic stone, hammer, 
and other tools are also represented. 

417. Reception in the Third Apartment. But the second 
point of reception takes place in a third apartment, which is 
made as terrifying as possible, to represent the torments of 
hell. It has seven chandeliers with grey burning flambeaux, 
whose mouths represent death's-heads and cross-bones. The 
walls are hung with tapestry, painted with flames and figures 
of the damned. The candidate, on presenting himself as a 
searcher of the lost word, has his sash and apron taken from 
him, as not humble enough to qualify him for the task, and 
is covered with a black cloth strewn with dirty ashes, so that 
he can see nothing, and informed that he will be led to the 
darkest of places, from which the word must come forth 
triumphant to the glory and advantage of Masonry. In this 
condition he is led to a steep descent, up and down which 
he is directed to travel, after which he is conducted to the 
door, and has the black cloth removed. Before him stand 
three figures dressed as devils. He then parades the room 


three times, without pronouncing a word, in memory of the 
descent into the dark places, which lasted three days. He 
is then led to the door of the apartment, covered with black 
cloth, and told that the horrors through which he has passed 
are as nothing in comparison with those through which he 
has yet to pass; therefore he is cautioned to summon all 
his fortitude. But in reality all the terrible trials are over, 
for he is presently brought before the master, who asks : 
"Whence come you ? " " From Judaea." " Which way did 
you come?" "By Nazareth." "Of what tribe are you 
descended?" " Judah." "Give me the four initials?" 
" I.N.R.I." " What do these letters signify ? " " Jesus of 
Nazareth, King of the Jews." " Brother, the word is found ; 
let him be restored to light." The junior warden quickly 
takes off the cloth, and at the signal of the master, all the 
brethren clap their hands three times and give three huzzas. 
The candidate is then taught the signs, grips, and password. 
The master then proceeds to the instruction of the newly- 
made Knight of the Eagle or Prince Rose-Croix, which 
amounts to this, that after the erection of Solomon's temple 
masons began to neglect their labours, that then the cubical 
stone, the corner-stone, began to sweat blood and water, and 
was torn from the building and thrown among the ruins of 
the decaying temple, and the mystic rose sacrificed on a 
cross. Then masonry was destroyed, the earth covered with 
darkness, the tools of masonry broken. Then the blazing 
star disappeared, and the word was lost. But masons having 
learnt the three words, Faith, Hope, and Charity, and follow- 
ing the new law, masonry was restored, though masons no 
longer built material edifices, but occupied themselves in 
spiritual buildings. The mystic rose and blazing star were 
restored to their former beauty and splendour. 

The degree was purely Jesuitical, and its object the restora- 
tion of the Stuart family. 

4 1 8. Anomalies of the Eite of Misraim. Another of those 
diversities, which may be called the constant attendants of 
the life of vast associations, is the rite of " Misraim," so 
called from its falsely pretending to trace its origin back 
to the Egyptian King Menes, or Misraim. What chiefly 
distinguishes it from other rites, and renders it totally 
different from masonic institutions, is the supreme power 
given to the heads, whose irremovability we have seen abol- 
ished, in order to open the lodges to the forms of genuine 
democracy. This rite is essentially autocratic. One man, 
with the title of "Absolute Sovereign Grand Master," rules 
the lodges, and is irresponsible an extraordinary anomaly in 
the bosom of a liberal society to behold a member claiming 
that very absolute power against which Freemasonry has 
been fighting for centuries ! 

419. Organisation. The rite of Misraim was founded by 
Cagliostro at a time when there was already a question of 
even further reducing the number of the Scotch rite of 
thirty-three degrees, practically reduced to five. Then arose 
the rite of Misraim with ninety degrees, arranged in four 
sections, viz.: i. Symbolic; 2. Philosophic; 3. Mystical; 
4. Cabalistic; which were divided into seventeen classes. 
The rites are a medley of Scotch rites, Martinism, and 
Templarism, and the absolute Grand Masters arrogate to 
themselves the right of governing all masonic lodges through- 
out the world. The foundations of this system were laid at 
Milan in 1805, by several Masons who had bsen refused 
admission into the Supreme Grand Council. During the 
first year and for some time after postulants were only 
admitted as far as the 8/th degree ; the other three, com- 
plementing the system, embraced the unknown superiors. 
Jews are the chief supporters of this rite. To show its 
character, details of some of the degrees are here given. 

420. History and Constitution. From Milan, the Order 


spread into Dalmatia, the Ionian Islands, and the Neapo- 
litan territory, where it produced a total reform in a chapter 
of Rosicrucians, the " Concordia," established in the Abruzzi. 
It was not till 1814 that the rite of Misraim was introduced 
into France, where the pompous denominations of its endless 
hierarchy met with no slight success. Never had such titles 
been heard of in Masonry : Supreme Commander of the Stars, 
Sovereign of Sovereigns, Most High and Most Powerful 
Knight of the Rainbow, Sovereign Grand Prince Hiram, 
Sovereign Grand Princes, &c. ; these were some of the titles 
assumed by the members. The trials of initiation were long 
and difficult, and founded on what is recorded of the Egyptian 
and Eleusinian mysteries. In the first two sections the 
founders of the rite seem to have attempted to bring together 
all the creeds and practices of Scotch Masonry combined 
with- the mysteries of Egypt ; and in the last two sections all 
the chemical and cabalistic knowledge professed by the priests 
of that country, reserving for the last three degrees the 
supreme direction of the Order. Attempts were made to 
introduce it into Belgium, Sweden, and Switzerland, and 
also into Ireland, and latterly into England ; but everywhere 
it is in a languishing condition. The Grand Orient of France 
has never recognised the rite as a part of Masonry, though it 
has three lodges in Paris. 

421. Rites and Ceremonies. The Order celebrates two 
equinoctial festivals, the one called "The Reawakening of 
Nature," and the other, "The Repose of Nature." In the 
69th degree, designated as "Knight of Khanuka, called 
Hynaroth," particular instructions are given as to man's rela- 
tion to the Deity, and the cabalistic mediation of the angels. 
The Supreme Council of the 8/th degree has three apart- 
ments : the first is draped in black, representing chaos, and 
lighted up with one light only. The second apartment has 
three lights, and its walls are hung with green, typifying 
hope. The third apartment has seventy-two lights, with a 
transparency showing the word Jehovah over the throne, and 
another similar one over the entrance door, all symbolising 
the zodiac and the sun. The sign is raising both hands 
towards heaven ; the grip consists in crossing the hands, and 
the passwords are : I am We are ; Nature Truth. In the 
88th degree the hall of reception is oval, and hung with sea- 
green. The Sgth degree has the password Lux ex tenebris ; 
and the goth degree holds its meetings in a circular room, 
and its password is Sophia, or Wisdom ; its sacred word is 
Isis, to which the answer is Osiris. In this rite, altogether 


modern, we meet with gnostic and cabalistic words and 
conceits a phenomenon which were impossible did not 
gnostic ideas permeate all the veins of the masonic body. 

422. Site of Memphis. It is a copy of the rite of Misraim, 
and was founded at Paris in 1839, an< ^ afterwards extended 
to Brussels and Marseilles. It was composed of ninety-one 
degrees, arranged in three sections and seven classes. A 
large volume printed at Paris, with the ambitious title of 
"The Sanctuary," gives an account of all the sections and 
their scope. The first section teaches morality, and explains 
the symbols ; the second instructs in physical science, the 
philosophy of history, and explains the poetical myths of 
antiquity, its scope being to promote the study of causes and 
origins. The third and last section^exhausts the story of the 
Order, and is occupied with high philosophy, studying the 
religious myth at the different epochs of mankind. 


423. Origin. We read that several lords of the Court of 
Louis XIV., including fke Duke de Gramont, the Marquis 
of Biran, and Count Tallard, formed a secret society, whose 
object was pleasure. The society increased. Louis XIV., 
having been made acquainted with its statutes, banished 
the members of the Order, whose denomination was, " A 
slight Resurrection of the Templars." In 1705, Philip 
Duke of Orleans collected the remaining members of the 
society that had renounced its first scope to cultivate politics. 
A Jesuit father, Bonanni, a learned rogue, fabricated the 
famous list of supposititious Grand Masters of the Temple 
since Molay, beginning with his immediate successor, Lar- 
menius. No imposture was ever sustained with greater 
sagacity. The document offered all the requisite character- 
istics of authenticity, and was calculated to deceive the most 
experienced palaeologist. Its object was to connect the new 
institution with the ancient Templars. To render the decep- 
tion more perfect, the volume containing the false list was 
filled with minutes of deliberations at fictitious meetings 
under false dates. Two members were even sent to Lisbon 
to obtain, if possible, a document of legitimacy from the 
" Knights of Christ," an Order founded on the ruins of the 
Order of the Temple. The deputies, however, were unmasked, 
and very badly received one had to take refuge in England, 
the other was transported to Africa, where he died. 

424. Revival of the Order. But the society was not dis- 
couraged ; it grew, and was probably the same that concealed 
itself before the outbreak of the Revolution under the vulgar 
name of the Society of the Bull's Head, and whose members 
were dispersed in 1792. At that period the Duke of Cosse- 
Brissac was Grand Master. When on his way to Versailles 
with other prisoners, there to undergo their trial, he was 
massacred, and Ledru, his physician, obtained possession of 


the charter of Larmenius and the MS. statutes of 1705. 
These documents suggested to him the idea of reviving the 
Order ; Fabre-Palaprat, a Freemason, was chosen Grand 
Master. Every effort was made to create a belief in the 
genuineness of the Order. The brothers Fabre", Arnal, and 
Leblond hunted up relics. The shops of antiquaries supplied 
the sword, mitre, and helmet of Molay, and the faithful were 
shown his bones, withdrawn from the funeral pyre on which 
he had been burned. As in the Middle Ages, the society 
exacted that aspirants should be of noble birth ; such as were 
not wexe ennobled by the society. Fourteen honest citizens 
of Troyes on one occasion received patents of nobility and 
convincing coats of arms. During the Revolution the Order 
was dissolved, but partly restored during the Directorate. 
After the establishment of the Empire the members re-elected 
Dr. Fabr^ de Palaprat; Napoleon favoured the Order, because 
it promoted community between his new nobility and the 
members of the old aristocracy. Under the Restoration the 
liberal tendencies of the Order rendered it suspect, and at 
the instigation of the Jesuits the Grand Master was repeatedly 
sent to prison. To restore the Order to its original purpose 
fighting the infidels the members endeavoured to obtain 
an island in the Mediterranean ; Sir Sidney Smith, later on, 
wanted to make it the means of suppressing piracy along the 
African coast. 

425. The Leviticon. The society was at first catholic, 
apostolic, Roman, and rejected Protestants ; but Fabr^ sud- 
denly gave it an opposite tendency. Having acquired a 
Greek MS. of the fifteenth century, containing the Gospel of 
St. John, with readings somewhat differing from the received 
version, preceded by a kind of introduction or commentary, 
called "Leviticon," he determined, towards 1815, to apply 
its doctrines to the society governed by him, and thus to 
transform an association, hitherto quite orthodox, into a 
schismatic sect. This Leviticon is nothing but the well- 
known work with the same title by the Greek monk, Nice- 
phorus. He, having been initiated into the mysteries of the 
Sufites, who to this day, in the bosom of Mohammedanism 
preserve the dismal doctrines of the Ishmaelites of the lodge 
of Cairo (141), attempted to introduce these ideas into Chris- 
tianity, and for that purpose wrote the "Leviticon," which 
became the Bible of a small number of sectaries ; but perse- 
cution put an end to them. This singular MS. was trans- 
lated into French in 1822, and printed, with modifications 
and interpolations, by Palaprat himself. This publication 


was the cause of a schism in the Order of the Temple. Those 
knights that adopted its doctrines made them the basis of a 
new liturgy, which they rendered public in 1833 in a kind 
of Johannite church called the Temple, and consecrated with 
great pomp ; a society of Ladies of the Temple was also 
formed at the same time. 

426. Ceremonies of Initiation. The lodges in this degree 
are called encampments, and the officers take their names 
from those that managed the original institution of the 
Knights Templars. The penal signs are the chin and beard 
sign and the saw sign. The grand sign is indicative of the 
death of Christ on the cross. There is a word, a grip, and 
passwords, which vary. The knights, who are always 
addressed as "Sir Knights," wear knightly costume, not 
omitting the sword. The candidate for installation is " got 
up" as a pilgrim, with sandals, mantle, staff, cross, scrip, 
and wallet, a belt or cord round his waist, and in some 
encampments a burden on his back, which is made to fall 
off at the sight of the cross. On his approach, an alarm is 
sounded with a trumpet, and after a deal of pseudo-military 
parley he is admitted, and a saw is applied to his forehead 
by the second captain, whilst all the Sir Knights are under 
arms. The candidate, being prompted by the master of the 
ceremonies, declares that he is a weary pilgrim, prepared to 
devote his life to the service of the poor and sick, and to pro- 
tect the holy sepulchre. After perambulating the encamp- 
ment seven times he repeats the oath, having first put away 
the pilgrim's staff and cross and taken up a sword. In this 
oath he swears to defend the sepulchre of our Lord Jesus 
Christ against all Jews, Turks, infidels, heathens, and other 
opposers of the Gospel. "If ever I wilfully violate this 
my solemn compact," he continues, " as a Brother Knight 
Templar, may my skull be sawn asunder with a rough saw, 
my brains taken out and put in a charger to be consumed 
by the scorching sun, and my skull in another charger, in 
commemoration of St. John of Jerusalem, that first faithful 
soldier and martyr of our Lord and Saviour. Furthermore, 
may the soul that once inhabited this skull appear against 
me in the day of judgment. So help me God." A lighted 
taper is afterwards put into his hand, and he circumambulates 
the encampment five times "in solemn meditation"; and 
then kneeling down is dubbed knight by the grand com- 
mander, who says, " I hereby instal you a masonic knight 
hospitaller of St. John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes, and 
Malta, and also a Knight Templar." The grand commander 


next clothes him with the mantle, and invests him with the 
apron, sash, and jewel, and presents him with sword and 
shield. He then teaches him the so-called Mediterranean 
password and sign. The motto of the Knight Templar is, 
In hoc signo vinccs. In England the encampment of Baldwin, 
which was established at Bristol by the Templars who re- 
turned with Richard I. from Palestine, still continues to hold 
its regular meetings, and is believed to have preserved the 
ancient costume and ceremonies of the Order. There is 
another encampment at Bath, and a third at York, from 
which three emanated all the other encampments in Great 
Britain and America. In some of the encampments the 
following is the concluding part of the ceremony : One of 
the equerries dressed as a cook, with a white nightcap and 
apron and a large kitchen knife in his hand, suddenly rushes 
in, and, kneeling on one knee before the new Sir Knight, 
says, "Sir Knight, I admonish you to be just, honourable, 
and faithful to the Order, or I, the cook, will hack your spurs 
from off your heels with my kitchen knife." 



427. Freemasonry in England. The authentic history of 
Freemasonry, i.e. operative Masonry, in England dates from 
Athelstan, from whom his brother Edwin obtained a royal 
charter for the Masons, by which they were empowered to 
meet annually in a general assembly, and to have the right 
to regulate their own Order. And, according to this charter, 
the first Grand Lodge of England met at York in 926, when 
all the writings and records extant, in Greek, Latin, French, 
and other languages, were collected; and constitutions and 
charges in conformity with ancient usages, so far as they 
could be gathered therefrom, were drawn up and adopted. 
The Old York Masons were on that account held in especial 
respect, and Blue or genuine Masonry is still distinguished 
by the title of the York rite. After the decease of Edwin, 
Athelstan himself presided over the lodges ; and after his 
death, the Masons in England were governed by Dunstan, 
Archbishop of Canterbury in 960, and Edward the Confessor 
in 1041. Down to the present time the grand masters have 
been persons of royal blood, sometimes the king himself. 
Till the beginning of the last century, as already stated 
(390), they were operative masons, and the monuments of 
their activity are still found all over the land in abbeys, 
monasteries, cathedrals, hospitals, and other buildings of 
note. There were, indeed, periods when the Order was per- 
secuted by the State, but these were neither so frequent nor 
so long as in other countries. 

428. Freemasonry in Scotland. Tradition says that on the 
destruction of the Order of Templars, many of its members 
took refuge in Scotland, where they incorporated themselves 
with the Freemasons, under the protection of Robert Bruce, 
who established the chief seat of the Order at Kilwinning. 
There is a degree of Prince of Rose-Croix de Heroden, or 



H^redom, as it is called in French. This Heroden, says an 
old MS. of the ancient Scotch rite, is a mountain situated 
in the north-west of Scotland, where the fugitive Knights 
Templars found a safe retreat; and the modern Order of 
Rose-Croix claims the kingdom of Scotland and Abbey of 
Kilwinning as having once been its chief seat of government. 
By some writers, however, it is asserted that the word H4r- 
dom is simply a corruption of the Latin expression hceredium, 
signifying "an heritage," and alludes to the castle of St. 
Germain, the residence of Charles Stuart the Pretender, 
to further whose restoration the Order of Rose-Croix was 
invented. The subject is in a state of inextricable confusion, 
but scarcely worth the trouble of elucidation. King Robert 
Bruce endeavoured, like other princes before and after him, 
to secure for himself the supreme direction of those associa- 
tions, which, though not hostile to the reigning power, could 
by their organisation become the foci of danger. It is the 
common opinion that this king reserved for himself and his 
successors the rank of grand master of the whole Order, and 
especially of the lodge of HeV^doin, which was afterwards 
transferred to Edinburgh. 

429. Modern Freemasonry. At the beginning of the last 
century the operative period of Masonry may be said to have 
come to an end. In 1716, there being then only four lodges 
existing in London, a proposition was made and agreed to 
that the privilege of Masonry should no longer be restricted 
to operative masons we have seen that it had ere then been 
broken through (389) but should extend to men of various 
professions, provided they were regularly initiated into the 
Order. Thus began the present era of Masonry, retaining 
the original constitutions, the ancient landmarks, symbols, 
and ceremonies. The society, proclaiming brotherly love, 
relief, and truth as their guiding principles, obtained a wider 
field for their operations, and more freedom in their mode of 
action. But to what does this action amount? To eating, 
drinking, and mummery. There is nothing in the history of 
modern Masonry, in this country at least, that deserves to 
be recorded. The petty squabbles between Lodges and 
Orders may help to fill masonic newspapers, but for the 
world at large they have no interest ; and as to any useful 
knowledge to be propagated by Masons, that is pure delusion. 
Yet, considering that the Order reckons its members by 
hundreds of thousands, its pretensions and present condition 
and prospects merit some consideration ; and it must be 
admitted that its charities, in England at least, are adminis- 


tered on a somewhat munificent scale. In that respect 
honour is due to the English craft. And Masons, at all 
events French Masons, object to their association being 
called a "Benevolent Society," for when in 1861 M. de 
Persigny qualified them as such, the Masons protested against 
it, saying that their charities were the outcome, and not the 
object, of their meetings. Moreover, their benevolence is 
not commensurate with their diffusion, and on the Continent 
is controlled by political considerations ; thus the lodge 
Philadelphia, at Verviers, in 1874, declined to subscribe to 
the Red Cross Association, because in the Spanish war their 
succour would be extended to Carlists as well as to the 


430. Introduction into France. Freemasonry was intro- 
duced into France by the partisans of James and the Pre- 
tender, as a possible means of reseating the Stuart family 
on the English throne. Not satisfied with turning masonic 
rites to unforeseen and illegitimate uses, new degrees were 
added to those already existing, such as those of " Irish 
Master," "Perfect Irish Master," and "Puissant Irish 
Master," and by promises of the revelation of great secrets, 
and leading them to believe that Freemasons were the 
successors of the Knights Templars, the nobility of the 
kingdom were attracted towards the Order, and liberally 
supported it with their means and influence. The first lodge 
established in France was that of Dunkirk (1721), under 
the title of " Friendship and Fraternity." The second, whose 
name has not been handed down, was founded in Paris in 
1725 by Lord Derwentwater. Other followers of the Pre- 
tender established other lodges, of all which Lord Derwent- 
water was the grand master, until that nobleman lost his 
life for his devotion to the cause of the Stuarts in 1746. 

431. Chevalier Ramsay. The Chevalier Ramsay, also a 
devoted adherent of the house of Stuart, endeavoured more 
effectually to carry out the views of his predecessors, and 
in 1730 attempted in London to lay the basis of a masonic 
reform, according to which the masonic legend referred to 
the violent death of Charles L, while Cromwell and his par- 
tisans represented the assassins to be condemned in the 
lodge. He therefore proposed to the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land to substitute in the place of the first three degrees 
those of Scotch Mason, Novice, and Knight of the Temple, 
which he pretended to be the only true and ancient ones, 
having their administrative centre in the Lodge of St. 
Andrew at Edinburgh. But the Grand Lodge at once re- 
jected his views, whose objects it perceived. Ramsay went 
to Paris, where he met with great success. His system gave 



rise to those higher degrees which have since then been 
known by the name of the Ancient Scotch rite. Many of 
these innovations made up for their want of consistency with 
masonic traditions by splendour of external decorations and 
gorgeousness of ceremonies. But the hautls grades of the 
French, and the philosophic degrees of the Ancient Scotch 
rite, are not innovations, but illustrations of pure symbolic 

432. Philosophical Rites. Philosophy indeed began to in- 
sinuate itself into Masonry, simplifying the rites and puri- 
fying its doctrines. Among the philosophic degrees then 
introduced, that of the " Knights of the Sun " is noteworthy. 
Its declared scope was to advocate natural, in opposition to 
revealed, religion. There is but one light in the lodge, 
which shines from behind a globe of water, to represent the 
sun. It has some resemblance to the " Sublime Knight 
Elected." But, on the other hand, by these innovations 
systems multiplied, and the Order served as a pretext and 
defence of institutions having no connection with Masonry. 
Cabala, magic, conjuration, divination, alchemy, and demon- 
ology were taught in the lodges. These abuses led to the 
establishment of an administrative centre at Arras in 1747. 
Another was founded at Marseilles in 1751. Three years 
afterwards the Chevalier de Bonneville founded in Paris a 
chapter of the high degrees, with the title, afterwards become 
famous, of the " Chapter of Clermont," and lodged it in a 
sumptuous palace built by him in a suburb of Paris. The 
system adopted was to some extent that of Ramsay. Another 
chapter, in opposition to his, was founded in 1762, with the 
title of "Council of the Knights of the East." In 1766, 
the Baron Tschudy founded the Order of the " Blazing Star," 
in which ideas derived from the Temple and the Jesuits 
were strangely intermingled. 

433. The Duke de Chartres. Freemasonry in France was 
not without influence on the Revolution. The Duke de 
Chartres having been elected grand master, all the lodges 
were united under the Grand Orient ; hence the immense 
influence he afterwards wielded. The mode of his initiation 
is thus related : Before becoming grand master he was re- 
ceived into the degree of Knight of Kadosh. Five brethren 
introduced him into a hall, representing a grotto strewn with 
human bones, and lighted up with sepulchral lamps. In one 
of the angles was a lay figure covered with royal insignia. 
The introducers bade him lie down on the ground like one 
dead, naming the degrees through which he had already 


passed, and repeating the former oaths. Afterwards, they 
extolled the degree into which he was about to be received. 
Having bidden him to rise, he was made to ascend a high 
ladder, and to throw himself from the top. Having then 
armed him with a dagger, they commanded him to strike 
the crowned figure, and a liquid resembling blood spurted 
from the wound over his hands and clothes. He was then 
told to cut off the head of the figure. Finally, he was informed 
that the bones with which the cave was strewn came from 
the body of James Molay, Grand Master of the Order of the 
Temple, and that the man whom he had stabbed was Philip 
the Fair, King of France. The Grand Orient was established 
in a mansion formerly belonging to the Jesuits in Paris, and 
became a revolutionary centre. The share the Grand Orient, 
the tool of the Duke de Chartres, took in the events of the 
French Revolution is matter of public history. 



434. Jesuitical Influence. Catholic ceremonies, unknown 
in ancient Freemasonry, were introduced from 1735 to 1740, 
in the Chapter of Clermont, so called in honour of Louis of 
Bourbon, Prince of Clermont, at the time grand master of 
the Order in France. From that time, the influence of the 
Jesuits on the fraternity made itself more and *more felt. 
The candidate was no longer received in a lodge, but in the 
city of Jerusalem ; not the ideal Jerusalem, but a clerical 
Jerusalem, typifying Rome. The meetings were called 
Capitula Canonicurum, and a monkish language and asce- 
ticism prevailed therein. In the statutes is seen the hand, 
of James Lainez, the second general of the Jesuits, and the 
aim at universal empire betrays itself, for at the reception of 
the sublime knights the last two chapters of the Apocalypse 
are read to the candidate a glowing picture of that universal 
monarchy which the Jesuits hoped to establish. The sect 
spread very rapidly, for when Baron Hund came to Paris 
in 1742, and was received into the highest Jesuit degrees 
he found on his return to Germany that those degrees were 
already established in Saxony and Thuringia, under the 
government of Marshall, whose labours he undertook to 

435. The Strict Observance. From the exertions of these 
two men arose the "Rite of Strict Observance," so called, 
because Baron Hund introduced into it a perfectly monkish 
subordination, and which seemed also for a time intended to 
favour the tragic hopes of the house of Stuart ; for Marshall, 
having visited Paris in 1741, there entered into close con- 
nection with Ramsay and the other adherents of the exiled 
family. To further this object, Hund mixed up with the 
rites of Clermont what was known or supposed to be known 
of the statutes of the Templars, and acting in concert with 



Marshall, overran Germany with a sect of new Templars, not 
to be confounded with the Templars that afterwards joined 
the masonic fraternity. But Hund seems after all to have 
rendered no real services to the Stuarts ; though when 
Charles Edward visited Germany, the sectaries received him 
in the most gallant manner, promising him the most exten- 
sive support, and asking of him titles and estates in a kingdom 
which he had yet to conquer. Thus he was brought to that 
state of mental intoxication which afterwards led him to 
make an absurd entry into Rome, preceded by heralds, who 
proclaimed him king. Hund seems, in the sad story of the 
Stuarts, to have acted the part of a speculator ; and the rite 
of the Strict Observance, permeated by the Jesuitical leaven, 
had probably an aim very different from the re-establishment 
of the proscribed dynasty. It is certain that at one time 
the power of the New Templars was very great, and prepared 
the way for the Illuminati. 



436. Organisation of Relaxed Observance. In 1767, there 
arose at Vienna a schism of the Strict Observance ; the dis- 
sentients, who called themselves " Clerks of the Relaxed 
Observance " the nickname of Relaxed Observance had 
originally been applied by the members of the Strict Obser- 
vance, as a term of contempt to all other rites declaring 
that they alone possessed the secrets of the association, and 
Knew the place where were deposited the splendid treasures 
of the Templars. They also claimed precedence, not only 
over the rite of Strict Observance, but also over all Masonry. 
Their promises and instructions revolved around the philo- 
sopher's stone, the government of spirits, and the millennium. 
To be initiated it was necessary to be a Roman Catholic, and 
to have passed through all the degrees of the Strict Observ- 
ance. The members knew only their immediate heads ; but 
Doctor Stark, of Konigsberg, a famous preacher, and Baron 
Raven, of Mecklenburg, were well-known chiefs of the 

437. Disputes in German Lodges. Before the establishment 
of the Strict Observance, various German lodges had already 
introduced the Templar system ; hence disputes of all kinds 
arose, and a convention was held at Brunswick on 22nd May 
1775 to arrange the differences. Dr. Stark presented him- 
self ; he was a disciple of Schropfer and of Gugumos, who 
called himself high-priest, knight, prince, possessor of the- 
philosopher's stone, of the secret to evoke the spirits of the 
dead, &c. Stark declared to the members of the convention 
that he was called Archimedes ab aquila fulva, that he was 
chancellor of the Grand Chapter of Scotland, and had been in- 
vited by the brethren of that supreme body to instruct them in 
the true principles of the Order. But when he was asked to 
produce his credentials, he refused. The Brunswickers, how- 
ever, thinking that the brethren of Aberdeen might possess 
some secrets, sent a deputation thither ; but the good folks of 



Aberdeen knew even less than their German friends, for they 
knew only the first three degrees. Stark, though found out, 
was not to be put down, but wrote a book entitled "The 
Coping Stone," in which he represented the Strict Observance 
as hostile to religion, society, and the state. 

438. Rite of Zinzendorf. This was not the first attack 
made on the system of Hund. In 1766, Count Zinzendorf, 
chief physician in the Prussian army, who had been received 
into the Strict Observance, was struck from the list of members 
of the lodge of the Three Globes. In revenge, he founded at 
Berlin and Potsdam lodges on the Templar system, which, 
however, he soon abandoned, and composed a new rite, in- 
vented by himself, and consisting of seven degrees, which 
was protected by Frederick the Great. The new Order made 
fierce and successful war both on the Strict and the Relaxed 

439. African Architects. About 176 5, Brother Von Kopper 
instituted in Prussia, under the auspices of Frederick II., the 
Order of " African Architects," who occupied themselves 
with historical researches, mixing up therewith masonry and 
chivalry. The order was divided into eleven degrees. They 
erected a vast building, which contained a large library, a 
museum of natural history, and a chemical laboratory. Until 
1786, when it was dissolved, the society awarded every year 
a gold medal with fifty ducats to the author of the best 
memoir on the history of Masonry. This was one of the few 
rational masonic societies. The African Architects did not 
esteem decorations, aprons, collars, jewels, &c. In their 
assemblies they read essays, and communicated the results 
of their researches. At their simple and decorous banquets, 
instructive and scientific discourses were delivered. While 
their initiations were gratuitous, they gave liberal assistance 
to zealous but needy brethren. They published many im- 
portant works on Freemasonry. 


440. Various Congresses. To put an end to the numerous 
disputes raging among masonic bodies, various congresses 
were held. In 1778, a congress was convened at Lyons ; it 
lasted a month, but was without result. In 1785, another 
was held at Paris, but the time was wasted in idle dis- 
putes with Cagliostro. The most important was that which 
assembled at Wilhelmsbad in 1782, under the presidency 
of the Duke of Brunswick, who was anxious to end the dis- 
cord reigning among German Freemasons. It was attended 
by Masons from Europe, America, and Asia. From an 
approximative estimate, it appears that there were then 
upwards of three millions of Masons in the different parts 
of the globe. 

441. Discussions at Wilhelmsbad. The statements con- 
tained in Dr. Stark's book, " The Coping Stone " (437), 
concerning the influence of the Jesuits in the masonic body, 
formed one of the chief topics discussed. Some of the chiefs 
of the Strict Observance produced considerable confusion by 
being unable to give information concerning the secrets of 
the high degrees, which they had professed to know ; or to 
render an account of large sums they had received on behalf 
of the Order. The main point was to settle whether Masonry 
was to be considered as a continuation of the Order of the 
Templars, and whether the secrets of the sect were to be 
sought for in the modern Templar degrees. After thirty 
sittings, the answer was in the negative ; the chiefs of the 
Strict Observance were defeated, and the Duke of Brunswick 
suspended the Order for three years, from which blow it 
never recovered. The Swedes professed to possess all the 
secrets ; the Duke of Brunswick hastened to Upsala to learn 
them, but found that the Swedes knew no more than the 
Germans ; whence new dissensions arose between the Masons 
of the two nations. 

442. Result of Convention. The result of the convention 



of Wilhelmsbad was the retention of the three symbolical 
degrees, with the addition of a new degree, that of the 
" Knights of Beneficence," which was based on the principles 
enunciated in St. Martin's book, DCS Erreurs et de la Verite, 
and the Tableau Naturd. The foundation of the new Order 
was attributed to the influence of the Jesuits, because the 
three initial letters of Chevaliers Bienfaisants, C.H.B., are 
equal to 3, 8, 2 = 13, signifying the letter N, meaning Nostri. 
Another result was a league between Masonry and the 
Illuminati and it is still a matter of speculation whether 
these latter were not behind the Jesuits brought about by 
the exertions of Spartacus or Weishaupt, who had long ago 
discerned the influence he could obtain by the co-operation 
of the Masons, whom he, of course, employed as his un- 
conscious tools. But Jesuitical influence, at that time, was 
too powerful to be overcome; they sided with, and thus 
strengthened the influence of, the duke ; hence the opposi- 
tion of Germany to the principles of the French Revolution, 
which broke out soon after an opposition which was like 
discharging a rocket against a thunderbolt, but which was 
carried to its height by the manifesto of the Duke of Bruns- 
wick, so loudly praised by courtly historians, and of which 
the German princes made such good use as to induce the 
German confederacy to surround France with a fiery line of 
deluded patriotism. Freemasonry had been made the tool 
of prince- and priest -craft, though occasionally it turned 
the tables on the jprince, an instance of which is recorded 
in the next paragraph. 

443. Frederick William III. and the Masons. The sudden 
retreat of the King of Prussia of this name, after having 
invaded France in 1792, has never been satisfactorily ex- 
plained. Dr. E. E. Eckert, in his "Magazine of Evidence 
for the Condemnation of the Masonic Order," writes as 

follows, quoting from a private letter from M. V z, of 

Paris, to Baron von S z, at Vienna, which he qualifies as 

"thoroughly reliable": "The King of Prussia had crossed 
our frontiers; he was, I believe, at Verdun or Thionville. 
One evening a confidential attendant gave him the masonic 
sign, and took him into a subterranean vault, where he left 
him alone. By the light of the lamps illuminating the 
room, the king saw his ancestor, Frederick the Great, 
approaching him. There could be no mistake as to his 
voice, dress, gait, features. The spirit reproached the king 
with his alliance with Austria against France, and com- 
manded him immediately to withdraw therefrom. You 


know that the king acted accordingly, to the great disgust 
of his allies, to whom he did not communicate the reasons 
of his withdrawal. Some years afterwards our celebrated 
actor Fleury, who acquired such reputation by his per- 
formance at the Theatre Frangais in "The Two Pages," 
in which piece he represented Frederick the Great to per- 
fection, confessed that he acted the ghost when Frederick 
William III. was mystified by an appearance, which had 
been planned by General Dumouriez." Dumouriez was a 


Masonry protected by Napoleon. With renewed court 
frivolities and military pomp, the theatrical spirit of Masonry 
revived. The institution, so active before and during the 
Revolution, because it was governed by men who rightly 
understood and worthily represented its principles, during 
the Empire fell into academic puerilities, servile compliance, 
and endless squabbles. That period, which masonic writers, 
attached to the latter and pleased with its apparent splen- 
dour, call the most flourishing of French Masonry, in the 
eyes of independent judges appears as the least important 
and the least honourable for the masonic order. Napoleon 
at first intended to suppress Freemasonry, in which the 
dreaded ideologists might easily find a refuge. The re- 
presentative system of the Grand Orient clashed with his 
monarchical principles, and the oligarchy of the Scotch rite 
aroused his suspicions. The Parisian lodges, however, prac- 
tised in the art of flattery, prostrated themselves before the 
First Consul, prostrated themselves before the Emperor, and 
sued for grace. The suspicions of Napoleon were not dis- 
sipated; but he perceived the policy of avoiding violent 
measures, and of disciplining a body that might turn against 
him. The lodges were inundated with the lowest police 
agents, who rapidly attained the highest degrees, and seized 
at the very outset the clue of any political intrigue which 
might be concocted there. Napoleon, after considerable 
hesitation, declared in favour of the Grand Orient, and the 
Scotch rite had to assume the second place. A single word 
of Napoleon had done more to establish peace between them 
than all former machinations. The Grand Orient became a 
court office, and Masonry an army of employes. The Grand 
Mastership was offered to Joseph Napoleon, who accepted it, 
though never initiated into Freemasonry, with the consent 
of his brother, who, however, for greater security, insisted 
on having his trusty arch-chancellor Cambace*res appointed 



Grand Master Adjunct, to be in reality the only head of the 
Order. Gradually all the rites existing in France gave in 
their adhesion to the imperial policy, electing Cambace*res as 
their chief dignitary, so that he eventually possessed more 
masonic titles than any other man before or after him. In 
1805 he was made Grand Master Adjunct of the Grand 
Orient; in 1806, Sovereign Grand Master of the Supreme 
Grand Council ; in the same year, Grand Master of the rite 
of Heroden of Kil winning ; in 1 807, Supreme Head of the 
French rite ; in the same year, Grand Master of the Philo- 
sophic Scotch rite; in 1808, Grand Master of the Order of 
Christ ; in 1 809, National Grand Master of the Knights 
of the Holy City ; in the same year, Protector of the High 
Philosophic Degrees. As every new lodge established in 
France had to pay the grand master a heavy fee, Masonry 
yielded to him an annual revenue of two millions of francs. 

445. Spread of Freemasonry. But masonic disputes soon 
again ran high. The arch-chancellor, accustomed and at- 
tached to the usages and pomps of courts, secretly gave the 
preference to the Scotch rite, with its high-sounding titles 
and gorgeous ceremonies. The Grand Orient carried its 
complaints even to Napoleon, who grew weary of these 
paltry farces he who planned grand dramas ; and at one 
time he had determined on abolishing the Order altogether, 
but Cambace'res succeeded in arresting his purpose, showing 
him the dangers that might ensue from its suppression 
dangers which must have appeared great, since Napoleon, 
who never hesitated, hesitated then, and allowed another 
to alter his views. Perhaps he recognised the necessity in 
French society of a body of men who were free at least in 
appearance, of a kind of political safety-valve. The French 
had taken a liking to their lodges, where they found a 
phantom of independence, and might consider themselves 
on neutral ground, so that a masonic writer could say : " In 
the bosom of Masonry there circulates a little of that vital 
air so necessary to generous minds." The Scotch rite, 
secretly protected, spread throughout .the French depart- 
ments and foreign countries, and whilst the Grand Orient 
tried to suppress it, and to prevent innovations, elected a 
" Director of Rites," the Supreme Grand Council established 
itself at Milan, and elected Prince Eugene Grand Master of 
the Grand Orient of Italy. The two highest masonic autho- 
rities, which yet had the same master in Cambace'res, and 
the same patron in Napoleon, continued to combat each 
other with as much fury as was shown in the struggle be- 


tween France and England. But having no public life, no 
parliamentary debates, no opposition journals, the greater 
part of the population took refuge in the lodges, and every 
small town had its own. In 1812, there existed one thousand 
and eighty-nine lodges, all depending on the Grand Orient ; 
the army had sixty-nine, and the lodge was opened and 
closed with the cry, Vive VEmpereur! 

446. The Clover Leaves. This was an Order founded in 
Germany about 1 808 by John de Witt, called Von Dorring 
(555)' a member of almost every secret society then exist- 
ing, embracing some of the greatest German statesmen, to 
further the plans of Napoleon, in the hope that his successes 
might lead to the mediatisation of all German states, which, 
with France, were to form but one empire. The name was 
derived from the fact that three members only were known 
to one another. 

447. Obsequiousness of Freemasonry. Napoleon, unable and 
unwilling to suppress Freemasonry, employed it in the army, 
in the newly-occupied territories, and in such as he intended 
to occupy. Imperial proselytism turned the lodges into 
schools of Napoleonism. But one section of Masonry, under 
the shadow of that protection, became the very contrary, 
anti-Napoleonic ; and not all the lodges closed their accus- 
tomed labours with the cry of Vive VEmpereur I It is, 
however, quite certain that Napoleon by means of the masonic 
society facilitated or secured his conquests. Spain, Germany, 
and Italy were covered with lodges antechambers, more 
than any others, of prefectures and military command pre- 
sided over and governed by soldiers. The highest dignitaries 
of Masonry at that period were marshals, knights of the 
Legion of Honour, nobles of ancient descent, senators, coun- 
cillors, all safe and trusty persons ; a state that obeyed the 
orders of Cambaceres, as he obeyed the orders of Napoleon. 
Obsequiousness came near to the ridiculous. The half-yearly 
words of command of the Grand Orient retrace the history 
of Napoleonic progress. In 1800, "Science and Peace"; in 
1802, after Marengo, "Unity and Success"; in 1804, after 
the coronation, " Contentment and Greatness " ; after the 
battle of Friedland, "Emperor and Confidence"; after the 
suppression of the tribune, " Fidelity " ; at the birth of the 
King of Rome, " Posterity and Joy " ; at the departure of 
the army for Russia, "Victory and Return" terrible victory, 
and unfortunate return ! 

448. Anti- Napoleonic Freemasonry. Napoleon, we have 
seen, made a league with Freemasonry to obtain its support. 


He is also said to have made certain promises to it ; but as 
he failed to keep them, the Masons turned against him, and 
had a large share in his fall. This, however, is not very 
probable, and is attributing too much influence to an 
Order which had only recently recovered itself. Still, the 
anti-Napoleonic leaven fermented in the Masonic society. 
Savary, the minister of police, was aware of it in 1810, and 
wanted to apply to the secret meetings of Freemasons the 
article of the penal code, forbidding them ; but Cambace"res 
once more saved the institution, which saved neither him nor 
his patron. Freemasonry, if not by overt acts, at least by 
its indifference, helped on the downfall of Napoleon. But it 
was not altogether inactive, for even whilst the Napoleonic 
star illumined almost alone the political heavens of Europe, 
a Masonic lodge was formed whose object was the restora- 
tion of the Bourbons, whose action may be proved by official 
documents to have extended through the French army, and 
led to the seditious movements of 1813. 



449. The Society of " France Regenerated" The Restora- 
tion, whose blindness was only equalled by its mediocrity 
which, unable to create, proposed to itself to destroy what 
even time respects, the memories and glories of a people 
could not please Freemasonry much. Hostile to Napoleon 
in his last years, it could not approve of the conduct of the 
new government. At all events, the Freemasons held aloof, 
though cynics might suggest that this was done with a view 
of exacting better terms. In the meanwhile, a society was 
formed in Paris, which, assuming masonic forms and the 
title of " France Regenerated," became an instrument of 
espionage and revenge in the hands of the new despot. But 
the very government in whose favour it acted, found it neces- 
sary within a year from its foundation silently to suppress 
it ; for it found the rabid zeal of these adherents to be more 
injurious to its interests than the open opposition of its 
avowed enemies. 

450. Priestly Opposition to Masonry. The Masonic propa- 
ganda, however, was actively carried on. The priests, on 
their part, considered the moment come for inaugurating an 
anti-masonic crusade. Under Napoleon the priesthood could 
not breathe; the court was closed against it, except on 
grand occasions, when its presence was needed to add out- 
ward pomp to imperial successes. As the masters of cere- 
monies, the priests had ceased in France to be the councillors 
and confessors of its rulers ; but now they reassumed those 
functions, and the Masons were at once recommended to the 
hatred of the king and the mistrust of the public. They 
were represented as abettors of rationalism and regicide ; 
the consequence was, that a great many lodges were closed, 
though, on the other hand, the rite of Misraim was estab- 
lished in Paris in 1816, whose mother lodge was called the 
" Rainbow," a presage of serenity and calm, which, however, 



did not save the society from police persecution. In 1821, 
this lodge was closed, and not reopened till 1830. Towards 
the same time was founded the lodge of " Trinosophists." 
In 1821, the Supreme Grand Council rose to the surface 
again, and with it the disputes between it and the Grand 
Orient. To enter into their squabbles would be a sad waste 
of time, and I therefore pass them over. 

451. Political Insignificance of Masonry. The Freemasons 
are said to have brought about the July revolution of 1830, 
but proofs are wanting, and I think they may be absolved 
from that charge. Louis-Philippe, who was placed on the 
throne by that revolution, took the Order under his protec- 
tion, and appointed his son, the Duke of Orleans, Grand 
Master. On the Duke's death, in 1842, his brother, the 
Duke de Nemours, succeeded him in the dignity. In this 
latter year, the disputes between the Grand Orient and the 
Supreme Grand Council were amicably settled. Again we 
are told that at a masonic congress held at Strasburg the 
foundations of the revolution of 1848 were laid. It is 
certain that Cavaignac, Lamartine, Ledru-Rollin, Prudhon, 
Louis Blanc, Marrast, Vilain, Pyat, and a great number 
of German republicans, attended that congress, but for 
this reason it cannot strictly be called a masonic, it was 
rather a republican, meeting. On the establishment of the 
Provisional Government after the revolution of 1848, the 
Freemasons gave in their adhesion to that government; 
on which occasion some high-flown speeches about liberty, 
equality, and fraternity were made, and everybody congratu- 
lated his neighbour that now the reign of universal brother- 
hood had begun. But the restoration of the Empire, which 
followed soon after, showed how idle all this oratory had 
been, and how the influence of Masonry in the great affairs 
of the world really is nil. 

452. Freemasonry and Napoleon III. Again the Napo- 
leonic air waves around the Grand Orient. The nephew 
showed himself from the first as hostile to Freemasonry as 
his uncle had been ; but the decree prohibiting the French 
lodges from occupying themselves with political questions, 
under pain of the dissolution of the Order, did not appear 
until the 7th September 1850. In January 1852, some 
superior members of the Order proposed to offer the dignity 
of Grand Master to Lucien Murat, the President's cousin. 
The proposal was unanimously agreed to; and on the iQth 
of the same month the new Grand Master was acknowledged 
by all the lodges. He held the office till 1861, when he was 


obliged to resign in consequence of the masonic body having 
passed a vote of censure upon him for his expressions in 
favour of the temporal power of the Pope, uttered in the 
stormy discussion of the French Senate in the month of 
June of that year. The Grand Orient was again all in con- 
fusion. Napoleon III. now interfered, especially as Prince 
Napoleon was proposed for the office of Grand Master ; 
which excited the jealousy of the Muratists, who published 
pamphlets of the most vituperative character against their 
adversaries, who on their side replied with corresponding 
bitterness. Napoleon imposed silence on the litigants, pro- 
hibited attendance at lodges, promised that he himself 
would appoint a Grand Master, and advised his cousin to 
undertake a long voyage to the United States. Deprived 
of the right of electing its own chief, the autonomy of 
Freemasonry became an illusion, its programme useless, 
and its mystery a farce. In the meanwhile, the quarrels 
of the partisans of the different candidates calmed down; 
Prince Napoleon returned from America; Murat resigned 
himself to this defeat, as to others, and the Emperor forgot 
all about Freemasonry. At last, in January 1862, there 
appeared a decree appointing Marshal Magnan to be 
Grand Master. A Marshal ! The nephew, in this instance, 
as in many others, had taken a leaf out of his uncle's 

453. Jesuitical Manoeuvres. Napoleonic Freemasonry, not 
entirely to lose its peculiar physiognomy, ventured to change 
its institutions. Jesuitism cast loving eyes on it, and drew 
it towards itself, as in the days of the Strict Observance. 
Murat threw out his net, but was removed just when it 
was most important for the interests of the Jesuits that 
he should have remained. He proposed to transform the 
French lodges of which, in 1852, there were 325, whilst 
in 1 86 1 only 269 could be found into societies of mutual 
succour, and to abandon or submit the higher masonic 
sphere of morality and humanity to the society, which in 
these last sixty years has already overcome and incorporated 
the whole Roman clergy, once its rivals, and by oblique 
paths also many of the conservative sects of other creeds. 
Murat did not succeed, but others may; and though the 
Masons say that Jesuitism shall not succeed, yet, how is 
Freemasonry, that professes to meddle neither with politics 
nor religion, to counteract the political and religious machi- 
nations of the Jesuits ? And even if Freemasonry had the 
same weapons, are there men among the Order able to wield 


them with the ability and fearlessness that distinguish the 
followers of Loyola ? I fear not. 

Besides, the Masons, though they talk loudly of fraternisa- 
tion and equality, when driven at bay become the stanchest 
conservatives, wherefore the International at Lyons, in the 
year 1870, solemnly excommunicated Freemasonry, and in 
1880 exacted from every candidate for admission to the 
society a declaration that he was not a Mason. 


454. Whimsical Masonic Societies. We have but few 
notices of the early state of Freemasonry in Italy. We 
are told that in 1512 there was founded at Florence a society 
under the name of " The Trowel," composed of learned and 
literary men, who indulged in all kinds of whimsical freaks, 
and who may have served as prototypes to the Order of " The 
Monks of the Screw," established towards the end of the last 
century in Ireland. Thus at one time they would meet in 
the lodge, dressed as masons and labourers, and begin to 
erect an edifice with trays full of macaroni and cheese, using 
spices and bonbons for mortar, and rolls and cakes for 
stones, and building up the whole with all kinds of comes- 
tibles. And thus they went on until a pretended rain put 
an end to their labours. At another time it was Ceres, who, 
in search of Proserpine, invited the Brethren of the Trowel 
to accompany her to the infernal regions. They followed 
her through the mouth of a serpent into a dark room, and 
on Pluto inviting them to the feast, lights appeared, and the 
table was seen to be covered with black, whilst the dishes 
on it were foul and obscene animals, and bones of dead 
men, served by devils carrying shovels. Finally all this 
vanished, and a choice banquet followed. This Society of 
the Trowel was in existence in 1737. The clergy endea- 
voured to suppress it, and would no doubt have succeeded, 
but for the accession of Francis, Duke of Tuscany, who had 
been initiated in Holland, and who set free all the Freemasons 
that had been incarcerated, and protected the Order. But 
the remembrance of that persecution is preserved in the 
rituals, and in the degree of "Magus," the costume is that 
of the Holy Office, as other degrees commemorate the inquisi- 
tors of Portugal and Spain. 

455. Jlluminati in Italy. The sect of the Illuminati, of 
whom Count Filippo Strozzi was a warm partisan, soon after 
spread through Italy, as well as another Order, affiliated with 


the Illuminati, mystical and alchymistical, and in opposition 
to the Rosicrucians, called the " Initiated Brethren of Asia," 
which had been founded at Vienna. It only accepted can- 
didates who had passed through the first three degrees of 
the York rite. Like Egyptian Masonry, it worshipped the 
Tetragrammaton, and combined the deepest and most philo- 
sophical ideas with the most curious superstitions. 

456. Freemasonry at Naples. In the kingdom of Naples 
the Masons amounted to many thousands. An edict of 
Charles III. (1751), and another of Ferdinand IV. (1759), 
closed the lodges, but in a short time the edicts became 
a dead letter, and in vain did the minister, Tanucci, hostile 
to the institution, seek to revive them. The incident of a 
neophyte dying a few days after his initiation gave a pretext 
for fresh persecution. The Masons, assembled at a banquet, 
were arrested ; and in vain did LeVy, a lawyer, undertake their 
defence. He was expelled the kingdom ; his book in favour 
of the Order was publicly burnt by the executioner. But 
Queen Caroline, having dismissed Tanucci, again sanctioned 
masonic meetings, for which she received the thanks of the 
Grand Orient of France. It would seem, however, that in a 
very few years Freemasonry again had to hide its head, for 
in 1767 we hear of it as a "secret" society, whose existence 
has just been discovered. The document which records this 
discovery puts the number of Freemasons at 64,000, which 
probably is an exaggeration ; still, among so excitable a popu- 
lation as that of Southern Italy, secret societies at all times 
found plenty of proselytes. 

457. Details of Document. The document referred to says : 
At last the great mine of the Freemasons of Naples is dis- 
covered, of whom the name, but not the secret, was known. 
Two circumstances are alleged by which the discovery was 
brought about: a dying man revealed all to his confessor, 
that he should inform the king thereof ; a knight, who had 
been kept in great state by the society, having had his pen- 
sion withheld, betrayed the Grand Master of the Order to the 
king. This Grand Master was the Duke of San Severe. 
The king secretly sent a confidential officer with three dra- 
goons to the duke's mansion, with orders to seize him before 
he had time to speak to any one, and bring him to the palace. 
The order was carried out ; but a few minutes after a fire 
broke out in the duke's mansion, destroying his library, the 
real object being, as is supposed, to burn all writings having 
reference to Freemasonry. The fire was extinguished, and 
the house guarded by troops. The duke having been brought 


before the king, openly declared the objects, systems, seals,, 
government, and possessions of the Order. He was sent back 
to his palace, and there guarded by troops, lest he should be 
killed by his former colleagues. Freemasons have also been 
discovered at Florence, and the Pope and the Emperor have 
sent thither twenty-four theologians to put a stop to the dis- 
order. The king acts with the greatest mercy towards all 
implicated, to avoid the great dangers that might ensue from 
a contrary course. He has also appointed four persons of 
great standing to use the best means to destroy so abominable 
a sect ; and has given notice to all the other sovereigns of 
Europe of his discovery, and the abominable maxims of the 
sect, calling upon them to assist in its suppression, which it 
will be folly in them to refuse to do. For the Order does not 
count its members by thousands, but by millions, especially 
among Jews and Protestants. Their frightful maxims are 
only known to the members of the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
lodges, while those of the first three know nothing, and 
those of the fourth act without knowing, what they do. 
They derive their origin from England, and the founder of 
the sect was that infamous Cromwell, first bishop, and then 
lover of Anne Boleyn, and then beheaded for his crimes, 
called in his day "the scourge of rulers." He left the Order 
an annual income of ;io,OOO sterling. It is divided into 
seven lodges : the members of the seventh are called Assessors ; 
of the sixth, Grand Masters ; of the fifth, Architects ; of the 
fourth, Executors (here the secret ends) ; of the third r 
Ruricori (!) ; of the second and first, Novices and Proselytes. 
Their infamous idea is based on the allegory of the temple of 
Solomon, considered in its first splendour, and then overthrown 
by the tyranny of the Assyrians, and finally restored there- 
by to signify the liberty of man after the creation of the world, 
the tyranny of the priesthood, kings, and laws, and the re- 
establishment of that liberty. Then follow twelve maxims 
in which these opinions and aims are more fully expounded, 
from which it appears that they were not very different from 
those of all other republican and advanced politicians. 

458. Freemasonry at Venice. The Freemasons were at 
first tolerated at Venice, but in 1686 the government sud- 
denly took the alarm, and ordered the closing of all lodges, and 
banished the members ; but the decree was very leniently 
executed, and a lodge of nobles having refused to obey, 
the magistrates entered it at a time when they knew no 
one to be there. The furniture, ornaments, and jewels were 
carried out and publicly burnt or dispersed, but none of the 


brethren were in any way molested. A lodge was re-estab- 
lished afterwards, which was discovered in 1785, when all its 
contents were again burnt or otherwise destroyed. From the 
ritual, which was found among the other effects, it appears 
that the candidate for initiation was led, his eyes being 
bandaged, from street to street, or canal to canal, so as to 
prevent his tracing the locality, to the Rio Marino, where 
he was first conducted into a room hung with black, and 
illumined by a single light ; there he was clothed in a long 
garment like a winding sheet, but black ; he put on a cap 
something like a turban, and his hair was drawn over his 
face, and in this elegant figure he was placed before a 
looking-glass, covered with a black curtain, under which 
were written the words, " If thou hast true courage, and 
an honest desire to enter into the Order, draw aside the 
curtain, and learn to know thyself." He might then remove 
the bandage and look at himself. He was then again blind- 
folded, and placed in the middle of the room, while thirty 
or forty members entered and began to fight with swords. 
This was to try the candidate's courage, who was himself 
slightly wounded. The bandage was once more removed, 
and the wound dressed. Then it was replaced, and the 
candidate taken to a second apartment, hung with black and 
white, and having in the middle a bed covered with a black 
cloth, on the centre of which was a white cross, whilst 
on either side was represented a white skeleton. The can- 
didate was laid on the bed, the bandage being removed, 
and he was there left with two tapers, the one white, the 
other yellow. After having been left there for some time, 
the brethren entered in a boisterous manner, beating dis- 
cordant drums. The candidate was to show no sign of 
trepidation amidst all these elaborate ceremonies ; and then 
the members embraced him as a brother, and gave him 
the name by which he was henceforth to be known in the 

459. Abatement tinder Napoleon. During the reign of 
Napoleon I., numerous lodges were founded throughout 
Italy ; and it cannot be denied by the greatest friends of the 
Order, that during that period Freemasonry cut a most pitiful 
figure. For a society that always boasted of its independence 
of, and superiority to, all other earthly governments, to forward 
addresses such as the following to Napoleon, seems something 
like self-abasement and self-stultification : " Napoleon t 
thy philosophy guarantees the toleration of our natural and 
divine religion. We render thee honour worthy of thee for it, 


and thou shalt find in us nothing but faithful subjects, ever 
devoted to thy august person ! " 

460. The Freemasonry of the Present in Italy. Very little 
need, or can, be said as regards the active proceedings of 
Italian masonic lodges of the present day, though they have 
been reconstituted and united under one or two heads. But 
their programme deserves attention, as pointing out those 
reforms, needed not only in Italy, but everywhere where 
Freemasonry exists. The declared object, then, of Italian 
Freemasonry is, the highest development of universal philan- 
thropy ; the independence and unity of single nations, and 
fraternity among each other ; the toleration of every religion, 
and absolute equality of worship ; the moral and material 
progress of the masses. It moreover declares itself indepen- 
dent of every government, affirming that Italian Freemasonry 
will not recognise any other sovereign power on earth but 
right reason and universal conscience. It further declares 
and this deserves particular attention that Freemasonry 
is not to consist in a mysterious symbolism, vain ceremonies, 
or indefinite aspirations, which cover the Order with ridicule. 
Again, Masonry being universal, essentially human, it does 
not occupy itself with forms of government, nor with transi- 
tory questions, but with such as are permanent and general. 
In social reforms abstract theories, founded on mystical 
aspirations, are to be avoided. The duty of labour being 
the most essential in civil society, Freemasonry is opposed 
to idleness. Religious questions are beyond the pale of Free- 
masonry. Human conscience is in itself inviolable ; it has no 
concern with any positive religion, but represents religion 
itself in its essence. Devoted to the principle of fraternity, 
it preaches universal toleration ; comprehends in its ritual 
many of the symbols of various religions, as in its syncretism 
it chooses the purest truths. Its creed consists in the worship 
of the Divine, whose highest conception, withdrawn from 
every priestly speculation, is that of the Great Architect of 
the Universe ; and in faith in humanity, the sole interpreter 
of the Divine in the world. As to extrinsic modes of wor- 
ship, Freemasonry neither imposes nor recommends any, 
leaving to every one his free choice, until the day, perhaps 
not far distant, when all men will be capable of worshipping 
the Infinite in spirit and in truth, without intermediaries 
and outward forms. And whilst man in his secret relations 
to the Infinite fecundates the religious thought, he in his 
relations to the Universe fecundates the scientific thought. 
Science is truth, and the most ancient cultus of Freemasonry. 


In determining the relations of the individual to his 
equals, Freemasonry does not restrict itself to recommending 
to do unto others what we wish others would do unto us ; 
but inculcates to do good, oppose evil, and not to submit to 
injustice in whatsoever form it presents itself. Freemasonry 
looks forward to the day when the iron plates of the Monitor 
and the Merrimac will be beaten into steam-ploughs ; when 
man, redeemed by liberty and science, shall enjoy the pure 
pleasures of intelligence ; when peace, fertilised by the 
wealth and strength now devoted to war, shall bring forth 
the most beautiful fruit of the tree of life. 

461. Reform needed. Greatly, therefore, is the academic 
puerility of rites to be regretted, which drags back into 
the past an institution that ought to launch forward into 
the future. It is self-evident that Freemasonry in this state 
cannot last, that a reform is necessary ; and as De Castro, 
from whom the above is taken, thinks that it would be an 
honour to Italy to be the leader in such a reform, it would 
be an honour to any country that initiated it. Masonry 
ought not to be an ambulance, but a vanguard. It is em- 
barrassed by its excessive baggage, its superfluous symbols. 
Guarding secrets universally known, it cannot entertain 
secrets of greater account. Believing itself to be the sole 
depositary of widely-spread truths, it deprives itself and the 
world of other truths. In this perplexity and alternative of 
committing suicide or being born anew, what will Masonry 
decide on ? 


462. Life of Cagliostro. Joseph Balsamo, the disciple 
and successor of St. Germain, who pretended at the Court 
of Louis XV. to have been the contemporary of Charles V., 
Francis I., and Christ, and to possess the elixir of life and 
many other secrets, had vaster designs and a loftier ambition 
than his teacher, and was one of the most active agents of 
Freemasonry in France and the rest of Europe. He was born 
at Palermo in 1743, and educated at two convents in that city, 
where he acquired some chemical knowledge. As a young 
man, he fell in with an Armenian, or Greek, or Spaniard, 
called Althotas, a kind of adventurer, who professed to 
possess the philosopher's stone, with whom he led a roving 
life for a number of years. What became of Althotas 
at last is not positively known. Balsamo at last found 
his way to Home, where he married the beautiful Lorenza 
Feliciani, whom he treated so badly, that she escaped from 
him ; but he recovered her, and acquired great influence 
over her by magnetically operating upon her. There is no 
doubt that he was a powerful magnetiser. Visiting Germany, 
he was initiated into Freemasonry, in which he soon began 
to take a prominent part. He also assumed different titles, 
such as that of Marquis of Pellegrini, but the one he is best 
known by is that of Count Cagliostro ; and by his astuteness, 
impudence, and some. lucky hits at prophesying, he acquired 
a European notoriety and made many dupes, including 
persons of the highest rank, especially in France, where he 
founded many new masonic lodges. He was the author of 
a book called " The Rite of Egyptian Masonry," which rite 
he established first in Courland, and afterwards in Germany, 
France, and England. After having been banished from 
France, in consequence of -his implication in the affair of the 
queen's necklace, and driven from England by his creditors, 
he was induced by his wife, who was weary of her wander- 
ing life, and anxious once more to see her relations, to visit 



Rome, where he was arrested on the charge of attempting 
to found a masonic lodge, against which a papal bull had 
recently been promulgated, and thrown into the Castle of St. 
Angelo, in 1789. He was condemned to death, but the 
punishment was commuted to perpetual imprisonment. His 
wife was shut up in a convent, and died soon after. Having 
been transferred to the Castle of San Leo, he attempted to 
strangle the monk sent to confess him, in the hope of escap- 
ing in his gown ; but the attempt failed, and it is supposed 
that he died, a prisoner, in 1795. 

463. The Egyptian Rite. The Egyptian rite invented by 
Cagliostro is a mixture of the sacred and profane, of the 
serious and laughable. Having discovered a MS. of George 
Cofton, in which was propounded a singular scheme for 
the reform of Freemasonry in an alchymistic and fantastic 
sense, Cagliostro founded thereon the bases of his masonic 
system, taking advantage of human credulity, enriching 
himself, and at the same time seconding the action of other 
secret societies. He gave his dupes to understand that the 
scope of Egyptian Masonry was to conduct men to perfection 
by means of physical and moral regeneration ; asserting that 
the former was infallible through the prima materia and 
the philosopher's stone, which assured to man the strength 
of youth and immortality, and that the second was to be 
achieved by the discovery of a pentagon that would restore 
man to his primitive innocence. This rite indeed is a tissue 
of fatuities it would not be worth while to allude to, did it 
not offer matter for study to the philosopher and moralist. 
Cagliostro pretended that the rite had been first founded 
by Enoch, remodelled by Elias, and finally restored by the 
Grand Copt. Both men and women were admitted into 
the lodges, though the ceremonies for each were slightly 
different, and the lodges for their reception entirely distinct. 
In the reception of women, among other formalities there 
was that of breathing into the face of the neophyte, saying, 
" I breathe upon you this breath to cause to germinate in 
you and grow in your heart the truth we possess ; I breathe 
it into you to strengthen in you good intentions, and to 
confirm you in the faith of your brothers and sisters. We 
constitute you a legitimate daughter of true Egyptian adop- 
tion and of this worshipful lodge." One of the lodges was 
called " Sinai," where the most secret rites were performed ; 
another " Ararat," to symbolise the rest reserved for Masons 
only. Concerning the pentagon, Cagliostro taught that it 
would be given to the masters after forty days of inter- 


course with the seven primitive angels, and that its pos- 
sessors would enjoy a physical regeneration for 5557 years, 
after which they would through gentle sleep pass into 
heaven. The pentagon had as much success with the upper 
ten thousand of London, Paris, and St. Petersburg, as the 
philosopher's stone ever enjoyed ; and large sums were given 
for a few grains of the rejuvenating pi*ima materia. 

464. Cagliostro's Hydromancy. But beside masonic de- 
lusions, Cagliostro made use of the then little understood 
wonders of magnetism to attract adherents ; and as many 
persons are seduced by the wine-cup, so he made dupes of 
many by means of the water-bottle, which device, as might 
be shown, was very ancient, and consisted in divination by 
hydromancy. A child, generally a little girl, and called 
the Dove, was made to look into a bottle of water, and see 
therein events, past, present, and to come ; and as Cagliostro 
was really a man of observation, he made many shrewd 
guesses as to the future, and sometimes fortune favoured 
him as in the case of Schropfer (280, 437), one of the leaders 
of the Illuminati, who refused to join the Egyptian rite ; the 
little girl declared that in less than a month Schropfer would 
be punished. Now it so happened that within that period 
Schropfer committed suicide, which of course gave an im- 
mense lift to Cagliostro and his bottle. In this respect 
indeed Cagliostro was a forerunner of our modern spiri- 
tualists ; and as he did not keep his occult power a secret 
from all, but freely communicated it, magical practices were 
thus introduced into the lodges, which brought discredit 
on the institution. And all this occurred at the period of 
the Encyclopedists, and on the eve of mighty events ! 

465. Lodges founded by Cagliostro. He founded the first 
lodge, gorgeously fitted up, at Paris in a private house, and 
another one in his own house. A third was founded at 
Lyons, for which a special grand building was erected. It 
was declared the Mother Lodge, and called "Triumphant 
Wisdom." Its patent ran thus : 

" Honour, Wisdom, 

Beneficence, Comfort. 

"We Grand Copt, in all eastern and western parts of 
Europe, Founder and Grand Master of Egyptian Masonry, 
make known to All, who may read this, that during our stay 
at Lyons many members of the Lodge of the Orient and 
Ordinary Rite, which has adopted the distinguishing title of 


' Wisdom,' have expressed their ardent wish to place them- 
selves under our rule, to be enlightened in true Masonry. 
We are pleased to accede to their wish," &c. 

Lodges also were founded at Strasburg, a ladies' lodge 
at The Hague, another at Roveredo, another at Mitau, and 
a very grand one near Basle, in a sumptuous temple, erected 
for the purpose. The good citizens of Basle always ap- 
proached it with feelings of awe, because they imagined 
Cajjliostro destined it to be his tomb. 



466. Historical Not-ice. According to one of the funda- 
mental laws of Masonry and a rule prevailing in the greater 
mysteries of antiquity women cannot be received into the 
Order. Women cannot keep secrets, at least so Milton says, 
through the mouth of Dalila 

" Granting, as I do, it was a weakness 
In me, but incident to all our sex, 
Curiosity, inquisitive, importune 
Of secrets ; then with like infirmity 
To publish them ; both common female faults." 

But we have already seen that Cagliostro admitted women 
to the Egyptian rite ; and when at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century several associations sprang up in France, 
which in their external aspect resembled Freemasonry, but 
did not exclude women, the ladies naturally were loud in 
their praise of such institutions, so that the masonic brother- 
hood, seeing it was becoming unpopular, had recourse to the 
stratagem of establishing " adoptive " lodges of women, so 
called because every such lodge had finally to be adopted by 
some regular masonic lodge. The Grand Orient of France 
framed laws for their government, and the first lodge of 
adoption was opened in Paris in 1775, in which the Duchess 
of Bourbon presided, and was initiated as Grand Mistress of 
the rite. The Revolution checked the progress of this rite, 
but it was revived in 1805, when the Empress Josephine 
presided over the " Loge Impe'riale d'Adoption des Francs- 
Chevaliers " at Strasburg. Similar lodges spread over Europe, 
Great Britain excepted ; but they soon declined, and are at 
present confined to the place of their origin. 

467. Organisation. The rite consists of the same degrees 
as those of genuine Masonry. Every sister, being a digni- 
tary, has beside her a masonic brother holding the corre- 
sponding rank. Hence the officers are a Grand Master and 


a Grand Mistress, an Inspector and an Inspect ress, a Depositor 
and a Depositrix, a Conductor and a Conductress. The 
business of the lodge is conducted by the sisterhood, the 
brethren only acting as their assistants; but the Grand 
Mistress has very little to say or to do, she being only an 
honorary companion to the Grand Master. The first, or 
apprentice's, degree is only introductory ; in the second, or 
companion, the scene of the temptation in Eden is emblemati- 
cally represented ; the building of the tower of Babel is the 
subject of the mistress's degree ; and in the fourth, or that 
of perfect mistress, the officers represent Moses, Aaron, and 
their wives, and the ceremonies refer to the passage of the 
Israelites through the wilderness, as a symbol of the passage 
of men and women through this to another and better life. 
The lodge-room is tastefully decorated, and divided by cur- 
tains into four compartments, each representing one of the 
four quarters of the globe, the eastern, or farthermost, repre- 
senting Asia, where there are two splendid thrones, decorated 
with gold fringe, for the Grand Master and the Grand Mis- 
tress. The members sit on each side in straight lines, the 
sisters in front and the brothers behind them, the latter 
having swords in their hands. All this pretty playing at 
Masonry is naturally followed by a banquet, and on many 
occasions by a ball. At the banquets the members use a 
symbolical language ; thus the lodge-room is called " Eden,". 
the doors "barriers," a glass is called a "lamp," water 
"white oil," wine "red oil"; to fill your glass is "to trim 
your lamp," &c. 

468. Jesuit Degrees. The Jesuits, qui vont fourrer leur 
nez partout, soon poked it into Adoptive Masonry for to 
get hold of the women is to get hold of the better half of 
mankind and founded new lodges, or modified existing 
ones of that rite to further their own purposes. Thus it is 
that a truly monkish asceticism was introduced into some of 
them, by the Jesuits divided into ten degrees ; and we find 
such passages in the catechism as these : " Are you prepared, 
sister, to sacrifice life for the good of the catholic, apostolic 
Roman Church?" The tenth or last degree was called the 
"Princess of the Crown," and a great portion of the ritual 
treats of the Queen of Sheba. This rite was established in 
Saxony in 

1 For another adoptive order, the " Heroine of Jericho," see Miscellaneous 
Societies, Book XIV., 701. 


469. Origin and Tendency. Gallantry already makes its 
appearance in Adoptive Masonry ; and this gallantry, which 
for so many ages was the study of France, and was there 
reduced to an ingenious art, manufactured on its own account 
rites and degrees that were masonic in name only. Politics 
were dethroned by amorous intrigues ; and the enumerators 
of great effects sprung from trifling causes might in this 
chapter of history find proofs of what a superficial and acci- 
dental thing politics are, when not governed by motives of 
high morality, nor watched by the incorruptible national 
conscience. And Androgynous Masonry did not always 
confine itself to an interchange of compliments and the 
pursuit of pleasure ; still, as a rule, its lodges for the initia- 
tion of males and females defended by some of their advo- 
cates as founded on Exod. xxxviii. 8 are a whimsical form 
of that court life which in France and Italy had its poets 
and romancers ; and which rose to such a degree of impu- 
dence and scandal as to outrage the modesty of citizens and 
popular virtue. It is a page of that history of princely 
corruption, which the French people at first read of with 
laughter, then with astonishment, finally with indignation ; 
and which inspired it with those feelings which at last found 
their vent in the excesses of the great Revolution. Every 
Revolution is a puritanical movement, and the simple and 
neglected virtue of the lowly-born avenges itself upon the 
pompous vices of their superiors. 

470. Earliest Androgynous Societies. Some of these were 
founded in France and elsewhere by an idle, daring, and 
conquering soldiery. As their type we may take the Order 
of the " Knights and Ladies of Joy," founded with extra- 
ordinary success at Paris in 1696, under the protection of 
Bacchus and Venus, and whose printed statutes are still in 
existence ; and that of the " Ladies of St. John of Jeru- 
salem," and the "Ladies of St. James of the Sword and 



Calatrava." They, as it were, served as models to the 
canonesses, who, till the end of the last century, brought 
courtly pomp and mundane pleasures into the very cloisters 
of France, and compelled austere moralists to excuse it by 
saying that it was dans le gout de la nation. 

471. Other Androgynous Societies. In the Order of the 
'' Companions of Penelope, or the Palladium of Ladies," 
whose statutes are said to have been drawn up by Fe'nelon 
(with how much truth is easily imagined), the trials consist 
in showing the candidate that work is the palladium of 
women ; whence we may assume the pursuits of this society 
to have been very different from the equivocal occupations 
of other Orders. The Order of the " Mopses " owed its origin 
to a religious scruple. Pope Clement XII. having issued, in 
1738, a Bull condemning Freemasonry, Clement Augustus, 
Duke of Bavaria and Elector of Cologne, instituted, under 
the above name (derived from the German word Mops, a 
young mastiff, the symbol of fidelity), what was pretended to 
be a new society, but what was, in fact, only Freemasonry 
under another name. Immediately after their establishment 
the Mopses became an androgynous order, admitting females 
to all the offices except that of Grand Master, which was 
for life ; but there was a Grand Mistress, elected every six 
months. Their ceremonies were grotesque. The candidate 
for admission did not knock, but scratch at the door, and, 
being purposely kept waiting, barked like a dog. On being 
admitted into the lodge he had a collar round his neck, to 
which a chain was attached. He was blindfolded, and led 
nine times round the room, while the Mopses present made 
as great a din as possible with sticks, swords, chains, shovels, 
and dismal bowlings. He was then questioned as to his 
intentions, and having replied that he desired to become a 
Mops, was asked by the master whether he was prepared to 
kiss the most ignoble part of that animal. Of course this 
raised the candidate's anger ; but in spite of his resistance, 
the model of a dog, made of wax, wood, or some other 
material, was pushed against his face. Having taken the 
oath, he had his eyes unban daged, and was taught the signs, 
which were all of a ludicrous description. In 1777 there 
was established in Denmark the androgynous order of 
the " Society of the Chain," to which belongs the honour 
of having founded, and of maintaining at its own expense, 
the Asylum for the Blind at Copenhagen, the largest and 
best managed of similar institutions in Europe. The Order 
of " Perseverance," the date of whose foundation is un- 


known, bnt which existed in Paris in 1777, and was sup- 
ported by the most distinguished persons, had a laudable 
custom, which might be imitated by other societies, viz., to 
inscribe in a book, one of which is still extant, the praise- 
worthy actions of the male and female members of the asso- 
ciation. But one of the most deserving masonic androgynous 
institutions was that of the " Sovereign Chapter of the Scotch 
Ladies of France," founded in 1810, and divided into lesser 
and greater mysteries, and whose instructions aimed chiefly 
at leading the neophyte back to the occupations to which 
the state of society called him or her. To provide food and 
work for those wanting either, to afford them advice and 
help, and save them from the cruel alternative of crime 
such was the scope of this society, which lasted till the year 
1828. The fashion of androgynous lodges was revived in 
Spain in 1 877. From the Chaine cC Union, a masonic pub- 
lication, we learn that several such lodges were formed about 
that date, receiving ladies of the highest rank. Thus the 
Countess Julia A , belonging by birth to the Austrian- 
Hungarian nobility, and by her connections to Spain, was 
initiated into the lodge Fraternitad Iberica on the I4th June 
1 880 ; and the Grand Orient of Spain initiated ladies into all 
the mysteries of masonry, just as if they were men. 

472. Various other Androgynous Societies. The Society of 
the "Wood-store of the Globe and Glory" was founded in 
1747 by the Chevalier de Beauchene, a lively boon companion, 
who was generally to be found at an inn, where for very little 
money he conferred all the masonic degrees of that time ; 
a man whose worship would have shone by the great tun of 
Heidelberg, or at the drinking bouts of German students. 
The Wood- store was supposed to be in a forest, and the 
meetings, which were much in vogue, took place in a garden 
outside Paris, called " New France," where assembled lords 
and clowns, ladies and grisettes, indulging in the easy cos- 
tumes and manners of the country. Towards the middle of 
the eighteenth century, there was established in Brittany 
the Order of the " Defoliators." 

In the Order of "Felicity," instituted in Paris in 1742, 
and divided into the four degrees of midshipman, captain, 
chief of a squadron, and vice-admiral, the emblems and terms 
were nautical : sailors were its founders, and it excited so 
much attention, that in 1746 a satire, entitled, "The Means 
of reaching the highest Kank in the Navy without getting 
Wet," was published against it. Its field of action was 
the field of love. A Grand Orient was called the offing, the 


lodge the squadron, and the sisters performed the fictitious 
voyage to the island of Felicity sous la voile des freres et 
pilot&s par eiix ; and the candidate promised " never to 
receive a foreign ship into her port as long as a ship of the 
Order was anchored there." 

The Order of the " Lovers of Pleasure " was a military 
institution, a pale revival of the ceremonies of chivalry and 
the courts of love, improvised in the French camp in Galicia. 
From the discourse of one of the orators we select the 
following passage : " Our scope is to embellish our existence, 
always taking for our guide the words, 'Honour, Joy, and 
Delicacy.' Our scope, moreover, is to be faithful to our 
country and the august sovereign who fills the universe with 
his glorious name, to serve a cause which ought to be grateful 
to every gentle soul, that of protecting youth and innocence, 
and of establishing between the ladies and ourselves an 
eternal alliance, cemented by the purest friendship." This 
society, it is said, was much favoured by Napoleon I., and 
hence we may infer that its aim was not purely pleasure ; 
at all events, it is remarkable that a society, having masonic 
rites, should have given its services to the "august sovereign" 
who had just withdrawn his support from genuine Free- 

473. Knights and Nymphs of the Rose. This Order was 
founded in Paris in 1778 by Chaumont, private secretary to 
Louis- Philippe d'0rle"ans, to please that prince. The chief 
lodge was held in one of the famous petites maisons of that 
epoch. The great lords had lodges in their own houses. 
The Hierophant, assisted by a deacon called " Sentiment," 
initiated the men, and the Grand Priestess, assisted by the 
deaconess called " Discretion," initiated the women. The 
age of admission for knights was "the age to love," that 
of ladies "the age to please and to be loved." Love and 
mystery were the programme of the Order ; the lodge was 
called the Temple of Love, which was beautifully adorned 
with garlands of flowers and amorous emblems and devices. 
The knights wore a crown of myrtle, the nymphs a crown of 
roses. During the time of initiation a dark lantern, held by 
the nymph of Discretion, shed a dim light, but afterwards 
the lodge was illuminated with numerous wax candles. The 
aspirants, laden with chains, to symbolise the prejudices that 
kept them prisoners, were asked, "What seek you here?" 
to which they replied, " Happiness." They were then ques- 
tioned as to their private opinion and conduct in matters of 
gallantry, and made twice to traverse the lodge over a path 


covered with love-knots, whereupon the iron chains were 
taken off, and garlands of flowers, called "chains of love," 
substituted. The candidates were then conducted to the 
altar, where they took the oath of secrecy ; and thence to 
the mysterious groves in the neighbourhood of the Temple 
of Love, where incense was offered up to Venus and her son. 
If it was a knight who had been initiated, he exchanged his 
crown of myrtle for the rose of the last initiated nymph ; 
and if a nymph, she exchanged her rose for the myrtle crown 
of Brother Sentiment. The horrors of the Revolution scat- 
tered these knights and nymphs, who, like thoughtless chil- 
dren, were playing on a volcano. 

474. German Order of the Hose. Another order of the 
Rose was founded in Germany in 1784 by one Francis 
Matthaus Grossinger, who ennobled himself by assuming 
the title of Francis Rudolph von Grossing. He was born 
in 1752 at Komorn, in Hungary ; his father was a butcher, 
his mother the daughter of a tanner. Grossing was a Jesuit, 
but on the suppression of the Order he led a wandering life, 
and eventually reached Vienna, where he obtained the pro- 
tection of the father confessor of the empress, who in 1777 
granted him a pension of six hundred florins, which, however, 
he lost by her death. He then lived by all kinds of swindling, 
and finally founded a philanthropic order, which, after the 
name of the supposititious grand mistress, the Lady of Rosen- 
wald, he called the " Order of the Rose." He was very 
successful at Halle, where he lived, in initiating dupes, on 
whose contributions he lived in great style. "When he be- 
came too notorious at Halle he transmigrated to Berlin, 
where he continued his expensive style of living, got into 
debt, was arrested, but made his escape, after having swindled 
the Berliners out of twenty thousand dollars. 

475. Pretended Objects of the Order. The Order professed 
to pursue the loftiest philosophic and educational objects. 
None but men and women endowed with noble souls were 
to be admitted, and no member was to reveal the name of 
any other member, nor what was discussed in the lodges, 
to outsiders. Masonry was the model for the Order of the 
Rose, the latter adopting all the good, and rejecting all the 
bad of the former. The ribbon of the Order consisted of 
pink silk, both ends terminating in three points ; it was 
marked with a rose, and the name of the member, with the 
date of his or her reception. Under this was a large seal, 
displaying a rose, surrounded by a wreath of the same 
flowers ; the ribbon was further adorned with a kind of 


silhouette, supposed to represent the Lady of Rosenwald, 
so indistinct and blurred, as to look more like a blot than a 
portrait. Members also were furnished with a small ticket, 
giving the explanation of certain terms used by Grossing in 
his "Rules and Regulations" ; thus Freemasons were called 
" Gamblers " ; Jesuits, " Foxes " ; Illuminati, " Wasps " ; 
Ghost-seers, " Gnats," &c. The " Rules " were called " A 
Shell or Case for Thorns " ; members, to recognise each 
other, would say, " Thorns," to which the other would 
reply, " Forest," after which each would produce his ribbon 
and ticket. In 1786 the Order counted about one hundred 
and tweuty members, but having no innate vitality, being, in 
fact, but a company of triflers, many of them withdrew on 
finding the whole Order but a scheme of Grossing to put 
money into his pocket, and so it was swept away into the 
limbus of fashionable follies. 

476. Order of Harmony. The Order of the Rose having 
collapsed, Grossing in 1788 founded, under a fictitious name, 
the " Order of Harmony." He published a book alleged to 
be translated from the English, and entitled, " Harmony, or a 
Scheme for the Better Education of the Female Sex," and 
wrote in the Preface, " This ' Harmony ' is not to be con- 
founded with that Chdteau en Espagne, with which the 
founder of the Order of the Rose for some years deluded 
the ladies of Germany." The Order of Harmony was said to 
have been founded by Seth, the third son of Adam, to 
have reckoned among its members Moses and Christ, and to 
be the refuge of persecuted humanity and innocence. The 
founder abused princes and priests, proposed the establish- 
ment of convents, in which ladies were to take the vows of 
chastity, obedience, and poverty, but only for a year at a time ; 
a bank was also to be founded in connection with them. 
And the writer finally proposed that a monument should 
be erected to the promoter of the Order as a benefactor of 
mankind! When Grossing was arrested in 1788 at Rotenburg 
(Prussia), for all kinds of swindling transactions, a number 
of diplomas were found among his papers, with the names of 
ladies who were to be admitted to the Order filled in. But 
the interference of the vulgar police brushed the bloom of 
romance off the scheme, and the Order of Harmony perished, 
a still-born babe ! Grossing, however, managed to effect his 
escape, by making his guards drunk ; what became of him 
afterwards is not on record. 

477. Masons Daughter. This is an androgynous degree 
invented in the Western States of America, and given to 


master masons, their wives, and unmarried sisters and 
daughters. It refers to circumstances recorded in chapters 
xi. and xii. of St. John's Gospel. In these women's lodges 
the banqueting hall is divided into East, West, South, and 
North sides (the four walls) ; the grand mistress sits in the 
East ; the temple or lodge is called Eden ; the doors are 
called barriers, the glasses, lamps, the wine is called red oil ; 
to put oil in the lamps is to fill the glasses, to extinguish the 
lamp is to drink the wine, to " fire ! " is to drink. The sign 
is to place the hands on the breast, so that the right lies on 
the left, and the two thumbs joining form a triangle. The 
word is " Eve," repeated five times. Gentlemen are allowed 
to be present. As the reader will have observed, the degree 
is an imitation of the Loge Imperiale d'Adoption des Francs- 
Chevaliers, described in 466. 


478. Schismatic Rites and Sects. The pretended derivation 
of Freemasonry from the Knights Templars has already been 
referred to ; but Masonry, the system, not the name, existed 
before the Order of the Temple, and the Templars them- 
selves had masonic rites and degrees three hundred years 
before their downfall. Those who, however, maintain the 
above view say that the three assassins symbolise the three 
betrayers of the Order, and Hiram the, Grand Master Molay ; 
and according to the ritual of the Grand Lodge of the Three 
Globes, a German degree, the lights around the coffin signify 
the flames of the pile on which Molay was burnt. To the 
Rosicrucians and to certain German lodges Hiram is Christ, 
and the three assassins, Judas that betrays, Peter that denies 
Him, and Thomas that disbelieves His resurrection. The 
ancient Scotch rite had its origin in other false accounts of 
the rise of the Order. In the last century schisms without 
number arose in the masonic body. Jt would be impossible 
in a work like this to give particulars of all ; we have already 
done so of several ; a few more may be briefly referred to. 
The Moravian Brothers of the Order of Religious Free- 
masons, or Order of the "Mustard Seed," was a German 
rite founded, circa 1712, by Count Zinzendorf, the same who 
afterwards invented the rite already described in 438. 
Some authorities assert this Order of the "Mustard-Seed" 
to have originated in England in 1708, and thence to 
have spread to Holland and Germany, and to have been 
adopted by Zinzendorf, circa 1712-14, when he was a student 
at Halle. The mysteries were founded on the passage in 
St. Mark iv. 30-32, in which Christ compares the king- 
dom of heaven to a grain of mustard-seed. The brethren 
recognised each other by a ring inscribed with the words : 
" No one of us lives for himself." The jewel was a cross 
of gold, surmounted by a mustard-plant with the words : 



"What was it before? Nothing." The members met every 
year in the chapel of the Castle of Gnadenstadt, and also 
kept the I5th March and i6th April as holy days. 
Nearly all the degrees of the Scotch rite are schismatic. 
In like manner, all the English and American orders of 
chivalry, and their conclaves and encampments, are parodies 
of ancient chivalry. 

In 1758, Lacorne, a dancing-master, and Pirlet, a tailor, 
invented the degree of the " Council of the Emperors of 
the East and West," whose members assumed the titles of 
" Sovereign Prince Masons, Substitutes General of the Royal 
Art, Grand Superintendents and Officers of the Grand and 
Sovereign Lodge of St. John of Jerusalem." The ritual 
consisted of twenty-five degrees, and as it was calculated 
by its sounding titles and splendour of ritual to flatter the 
vanity of the frivolous, it was at first very successful ; and 
Lacorne conferred on one of his creatures, a Hebrew, the 
degree of Inspector, and sent him to America to spread 
the Order there. In 1797, other Jews added eight new 
degrees, giving to this agglomeration of thirty-three pom- 
pous degrees the title of "Ancient and Accepted Scotch 
Rite." The Grand Orient of France, seeing its own influence 
declining, proposed advantageous and honourable terms to 
the Supreme Grand Council which was at the head of the 
Scotch rite, and an agreement was come to in 1804. The 
Grand Orient retaining the first name, received into its bosom 
the Supreme Grand Council and the rich American symbolism. 
But the connection did not prosper, and was dissolved in 
1805. Again, what is called Mark-Masonry in England is, 
by some masonic authorities, considered spurious ; whilst in 
Scotland and Ireland it is held to be an essential portion of 
Freemasonry. These are curious anomalies. About 1869 
His Imperial Highness the Prince Rhodocanakis introduced 
into England the " Order of the Red Cross of Constantino 
and Rome," which, however, being violently opposed by the 
Supreme Grand Council of the 33rd, came to an untimely 
end soon after. The S.G.C. threatened any member of the 
"Ancient and Accepted" who should dare even to merely 
visit this new Order with expulsion from the fraternity. 
And the S.G.C. actually sent a " Sovereign Tribunal " to 
Manchester to try a brother, who had snapped his fingers 
at the Council and said he did not care for the " Sovereign." 
How it all ended is pleasantly related in the pages of The 
Rectangular, January and April 1871. 

479. Farmassoni. There is a Gnostic sect in Russia whom 


the Russians identify with the Freemasons, and therefore 
call " Farmassoni," a corruption of franc-masons. The Far- 
massoni regard priesthood and ritual as a pagan depravation 
of the faith and of the true doctrine ; they seek, as much as 
possible, to spiritualise Christianity, and to ground it solely 
on the Bible and the inward illumination of believers. The 
earliest traces of them are to be found at the end of the 
seventeenth century, and their appearance coincides with 
that of certain German mystics and theosophists in Moscow. 
The most important of these was a Prussian sub-officer, who 
was carried to Moscow, having been taken prisoner by the 
Russians during the Seven Years' War. 

480. The Gormogones. This Order was founded in England 
in 1724. The names and birthplaces of the members were 
written in cipher, and the Order was said to have been 
brought by a Chinese mandarin (a Jesuit missionary?) to 
England, it being in great repute in China (Rome), and 
to possess extraordinary secrets. It held a chapter at the 
Castle Tavern, London, but was dissolved in 1738. It is 
supposed to have been an attempt of the Jesuits, by the help 
of masonic ceremonies, to gain converts to Catholicism, and 
that Ramsay, the inventor of the so-called higher degrees, 
had something to do with it. I have vainly endeavoured 
to trace the origin and meaning of the term Gormogones. 
According to one account I have seen it was also called the 
Order of the Gormones, and was said to have been instituted 
for the reception of individuals not considered sufficiently 
advanced for admission to the lodges. 

481. The Noachites. or Noachidce. This Order, founded in 
the last quarter of the last century, assumed the high-sound- 
ing title of "The Fraternity of the Royal Ark Mariners, 
Mark, Mark Master, Elected of Nine, Unknown, Fifteen, 
Architect, Excellent and Superexcellent Masons." They 
professed to be the followers of Noah which no doubt they 
were in one respect and therefore also called themselves 
Noachites or Noachidae. Their president, Thomas- Boothby 
Parkyns, Lord Rancliffe, bore the title of Grand Noah, and 
the lodge was called the Royal Ark Vessel. The brother 
mariners in the lodge wore a broad sash, representing a rain-' 
bow, with an apron fancifully decorated with an ark. dove, 
&c. Their principal place of meeting was at the Surrey 
Tavern, Surrey Street, Strand. They had a poet, Brother 
Ebenezer Sibley, who was a doctor of medicine and an astro- 
loger to boot, who, like too many masonic poets, wrote in- 
different couplets. This Order must not be confounded 


with the "Noachite or Russian Knight," which is the 2ist 
degree of the Ancient Scotch rite. 

482. Argonauts. This Order was founded, for his amuse- 
ment, by a Freemason, Konrad von Rhetz, residing at 
Riddagshausen, near Brunswick. He had been the master 
of a lodge of the Relaxed Observance, but fell out with his 
brethren, and ceased from visiting any lodge. Near his 
residence there is a large lake with an island in the centre. 
On this he built a temple and provided boats to carry visitors 
to it, where, if they desired it, they were initiated into the 
new Order. Persons of position and of either sex might 
claim reception as a matter of right, and many Brunswick 
Freemasons belonged to it. The Grand Master, or Grand 
Admiral as he was called, entertained all visitors free of 
expense, nor was there any charge for initiation. The 
greeting was " Long live pleasure ! " The temple was built 
in the antique style, though with quaint decorations and a 
few paintings and engravings. There were also cupboards 
containing the insignia of the Order. The officers were 
styled Steersman, Chaplain, and so on ; the others were 
simple Argonauts. The jewel was a silver anchor with 
green enamel. On the founder's death in 1787 the Order 
was dissolved ; no trace remains of the temple. 

483. The Grand Orient and Atheism. In 1877 the Grand 
Orient abolished in the lodges the acknowledgment of a 
belief in God, introduced into the ritual in 1854, which has 
led to a rupture between it and the Grand Lodge of England. 
The influence of Masonry, both social and political, in France 
being universal, it is the foundation and support of the war 
made on the priesthood with a view chiefly to deprive them 
of the education of youth. The Spanish and Dutch Grand 
Lodges approved of the action of the Grand Orient in 
suppressing the name of God in the ritual of admission. 
There is no doubt that Continental Masonry aims at 
the abolition not only of the Roman Catholic Church, 
but of the human mind's blind surrender to any creed 

484. Ludicrous Degree. The following lodge was actually 
established about 1717. Some joyous companions, having 
passed the degree of craft, resolved to form a lodge for 
themselves. As none of them knew the master's part, they 
at once invented and adopted a. ritual which suited every 
man's humour. Hence it was ordered that every person 
during initiation should wear boots, spurs, a sword, and 
spectacles. The apron was turned upside down. To simplify 


the work of the lodge, they abolished the practice of study- 
ing geometry, excepting that form mentioned by Hudibras 

" For he, by geometric scale, 
Could take the size of pots of ale ; 
Resolve by sines and tangents straight, 
If bread or butter wanted weight." 

Some of the members proved that a good knife and fork in 
the hands of a dexterous brother, over proper materials, 
would give greater satisfaction and add more to the rotun- 
dity of the lodge than the best scale and compass in Europe ; 
adding that a line, a square, a parallelogram, a rhombus, a 
rhomboid, a triangle, a trapezium, a circle, a semi-circle, a 
quadrant, a parabola, a hyperbola, a cube, a parallelepipedon, 
a prism, a prismoid, a pyramid, a cylinder, a curve, a cylin- 
droid, a sphere, a spheroid, a paraboloid, a cycloid, a para- 
centric, frustums, segments, sectors, gnomons, pentagons, 
hexagons, polygons, ellipses, and irregular figures of all sorts, 
might be drawn and represented upon bread, beef, mutton, 
ham, fowls, pies, &c., as demonstratively as upon sheets of 
paper or the tracing-board, and that the use of the globes 
might be taught and explained as clearly and briefly upon 
two bottles as upon any twenty-eight inch spheres. 



485. Freemasonry in Spain and Portugal. In 1726, the 
Grand Lodge of England granted a patent for the establish- 
ment of a lodge at Gibraltar; another was founded in the 
following year at Madrid, which, declaring itself independent 
of foreign supervision, established lodges at Cadiz, Barcelona, 
Valladolid, and other places. The Inquisition, seeing the 
danger that threatened the Church, persecuted the Order ; 
hence some mystery surrounds the labours of the brother- 
hood in the Iberian peninsula. But in the troubles 
which distressed Spain during the Napoleonic wars, the 
masonic lodges were politically very active. They were 
suppressed again by Ferdinand VII., and up to the year 
1868 were but few in number, and disguised under various 
names. Since that year they have rapidly increased, and 
there are now more than 360 lodges in Spain. The Spanish 
Grand Lodge has 154 lodges under its jurisdiction; the 
Grand Orient of Spain about 162 ; the Lusitanian Grand 
Orient about 40 lodges. There are, moreover, about 40 lodges 
subject to foreign Grand Lodges. The number of Spanish 
Masons may amount to 30,000. 

In Portugal, the first lodges were founded, not under 
English, but under French auspices ; but English influence 
soon made itself felt in the establishment of additional lodges, 
though in great secrecy ; which, however, did not save many 
Freemasons from becoming the victims of the Inquisition. 

486. Freemasonry in RiLssia. In 1731, Freemasonry dared 
to oppose itself to Russian despotism, which not fearing, and 
probably despising it, did not molest it. The times were 
unpropitious. The sanguinary Biren ruled the Empress 
Anne, whom by means of the amorous fascination he exer- 
cised upon her, he easily persuaded to commit all kinds of 
folly and cruelty ; and Masonry, though it knew itself to be 
tolerated, yet did not feel secure, and cautiously kept itself 
in the background. In 1740, England founded a lodge at St. 


Petersburg, and sent thither a Grand Master. The Order 
spread in the provinces, and in 1763 the lodge "Clio" was 
opened at Moscow. Catherine II. wished to know its statutes, 
perceiving the advantage or injury they might bring to her 
government as she either promoted or persecuted the associa- 
tion. In the end she determined to protect the Order ; and 
in a country where the court leads opinion, lodges soon be- 
came the fashion. But Masonry thus becoming the amuse- 
ment of a wealthy nobility, it soon lost sight of its primitive 
objects. In no other country probably did the brotherhood 
possess such gorgeous temples ; but, deprived of the vivify- 
ing and invigorating air of liberty, its splendour could not 
save it from a death of inanition. 

487. Freemasonry in Switzerland. English proselytism, 
always the most active, established a lodge at Geneva in 1737, 
whose first Grand Master was George Hamilton. Two years 
afterwards, the foreigners dwelling at Lausanne united and 
founded the lodge called the " Perfect Union of Foreigners." 
Lodges were also opened at Berne ; but the manoeuvres of 
the Grand Lodges of the States surrounding Switzerland 
introduced long and fierce dissensions. In 1765, the Strict 
Observance founded at Basle the lodge " Liberty," which 
became the mother-lodge of many others, and, calling itself 
the " German Helvetic Directory," chose for its chief the 
celebrated Lavater. Then followed suppressions ; but the 
Order revived, and in 1844 the different territorial Grand 
Lodges united into one federal Grand Lodge, called " Alpina," 
which revised the ancient statutes. The Swiss Freemasons 
intend to erect a grand temple, which perhaps could no- 
where find a more fitting site than in a country where four 
nations of diverse languages and races dwell in perfect liberty. 

488. Freemasonry in Sweden and Poland. In 1748, 
Sweden already had many and flourishing lodges. In 1754 
was instituted the Grand Lodge of Sweden, under a patent 
from the Grand Lodge of Scotland ; it afterwards declared 
its autonomy, which has been recognised by all the masonic 
bodies of Europe. In the most ancient Swedish ritual we 
meet for the first time in Europe with the cry and sign of 
distress of the sons of Adoniram (383) : " To me, the sons of 
the widow ! " 

Freemasonry, at first suppressed in Poland, was revived 
under Stanislaus Augustus, and the auspices of the Grand 
Orient of France, who established lodges in various towns of 
that country. These united in 1784 to form a Grand Orient, 
having its seat at Warsaw. 



489. Freemasonry in Holland and Germany. In Holland 
the Freemasons opened a lodge in 1731, under the warrant 
of the Grand Lodge of England ; it was, however, only what 
is called a lodge of emergency, having been called to initiate 
the Duke of Tuscany, afterwards Francis I., Emperor of 
Germany (454). The first regular lodge was established at 
The Hague in 1734, which, five years after, took the name of 
" Mother-lodge." Numerous lodges were opened throughout 
the country, and also in the Dutch colonies ; and the Free- 
masons founded many schools, with the avowed object of 
withdrawing instruction from clerical influence. 

In Germany lodges were numerous as early as the middle 
of last century, so that in the present one we have witnessed 
the centenaries of many of them as, for instance, in 1837, 
of that of Hamburg; in 1840, of that of Berlin; in 1841, 
of those of Breslau, Baireuth, Leipzig, and many more. 

490. Freemasonry in Turkey, Asia, Africa, and Oceania. 
The Order also spread into Turkey, where, however, as may 
be supposed, for a long time it led but a harassed existence. 
Lodges were established at Constantinople, Smyrna, and 
Aleppo ; and it may be mentioned, as a fact in favour of 
Freemasonry, that the Turkish Freemasons are in a more 
advanced state of civilisation than is usual among Orientals 
generally. They reject polygamy, and at the masonic ban- 
quets the women appear unveiled ; so that whatever their 
western sisters may have to say against Masonry, the women 
of the East certainly are gainers by the introduction of the 

The most important masonic lodges of Asia are in India ; 
they are under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodges of 
England and Scotland. 

Freemasonry was introduced into Africa by the establish- 
ment of a lodge at Cape Coast Castle in 1735. There are 
now lodges at the Cape of Good Hope ; in the islands of 
Mauritius, Madagascar, and St. Helena ; and at Algiers, 
Tunis, Morocco, Cairo, and Alexandria. 

Lodges have existed since 1828 at Sydney, Melbourne, 
Parramatta, and other places ; in all, about two hundred. 

491. Freemasonry in America. The first lodge established 
in Canada was at Cape Breton, in the year 1745. Lodges 
existed from as early a period in the West Indian Islands. 
On the establishment of the Brazilian empire, a Grand Lodge 
was initiated; and in 1825, Don Pedro I. was elected its 
Grand Master. In 1825, the Grand Lodge of Mexico was 
instituted, where the Liberals and Federalists joined the 


York rite, whilst the Clerics, Monarchists, and Centralizers 
adopted the Scotch rite, the two parties carrying on a re- 
lentless war. Texas, Venezuela, and the turbulent republics 
of South America, all had their masonic lodges, which were 
iu many cases political clubs in disguise. Thus the as^assi- 
nation of Garcia Moreno, the President of the Republic of 
Ecuador, in 1875, was the work of the masonic clubs. The 
murderer, one Rajo, on being promised his life if he would 
denounce his accomplices, coolly replied : " It would be use- 
less to save my life ; if you spared it, my companions would 
soon take it ; I would rather be shot than stabbed." 

The lodges in the territory now forming the United States 
date as far back as 1729. Until the close of the revolutionary 
war these were under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of 
England ; but almost every State of the Union now has its 
own Grand Lodge, independent of all foreign power. 

In different parts of the globe there are about 90 Grand 
Lodges, nearly 12,000 lodges, numbering altogether about 
12,500,000 members; of the active members, or such as 
regularlv attend lodges and pay annual subscriptions, there 
may be half that number. 



492. Causes of Persecution. The secrecy with which the 
masonic brotherhood has always surrounded its proceedings 
is no doubt highly grateful to the members, but it has its 
drawbacks. The outside world, who cannot believe that 
masonic meetings, which are so jealously guarded against the 
intrusion of non-Masons, have no other purpose than the re- 
hearsal of a now totally useless and pointless ritual, followed 
by conviviality, naturally assume that there must be some- 
thing more behind ; and what seems to fear the light is 
usually supposed to be evil. Hence all governments, as long 
as they did not know what modern Freemasonry really is, 
persecuted and endeavoured to suppress it. But as soon as 
they discovered its real scope and character, they gave it their 
support, feeling quite convinced that men who could find 
entertainment in the doings of the lodges, would never, as it 
is popularly called, set the Thames on fire. One of the first 
persecutions against Freemasonry arose in Holland in 1734. 
A crowd of ignorant fanatics, incited thereto by the clergy, 
broke into a lodge at Amsterdam, and destroyed all its 
furniture and ornaments ; but the town clerk having, at the 
suggestion of the Order, been initiated, the States-General, 
upon his report, sanctioned the society, many of the chief 
persons becoming members. Of course, when lodges were 
turned into political clubs, and the real business of Masonry 
was cast aside for something more serious, the matter assumed 
a very different aspect. The persecutions here to be men- 
tioned will therefore be such only as took place against Free- 
masonry, legitimately so called. 

493. Instances of Persecution. Pope Clement XII., in 1738, 
issued a decree ngainst the Order, which was followed by a 
more severe edict next year, the punishment therein awarded 
for being found guilty of practising Freemasonry being con- 
fiscation and death, without hope of mercy. This was a 
signal of persecution in the countries connected with Home. 


The parliament of Paris, however, refused to register the 
papal bull ; and an apology for the Order was published at 
Dublin. But Philip V. of Spain declared the galleys for life, 
or punishment of death with torture to be the doom of Free- 
masons ; a very large number of whom he caused to be 
arrested and sentenced. Peter Torrubia, Grand Inquisitor of 
Spain, having first made confession and received absolution, 
entered the Order for the express purpose of betraying it. 
He joined in 1751, and made himself acquainted with the 
entire ramifications of the craft ; and in consequence members 
of ninety-seven lodges were seized and tortured on the rack. 
Ferdinand VI. declared Freemasonry to be high-treason, and 
punishable with death. When the French became masters 
of Spain, Freemasonry was revived and openly practised, the 
members of the Grand Lodge of Madrid meeting in the hall 
previously occupied by their arch-enemy the Inquisition. 
With the return of Ferdinand VII., who re-established the 
Inquisition, the exterminating process recommenced. In 
1814, twenty-five persons suspected of Freemasonry were 
dragged in chains to confinement ; but the subsequent arrests 
were so numerous, that no correct account is obtainable, nor 
can the ultimate fate of the accused be recorded. One of 
the noblest victims of the Spanish Inquisition and the Holy 
Alliance was Riego, the " Hampden of Spain," who was 
atrociously murdered by hanging at Madrid in 1823. " Have 
I got you, you Freemason, you son of the devil ! you shall 
pay for all you have done ! " howled the hangman, before 
strangling him. In 1824, a law was promulgated, command- 
ing all Masons to declare themselves, and deliver up all their 
papers and documents, under the penalty of being declared 
traitors. The Minister of War, in the same year, issued a 
proclamation, outlawing every member of the craft ; and in 
1827, seven members of a lodge in Granada were executed ; 
while in 1828, the tribunals of the same city condemned the 
Marquis of Lavrillana and Captain Alvarez to be beheaded 
for having founded a lodge. In 1 848, Masons were no longer 
executed, but sent to the galleys ; as late as the year 1854, 
members of masonic lodges were seized and imprisoned. 

^ n 1 735> several noble Portuguese instituted a lodge at 
Lisbon, under the Grand Lodge of England, of which George 
Gordon was Master ; but the priests immediately determined 
on putting it down. One of the best-known victims of the 
Inquisition was John Coustos, a native of Switzerland, who 
was arrested in 1743, and thrown into a subterranean 
dungeon, where he was racked nine times in three months 


for not revealing the secrets of Masonry. He had, however, 
to appear in an auto-da-fo, and was sentenced to five years' 
work as a galley slave ; but the British Government claiming 
him as a subject, he was released before the term of his 
punishment expired. Thirty-three years passed without 
anything more being heard of Freemasonry in Portugal ; 
but in 1776, two members of the craft were arrested, and 
remained upwards of fourteen months in prison. In 1792, 
Queen Maria I. ordered all Freemasons to be delivered over 
to the Inquisition ; a very few families escaped to New York, 
where they landed with the words, Asylum quecrimiis. Among 
their American brethren they found not only an asylum, but 
a new home. The French Empire ushered in better days ; 
but with the restoration of the old regime came the former 
prejudices and persecutions. In 1818, John VI. promulgated 
from the Brazils an edict against all secret societies, includ- 
ing Freemasonry ; and, again in 1823, a similar though 
more stringent proclamation appeared in Lisbon. The 
punishment of death therein awarded was afterwards 
reduced to fine and transportation to Africa. 

In Austria, the papal bulls provoked persecutions and 
seizures; hence arose the Order of the Mopses (471), which 
spread through Holland, Belgium, and France. In 1747, 
thirty Masons were arrested and imprisoned at Vienna. 
Maria Theresa, having been unable to discover the secrets 
of the Order, issued a decree to arrest all Masons, but the 
measure was frustrated by the good sense of the Emperor 
Joseph II., who was himself a Mason, and therefore knew 
that the pursuits of the Order were innocent enough. 
Francis I., at the Diet of Ratisbon in 1794, demanded the 
suppression of all masonic societies throughout Germany, 
but Hanover, Brunswick, and Prussia united with the 
smaller States in refusing their assent. 

The history of Freemasonry in Central Italy during the 
last century and this, as may be supposed, is a mere re- 
petition of sufferings, persecutions, and misfortunes; the 
members of the craft being continually under punishment, 
through the intolerance of the priesthood and the inter- 
ference of the civil power. 

But persecution was not confined to Catholic countries. 
Even in Switzerland, the Masons at one time were perse- 
cuted. The Council of Berne, in 1745, passed a law with 
certain degrees of punishment for members of lodges ; 
which law was renewed in 1782. It is now abrogated. 
Frederick I., King of Sweden, a very few years after the 


introduction (1736) of Freemasonry, forbade it under penalty 
of death. At present the king is at the head of the Swedish 
craft. The King Frederick Augustus III. of Poland caused, 
in 1730, enactments to be published, forbidding, under pain 
of severe punishment, the practice of Freemasonry in his 
kingdom. In 1757, the Synod of Stirling adopted a re- 
solution debarring all Freemasons from the ordinances of 
religion. In 1799, Lord Radnor proposed in the English 
Parliament a bill against secret societies, and especially 
against Freemasonry ; and a similar but equally fruitless 
attempt against the Order was made in 1814 by Lord 
Liverpool. The Society is now acknowledged by law ; the 
Prince of Wales is at the head of the craft. 

494. Anti- Masonic Publications. One of the earliest 
English publications against Freemasonry is "The Free- 
masons ; an Hudibrastic Poem" (London, 1723). It is 
written in the coarsest style of invective, describing the 
Masons as a drunken set of revellers, practising all kinds 
of filthy rites. Several works of no literary merit appeared 
at various intervals between 1726 and 1760, professing to 
reveal the masonic secrets, but their authors evidently knew 
nothing of the craft. In 1768, a rabid parson published a 
sermon, entitled "Masonry, the Way to Hell." It is beneath 
criticism. Numerous works of a similar tendency, or pro- 
fessing to reveal what Masonry was, thenceforth appeared 
at short intervals in England, France, Germany, and Italy, 
such as " Les Plus Secrets Mysteres de la Ma^onnerie " ; 
" Le Maschere Strappate" (The Masks torn off); "The 
Veil Removed, or the Secret of the Revolutions fostered 
by Freemasonry " ; Robison's " Proofs of a Conspiracy 
against all the Religions and Governments of Europe 
carried on in the Secret Meetings of Freemasons, Illuminati, 
and Reading Societies," a work which must have astonished 
the Masons not a little, and for which they were no doubt 
in their hearts very grateful to the author, for he makes the 
Masons out to be very terrible fellows indeed. The work 
of the Abb Barruel is of the same stamp ; it is entitled, 
"Mmoires pour servir a 1'Histoire du Jacobinisme," and 
is noteworthy for nothing but absence of critical power and 
honesty of statement. The Jesuits, though imitating the 
ritual of the Masons, have naturally always been their 
enemies, generally secretly, but sometimes openly, as, for 
instance, through the Italian zappatori (labourers), whose 
avowed object was the destruction of the Masonic Order. 
Protestants also have written fiercely against the Order, 


Lindner's "Mac-Benach" (1818), and Hengstenberg's and 
Moller's in quite recent years, are samples of such writings. 

One of the most voluminous works against Freemasonry 
is that of Dr. E. E. Eckert, of Dresden. It is in three thick 
volumes, printed at various places (1852-80). The title is, 
" Proofs for the Condemnation of Freemasonry as the 
Starting Point of all Destructive Activity." He sees 
Masonry everywhere, even in Chinese secret societies ! 
According to Eckert, Freemasons were the originators of 
the Illuminati and Burschenschaft in Germany, of the 
Jacobins and Juste Milieu in France, of the Carbonari in 
Italy, of the Liberals in Spaiii, and the Gioviue Italia ! 
He was expelled from Berlin in consequence of his attacks 
on highly-placed Masons. The latest work of importance 
hostile to Masonry is by the late Pere Deschamps, in three 
large volumes, entitled, " Les Soci^t^s Secretes et la Soci^te " 
(Paris and Avignon, 1882-83). The writer, a priest, sees only 
evil in the fraternity, and, in fact, all evil in the world 
political, social, moral is due to the occult action of the 
Masons, whose object is the overthrow of all religion, 
morality, and justice. In 1873, a German work, entitled, 
"The Secret Warfare of Freemasonry against Church and 
State" (an English translation was published in 1875), had 
brought the same charges against the Society's action on 
the Continent. And Masonry continues to be the bugbear 
of the Church. In 1875, Pope Pius IX. fulminated a bull 
against the Order ; in 1 884, shortly after the installation of 
the Prince of Wales as Grand Master Mark-Mason, the Pope 
issued an encyclical, Humanum genus, in which he denounced 
the Order as criminal, impious, revolutionary, and everything 
bad ; towards the end of September of this present year 
(1896) an anti-masonic congress, convoked by the Church, 
was held at Trent, and attended by about six hundred 
priests, presided over by Cardinal Agliardi, armed with the 
Pope's brief condemning Freemasonry. The whole proceed- 
ing was an exact counterpart of the meeting held on the 
1st February 1762, when " many gentlemen, eminent for their 
rank and character." including "Pomposo" Johnson, ' ; were, 
by the invitation of the Rev. Mr. Aldrich, assembled " to in- 
quire into the noises made by the Cock-lane ghos"t. Sitting 
with closed doors, the Congress discussed Miss Diana 
Vaughan, who, in a book published by, or attributed to her, 
described how at an early age she was initiated into Free- 
masonry, and that in American lodges she had frequent 
interviews with Lucifer, and some of his imps. The truth or 


untruth of this statement was seriously debated by the 
"learned divines" assembled at Trent! And they left the 
matter in doubt. The reverend fathers seem to have been 
particularly shocked at the liberties taken with the devil's 
personality ; yet they must know that the devil has for ages 
been an object of ridicule, the theme of ribald songs and 
jokes even in the mystery plays. 

Dr. Bataille wrote a book entitled, " The Devil in the 
Nineteenth Century," which is a specimen of the grossest 
superstition, which was ridiculed in a reply afterwards pub- 
lished by a Count H. C M and wherein he regrets that a large 
number of high personages, particularly among the clergy, 
should have been thus imposed upon. Dr. Bataille in his 
book referred largely to devil-worship in the East; Count 
H. C. contradicts most of the doctor's statements. 

xxvi [ 


495. Vain Pretensions of Modern Freemasonry. After this 
necessarily compressed account of Freemasonry, past and pre- 
sent, the question naturally suggests itself What is its present 
use ? Are its pretensions not groundless ? Is it not an 
institution which has outlived the object of its foundation ? 
Is not its present existence a delusion and an anachronism ? 
Since all that is said and done in the lodges has for many 
years been in print, is the holding out of the communication 
of secrets not a delusion, and the imposition of childish oaths 
not a farce ? The answers to all these questions must be 
unfavourable to Freemasonry. When Masonry was purely 
operative, it had its uses ; when it became speculative, it was 
more useful still in its earlier stages, at least on the Con- 
tinent, and indirectly in this country also ; for either by 
itself, or in conjunction with other societies, such as the 
Illuminati, it opposed the political despotism, then prevalent 
all over Europe, and formed an anti- Inquisition to clerical 
obscurantism and oppression, wherefore it was persecuted 
by Protestant and Roman Catholic rulers alike. The rapid 
progress achieved in modern times by humanity and tolera- 
tion, is undoubtedly due to the tendency which speculative 
Masonry took in the last, and to its political activity in all 
countries, except England, in this century. Founded in 
ages when the possession of religious and scientific know- 
ledge was the privilege of the few, it preserved that 
knowledge then indeed a small rivulet only from being 
choked up by the weeds of indifference and superstition ; but 
now that that small rivulet has been overtaken by, and swal- 
lowed up in, the boundless, ever-advancing ocean of modern 
science, which may boldly proclaim its discoveries t6 the 
world, a society that professes to keep knowledge for the 
few is but a retrograde institution. Philo, about 1780, pro- 
perly defined English Masonry, as it then was, and is to-day : 
" The lodges indiscriminately receive members, go through 
ceremonies, play at mysteries without understanding them, 
eat, drink, and digest well, and now and then bestow alms 
are the formal English lodges." 



496. Vanity of Masonic Ceremonial. There are thousands 
of excellent men who have never seen the inside of a lodge, 
and yet are genuine Freemasons, i.e. liberal-minded and 
enlightened men, devoted to the study of Nature and the 
progress of mankind, moral and intellectual ; men devoid of 
all political and religious prejudices, true cosmopolitans. 
And there are thousands who have passed through every 
masonic degree, and yet are not Masons ; men who take 
appearances for realities, the means for the end, the cere- 
monies of the lodge for Freemasonry. But the lodge, with 
all its symbols, is only the form of the masonic thought. In 
the present age, however, this form, which was very suitable, 
nay, necessary, for the time when it was instituted, becomes 
an anachronism. The affectation of possessing a secret is 
a childish and mischievous weakness. The objects modern 
Masons profess to pursue are brotherly love, relief, and truth ; 
surely the pursuit of these objects cannot need any secret 
rites, traditions, and ceremonies. In spite of the great 
parade made in masonic publications about the science and 
learning peculiar to the craft, what discovery of new scientific 
facts or principles can Masons claim for the Order ? Nay, 
are well-known and long-established truths familiar to them, 
and made the objects of study in the lodges ? Nothing of 
the kind. That noble character, the Emperor-King Frederick 
III., who had early in life been initiated, resigned the Grand- 
Mastership when, after patient and diligent inquiry, for 
which his exalted position gave him exceptional facilities, 
he, in spite of a secret inclination to the contrary, became 
satisfied of the unsoundness and vanity of masonic pretensions. 

497. Masonry diffuses no Knowledge. We get neither 
science nor learning from a Mason, as a Mason. The Order, 
in fact, abjures religious and political discussion in this 
country, and yet it pretends that to it mankind is indebted 
for its progress, and that, were it abolished, mental darkness 
would again overshadow the world. But how is this pro- 
gress to be effected, if the chronic diseases in the existing 
religions and political systems of the world are not to be 
meddled with? As well might an association for the ad- 
vancement of learning abjure inquiry into chemical and 
mechanical problems, and then boast of the benefits it con- 
ferred on science ! It is Hamlet with the part of Hamlet 
omitted. If then Masonry wishes to live on, aud be some- 
thing more than a society of Odd Fellows or -Druids, more 
lodges must be formed by educated men and fewer by the 
mere publicans and other tradesmen that now found lodges to 


create a market for their goods who might do some good 
by teaching moral and natural philosophy from a deeper 
ground than the scholastic and grossly material basis on 
which all teaching at present is founded, and by rescuing 
science from the degraded position of handmaiden to mere 
physical comfort, into which modern materialism has forced it. 
498. Decay of Freemasonry. The more I study Free- 
masonry, the more I am repelled by its pretences. The 
facility and frequency with which worthless characters are 
received into the Order ; the manner in which all its statutes 
are disregarded; the dislike with which every brother who 
insists on reform is looked upon by the rest ; the difficulty 
of expelling obnoxious members ; the introduction of many 
spurious rites, and the deceptiveness of the rites themselves, 
designed to excite curiosity without ever satisfying it ; the 
puerility of the symbolism ; the paltriness of the secret when 
revealed to the candidate, and his ill-concealed disgust when 
at last he gets behind the scenes and sees through the rotten 
canvas that forms so beautiful a landscape in front all these 
too plainly show that the lodge has banished Freemasonry. 
And like monasticism or chivalry, it is no longer wanted. 
Having no political influence, and no political aspirations, 
or, when it has such aspirations revealing them by insane 
excesses, such as the citation before masonic tribunals of 
Napoleon III., the Emperor of Germany, the Crown Prince, 
the Pope, and Marshal Prim, by French, Italian, and Spanish 
Masons respectively,and after afarcical sham trial, condemning 
the accused so cited to which summons of course they paid 
no attention to death, or in plain English, to assassination, 
a crime really perpetrated on the person of Marshal Prim ; 
being no longer even a secret society for a society sanc- 
tioned by the State, as Freemasonry is, cannot be called a 
secret society; having no industrial or intellectual rallying- 
point it must eventually die from sheer inanition. It may 
prolong its existence by getting rid of all the rites and cere- 
monies which are neither simple nor graud, nor founded on 
any authority or symbolic meaning, and by renouncing the 
silly pretence of secrets, 1 and undertaking to teach what I 
have sketched in various portions of this work, concerning 
the origin and meaning of Masonry and its symbols, illustrat- 
ing its teaching by the ornaments and practice of the lodges. 
This seems to be the only ground on which Freemasonry 
could claim to have its lease of existence, as Freemasonry, 

1 " Un secrete, che sanno tre, 

Un secreto mai MOD c." Italian Proicrb. 


renewed, for not even the Masonic marriages, introduced by 
French lodges, will perpetuate its existence. I have before me 
accounts of two such marriages, performed without the usual 
ecclesiastic or civil ceremonies, the one in the lodge La 
France Mafonnique in Paris in 1887, and the other in a 
lodge at Toulouse, in the same year, as also of two others, 
celebrated in Paris, in 1882, when M. Elysee Reclus, a Free- 
mason, and one of the five well-known Anarchist brothers, 
gave away two of his daughters to two brothers, at a dinner 
held in a private house, simply declaring the two couples 
by that mere declaration to be married. But the ladies do 
not approve of these hole-and-corner espousals. 

499. Masonic Opinions of Masonry. Masons have been 
very indignant with me for making these statements; but 
honest members of the craft know, and occasionally admit, 
that I am right. In 1798 a Mason wrote in the Monthly 
Magazine, "The landlord (who is always a brother) pro- 
motes harmony, as it is called, by providing choice suppers 
and good liquors, the effects of which are late hours and ineb- 
riety ; and thus are made up two-thirds of modern lodges." 
And again : " Hogarth was a member of the fraternity, and 
actually served the office of Grand Steward in 1735, . . . 
yet in his picture of ' Night,' one of the most conspicuous 
figures is that of a master of a lodge led home drunk by the 
tyler." The too facile admission of worthless members is 
regretted by the same writer, as it is by modern Masons (e.g. 
Freemason, 26th June 1875). 

Brother John Yarker in his " Notes on the Scientific and 
Religious Mysteries of Antiquity " (Hogg, 1 872), a zealous 
Mason, says: "As the masonic fraternity is now governed, 
the craft is fast becoming the paradise of the bon vivant, of 
the ' charitable ' hypocrite, who . . . decorates his breast 
with the 'charity jewel'; . . . the manufacturer of paltry 
masonic tinsel ; the rascally merchant who swindles in hun- 
dreds and even thousands, by appealing to the tender con- 
sciences of those few who do regard their 0. B.'s, and the 
Masonic ' Emperors ' and other charlatans, who make power 
or money out of the aristocratic pretensions which they have 
tacked on to our institution, ad captandum vulf/us." This 
I think is enough to show that my censures are well founded. 

500. Masonic Literature. It is almost absurd to talk of 
masonic literature; it scarcely exists. Except the works 
written by Oliver, Mackey, Findel, and Ragon, there is 
scarcely anything worth reading about Freemasonry, of 
which a Freemason is the author. The countless lectures 
by brethren, with a few exceptions, consist of mere truisms 


and platitudes. Its periodical literature in this country at 
all events is essentially of the Grub Street kind, consisting 
of mere trade-circulars, supported by puffing masonic trades- 
men and vain officials, who like to have their working in 
the lodge trumpeted forth in a fashion which occasionally 
trenches on imbecility, as could readily be shown by extracts 
from newspaper reports. All attempts permanently to 
establish masonic periodicals of a higher order have hitherto 
failed from want of encouragement. The fact is, men of 
education take very little interest in Masonry, for it has 
nothing to offer them in an intellectual point of view ; be- 
cause even Masons who have attained to every ne plus ultra 
of the institution, know little of its origin and meaning. 

5<DOa. The Quatuor Coronati Lodge. The literary short- 
comings of Masonry I have, in the interests of truth, and as 
an impartial historian been compelled to point out in the 
previous section, have been recognised by intelligent Masons, 
and such recognition has, in 1884, led to the foundation of 
the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. Members must be possessed 
of literary or artistic qualifications ; to belong to it, there- 
fore, is in itself a distinction, and, as may be supposed, the 
lodge is composed chiefly of well-known masonic historians 
and antiquaries, and thus occupies a position totally dif- 
ferent from all other masonic lodges. Its objects are the 
promotion of masonic knowledge, by papers read and dis- 
cussions thereon in the lodge ; by the publication of its 
transactions, and the reprinting of scarce and valuable 
works on Freemasonry, such as MSS., e.g. "The Masonic 
Poem" (circa 1390), the earliest MS. relating to Free- 
masonry ; Matthew Cooke's Harleian and Lansdowne MSS. ; 
or printed works, as e.y., "Anderson's Constitutions" of 
1738, or Reproductions of Masonic Certificates. All these 
have been issued by this lodge in volumes, entitled " Ars 
Quatuor Coronatorum," well printed, and expensively illus- 
trated. Connected with the lodge is a " Correspondence 
Circle," whose members reside in all parts of the globe, and 
form a literary society of Masons, aiming at the progress of 
the craft. But by progress can only be meant extension 
of Masonry; the "Transactions" and "Reprints" can add 
nothing to the knowledge the best-informed members already 
possess ; but the " Reprints," by their aesthetic sumptuous- 
ness and the learned comments accompanying them, invest 
Masonry with a dignity which may attract to it more of the 
intelligence of mankind than it has hitherto done, and the 
labours of Quatuor Coronatorum therefore deserve the hearty 
support of the craft. 




501. Introductory Remarks. There exists at present in a 
state of suspended animation an association of working or 
rather, talking men, pretending to have for its object the 
uniting in one fraternal bond the workers of all countries, 
and the advocating of the interests of labour, and those only. 
Though it protests against being a secret society, it yet 
indulges in such underhand dealings, insidiously endeavour- 
ing to work mischief between employers and employed, and 
aiming at the subversion of the existing order of things, 
that it deserves to be denounced with all the societies pro- 
fessedly secret. In this country its influence is scarcely felt, 
because the English workmen that join it are numerically 
few : according to the statement of the secretary of the 
International himself, the society in its most palmy days 
counted only about 8000 English members and these, with 
here and there an exception, belonged to the most worthless 
portion of the working classes. It ever is chiefly the idle and 
dissipated or unskilled artizan who thinks his position is to 
be improved by others and not by himself. To hear the 
interested demagogues and paid agitators of the " Inter- 
national," or of " Unions," the working classes would seem 
to be exceptionally oppressed, and to labour under disad- 
vantages greater than any that weigh upon other sections 
of the community. Yet no other class is so much protected 
by the legislature, and none, except the paupers, pay less 
towards the general expenses of the country in direct or 
indirect taxation. The wages a skilled artizan can earn 
are higher than the remuneration obtainable by thousands 
of men, who have enjoyed a university education, or sunk 
money in some professional apprenticeship ; whilst he is 
free from the burden incident to maintaining a certain social 
status. His hours of labour are such as to leave him plenty 
of leisure for enjoyment, especially in this country ; and as 
regards extra holidays, he is on the whole pretty liberally 
dealt with, especially by the large employers of labour, the 
capitalists, against whom the street-spouters, who for their 

VOL. ii. " 3 n 


own advantage get up public demonstrations, are always 
inveighing in a manner which would be simply ridiculous, 
were it not mischievous. But then if they did not constantly 
attempt to render the workman dissatisfied with his lot, their 
occupation would be gone. And so, as the doctors who, 
for want of patients, get up hospitals for the cure of par- 
ticular diseases, try to persuade every man they come in 
contact with, that he is suffering from some such disease ; 
so these agitators endeavour to talk the workman into the 
delusion that he is the most unfortunate and most oppressed 
individual under the sun. To wish to act for one's self and 
work out one's own salvation is no doubt very praiseworthy ; 
but workmen ought to bear in mind that they may be the 
tools of ambitious men in their own class, who look upon 
and use them as such for their own purposes, men who want 
to be generals commanding soldiers. But the soldiers of 
the Unions are not worth much. Those workmen who are" 
not satisfied with adhering to the statutes of the society in 
order to get rid of troublesome appeals, and to avoid being 
molested by their comrades, but who fervently embrace its 
principles and count upon their success, usually are the 
most idle, the least saving, the least sober. The fanatics of 
the Unions, those who ought to form their principal strength, 
are formed, not by the dlite, but by the scum of the working 
classes. The chiefs are not much better. The more intelli- 
gent and honest founders of such societies have gradually 
withdrawn from them in disgust 

502. Socialistic Schemes. Schemes for the regeneration of 
mankind have been hatched in every age, from Plato and his 
Republic down to Louis Blanc's Organisation du Travail, and 
the International. Many communistic movements took place 
in the sixteenth century, and the brief history of the Ana- 
baptist kingdom of Munster presents striking resemblances 
with that of the Commune of Paris. Babeuf and the Con- 
spiracy of the Equals remind us of the demagogues who 
filled Paris with blood and fire. The collegia op-ificuiii, 
of Rome, the guilds of France and Germany, the trades- 
corporations, the compagnonnage all these were the fore- 
runners of modern trade-unions and the International. 
The systems of Saint-Simon, Fourier, Cabet, Louis Blanc, 
and Owen also had their day. In this country no law 
has been passed against trade-unions, and therefore they 
flourish here, and have led to deplorable events, such as the 
Sheffield outrages, which, for diabolical fury, deserve to be 
placed side by side with the doings of the Commune. The 


reader will probably remember the fact that men who had 
belonged to the Sheffield trade-unions, but withdrew from 
them, were assassinated, their houses blown up, and every 
imaginable kind of tyranny and persecution practised upon 
them for the space of some fifteen years. Still, as the majority 
of the Parisian workmen were innocent of the crimes of 
the Commune, so the trade-unions were not answerable for 
the doings of a restricted number of their members. But 
these trade-unions, dating from about the year 1833, are 
still to be condemned, because they are the instigators and 
upholders of strikes, the greatest curse, not on the hated 
capitalist, but on the poor workman. Now the International 
was a combination of trade-unions, with the additional poison 
of Communism diffused throughout its system. 

503. History of the International. The first attempt at 
an international society was made by a small number 
of German workmen in London, who had been expelled 
from France in 1839 for taking part in the tmeute in 
Paris. Its members consisted of Germans, Hungarians, 
Poles, Danes, and Swedes. Of the few English mem- 
bers, Ernest Jones was one. The society was on friendly 
terms with the English Socialists, the Chartists, and the 
London French Democratic Society. Out of that friendship 
sprang the Society of the Fraternal Democrats, who were in 
correspondence with a number of democratic societies in 
Belgium. In. November 1847 a German Communist Con- 
ference was held in London, at which Dr. Karl Marx was 
present. In the manifesto then put forth, it was declared 
that the aim of the Communists was the overthrow of the 
rule of the capitalists by the acquisition of political power. 
The practical measures by which this was to be effected were 
the abolition of private property in land ; the centralisation 
of credit in the hands of the State the leading agitators of 
course to be the chiefs of the State by means of a national 
bank ; the centralisation of the means of transport in the 
hands of the State ; national workshops ; the reclamation 
and improvement of land ; and the gratuitous education of 
all the children. But all these One schemes of amelioration, 
or rather spoliation, in consequence of the Revolution of 
February 1848, ended in smoke ; and it was not till the year 
1859, when the London builders' dispute arose, that new 
alliances among the working-men were formed. In 1860 
a Trade Unionist, Manhood Suffrage, and Vote by Ballot 
Association was established. As if it had not enough of 
what might be called legitimate work to do, the association 


also undertook to agitate in favour of Poland, for which 
purpose it co-operated with the National League for the 
Independence of Poland. The London International Exhi- 
bition of 1862 induced the French Government to assist 
many French workmen with means to visit that exhibition ; 
"a visit," said the French press, "which will enable our 
workmen to study the great works of art and industry, 
remove the leaven of international discord, and replace 
national jealousies by fraternal emulation." It is impos- 
sible to say how far these French workmen studied the 
works of art and industry exhibited in 1862, but it is quite 
certain that the old leaven of international discord, which 
up to that time had not been very formidable, was speedily 
replaced by a new leaven of social discord, not so virulent at is true, as it subsequently became in the after-days of 
the International. Many of the original members of this as- 
sociation, in fact, eventually withdrew from it, as they refused 
to be identified with its excesses, which had not been planned 
or foreseen by its founders. On the 5th of August, all the 
delegates met at a dinner given to them by their English 
colleagues at Freemasons' Hall, when an address was read 
which formed, as it were, the foundation-stone of 'the Inter- 
national. The Imperial Commission that had enabled the 
French workmen to visit the London Exhibition had no 
doubt furnished them with return tickets ; but several of 
the artizans made no use of their second halves, since profit- 
able employment in London was found for them by their 
English brethren, so that they might form connecting links 
between the workmen of the two countries. The next year 
a new meeting was found necessary. There was no longer 
an Exhibition, nor subsidies from the Imperial Government 
to pay travelling expenses. The pretext, however, was found 
in a demonstration just then made in favour of Poland. Six 
French delegates having mulcted their mates in contributions 
towards the pleasant trip, came over, and the democrats of 
London and Paris were invited to co-operate in the libera- 
tion of Poland, and to form an international working-men's 
alliance. Various meetings were held, and all the stale 
twaddle concerning Poland and the emancipation of the 
working classes talked over again. A central committee of 
working-men of different countries, to have its seat in Lon- 
don truly England is the political and social dunghill of 
Europe ! was appointed, and a collection of course followed, 
which at the most important meeting realised three guineas. 
A paltry sum after so much talk ! The members of the 


committee, holding its powers by the resolution of the public 
meeting held on September 28, 1864, at St. Martin's Hall, 
then declared the International Working-Men's Association 
to be established ; and congresses were appointed to be held 
at different times and places, to decide on the measures to 
be taken to found the working-men's Eldorado. Many 
societies at first were affiliated, but dissensions soon broke 
out among them, and many, such as the Italian Working- 
Men's Society, withdrew again. In 1866, a meeting or con- 
gress was held at Geneva, where it was decided that an 
inquiry into the condition of the working classes of all 
countries should be made respecting rate of wages, hours 
of labour, &c. And this inquiry, which never was made on 
the part of the International, was to be a preliminary to 
practical measures no wonder that the association produced 
nothing practical. At this Geneva Congress resolutions 
were passed in favour of transferring railways and other 
means of locomotion to the people, and of destroying the 
monopoly of the great companies " that subject the working 
classes to arbitrary laws, assailing both the dignity of man 
and individual liberty." Resolutions were also passed in 
favour of direct taxation. How this suggestion would be 
received by the working-man has very pleasantly been 
pointed out by Punch or some other comic paper: "Mrs. 
Brown (loq.} ' Well, Mrs. Jones, my husband says that if 
they tax him, he will take it out in parish relief.' " The 
abolition of standing armies and the independence of Poland 
Poland again were also decided on. Both these points 
are still decided on, and will probably remain at the same 
interesting stage of progress a little longer. 

504. Objects and Aims of International. To sum up what 
was proposed at the latter congresses : Quarries, coal 
and other mines, as well as railways, shall belong to the 
social collectivity, represented by the State ; but by the 
State regenerated, that will concede them, not, as now, to 
capitalists, but to associations of workmen. The soil shall 
be granted to agricultural associations ; canals, roads, tele- 
graphs, and forests shall belong collectively to society. 
Contracts of lease, or letting, shall be converted into con- 
tracts of sale ; that is to say, capital shall no longer be 
entitled to claim interest. If I borrow ^lOOO, I shall have 
paid off the debt in twenty years by an annual payment of 
$O. Such were the doctrines of this society, whose motto 
was, La proprtitd, c'est le vol. All these, however, were clothed 
in very fine words "economic evolution," "social collec- 


tivity," " scientific and rational exploitation," " social liquida- 
tion," &c. No congress met in 1870, in consequence of the 
war ; but the programme that was to have formed the subject 
of discussion has been published. The first question was : 
On the necessity of abolishing the public debt. The third : 
Concerning practical means for converting landed and 
funded property into social property. The fifth : Condi- 
tions of co-operative prodnctiou on a national scale. The 
Belgian Committee proposed as an additional question : 
Concerning the practical means for constituting agricultural 
sections in the International. Thus private property was to 
be abolished, private enterprise destroyed, and the poison of 
Communism, with which large towns are now infected, to be 
diffused throughout the country. What would these men 
have done could they, according to their intention, have met 
in Paris in 1870? The pertinacity with which the cause of 
Poland is sought to be identified with the objects of the 
International has already been alluded to. Poland seems a 
mine that can never be exhausted. Thousands of rogues 
and vagabonds of all countries have fattened, are fattening, 
and will yet fatten on this carcass, as burnt-out tradesmen 
have been known to flourish on the fire 'by which they lost 
everything ! 

505. The International in England. In this -country, as 
we have seen, the International had only a limited success. 
It indeed held public meetings and demonstrations, and led 
to some insignificant riots, for the occurrence of which our 
Government of course was very much to blame. There were, 
indeed, alarmists who were led astray by the "bounce" of 
the International, and who thus invested it with greater 
importance than intrinsically attached to it. Thus a Paris 
paper contained a letter from a London correspondent, which 
gave an awful picture of the danger threatening this country 
from the spread of socialistic doctrines. The writer said : 
"The whole of this vast empire is permeated by secret 
societies. The International here holds its meetings almost 
publicly. It is said that the greater number of the dis- 
possessed princes of India, a good number of officers belong- 
ing to the army and navy, as well as members of Parliament, 
and even ministers, are affiliated to it (!). The Government 
is aware of the infernal plan by which, at a given moment, 
the public buildings of London are to be exposed to the fate 
which befell so many in Paris. Boats are already waiting on 
the Thames to receive the treasures of the Bank of England 
an easy prey, say the conspirators as soon as the main 


artery of the Strand shall have been burnt, and the public 
buildings, the barracks especially, shall have been blown up, 
as was three years ago the Clerkenwell prison." Perhaps the 
writer was only joking ; and if I thought the leaders of the 
International possessed any Machiavellian talent, I should 
say they themselves caused the letter to be written to give 
the world an exaggerated idea of their power therein imi- 
tating the President of the London Republican Club, who 
boasted of his power of pulling down the monarchy, as that 
would be the readiest means of attracting fresh members ; 
for the idea of belonging to a powerful and universally 
diffused brotherhood exercises a great fascination over the 
minds of only partially educated men, such as form the bulk 
of the working classes. 

506. The International Abroad. Abroad, however, its 
action was much more marked. It fomented serious riots 
in Holland, Belgium, and France ; and in the last-named 
country it especially stimulated Communism, and sup- 
ported the Paris Commune in all its atrocities, which 
were spoken of in the most laudatory terms in the then 
recently published pamphlet, " The Civil War in France " 
(Trnelove, 1871). But even continental workmen have ere 
this discovered the hollowness of the International. The 
working engineers of Brussels, instead of receiving during a 
recent strike fifteen francs weekly, as promised, were paid 
only six francs ; and having imposed upon the masters an 
augmentation of fifty per cent, on overtime, the masters, in 
order to avoid this ruinous tariff, had no work performed 
after the regular hours. The men, finding themselves losers 
by this rule, enforced on them by the International, sent 
in their resignations as members of the society, which they 
described as the " Leprosy of Europe," and the "Company 
of Millionaires ... on paper." At a conference held in 
London, the Russian delegate urged that his country espe- 
cially offered an excellent field for the spread of socialist 
doctrines, and that the students were quite ripe for revolu- 
tion. Wherefore it was decided that a special appeal should 
be addressed to the Russian students and workmen. 

507. The International and the Empire. At the time when 
the International was founded, the French Empire was as 
yet in all its strength. None of the parties that secretly 
strove against it seemed to have any chance of success ; nor 
from their political and social characteristics could these 
parties, though all bent on the overthrow of the empire, 
coalesce and act as one combined force. The International 


refused to ally itself to any of them or to meddle with 
politics, but declared social questions paramount to all 
political considerations ; and to the position thus assumed by 
the association it was due that the Imperial Government did 
not molest it, but that the ministers allowed it to develop 
itself, hoping at the convenient moment to win it over to 
their interest. These ministers considered themselves very 
pro found politicians, when they had fomented a quarrel be- 
tween Prussia and Austria ; trusting, when these two powers 
should mutually have exhausted each other, to seize the 
Rhenish provinces. They looked upon themselves as small 
Machiavellis when they permitted the International to grow 
in order some day to use it against a mutinous bourgeoisie. 
The Emperor had an opportunity on September 2, at Sedan, 
and the Empress on September 4, at Paris, to judge of the 
value of such policy. However, the scheme of the associa- 
tion having been settled in London in 1 864, the organisers 
opened at Paris a bureau de correspondance, which was neither 
formally interdicted nor regularly authorised by the Prefect 
and the Minister. But the constantly-growing power of the 
International, shown by the strikes of Roubaix, Amiens, 
Paris, Geneva, &c., after a time compelled the Government 
either to direct or to destroy it. The Parisian manifesto read 
at Geneva was stopped at the French frontier ; but M. 
Rouher agreed to admit it into France, if the association 
would insert some passages thanking the Emperor for what 
he had done for the working classes a suggestion which 
was received with derision by the members. In the mean- 
time the old revolutionary party looked with suspicion 
on the foundation of the International ; for, as this last 
declared that it would not meddle with politics, the others 
called out, Treason ! and thus the two parties were soon 
in a condition of violent opposition. In 1867, the Con- 
gress of Lausanne voted against war, but at the same 
moment the other fraction of the demagogues, assembled at 
Geneva, under pretence of forming a congress of peace, 
declared war to all tyrants and oppressors of the people. 
However, the two parties, the bourgeois demagogues and the 
workmen demagogues, eventually united; and thus it came 
to pass that by virtue of this pact the International took part 
in two revolutionary manifestations which occurred about six 
weeks after the one at the tomb of Manin in the cemetery 
of Montmartre, and the other on the following day on the 
Boulevard Montmartre, to protest against the French occupa- 
tion of Rome. The International having thus been carried 


away to declare war against the Government, the latter de- 
termined to prosecute it. The association was declared to 
be dissolved, and fifteen of the leaders were each fined ono 
hundred francs. The International taking no notice of the 
decree of dissolution, a second prosecution was instituted, 
and nine of the accused were condemned to imprisonment 
for three months. The International now hid itself amidst 
the multitude of working-men's societies of all descriptions 
that were either authorised or at least tolerated, and mado 
enormous progress, so that its chiefs at last declared them- 
selves able to do without any extraneous support. The 
International, said one of the speakers at the Basle Congress 
(1869), is and must be a state within states; let these go 
on as suits them, until our state is the strongest. Then, 
on the ruins of these, we shall erect our own fully pre- 
pared, such as it exists in every section. The Volksstimme, 
the Austrian organ of the society, said : " To us the red 
flag is the symbol of universal love of mankind. Let our 
enemies beware lest they transform it against themselves into 
a flag of terror." To have an organ of its own the Inter- 
national founded the Marseillaise, with Rochefort for its 
chief, his association therewith having induced certain capi- 
talists to find the necessary funds. Another personage with 
whom it became connected was General Cluseret (669). 
Cluseret, as an adventurer, always on the look-out for what 
might turn up, saw the power such an association as the 
International might command, and the latter found in him a 
willing tool. From a letter he addressed from New York to 
Varlin, on February 17, 1870, it also appears that all the 
crimes of which he has since then been guilty, were pre- 
meditated, and that he had from the first resolved not to 
perish without involving Paris in his fall. " On that day " 
(of the downfall of Louis Napoleon), he says, "on that 
day, we or nothing. On that day Paris must be ours, 
or Paris must cease to exist." That this feeling was shared 
by other members of the association may be inferred from 
the fact that, at the house of one of the affiliated was 
found a dictionary which formed the key of their secret 
correspondence. Now, besides the usual words, we find 
such as nitro-glycerine and picrate of potash ; at the house 
of another, recipes were discovered for the manufacture of 
nitro-glycerine, and of various other explosive compounds. 
Some of the recipes were followed by such directions as 
these "To be thrown in at windows," "To be thrown into 
gutters," &c. The attempted plebiscite in support of the 


reforms voted by the Senate, in January 1870, was violently 
opposed by the International, who declared in favour of a 
republic. On the occasion of the plot of the Orsini shells, 
the society, in defending itself against the charge of having 
had any share in it, declared that it did not war against 
individual perpetrators of coups d'ttat, but that it was a 
permanent conspiracy of all the oppressed, which shall exist 
until all capitalists, priests, and political adventurers shall 
have disappeared. Such a declaration of war against all 
men that had any interest in the maintenance of public 
order, and especially against many men forming the then 
Imperial Government, naturally induced a third prosecution. 

Thirty-eight members were indicted, many of whom we 
meet again as active members of the Commune. Some were 
acquitted, others condemned to one year's imprisonment. 
No one suspected that the names of these obscure workmen, 
condemned as members of a secret society, would soon be 
connected with the most horrible disasters of Paris, and that 
these men, sentenced to such slight punishments, would at 
the end of a year reappear before a military tribunal, after 
having for two months and a half filled terrified Paris with 
pillage, murder, and incendiary fires. 

508. The International and the War. The International 
condemned all war except war against bourgeois, capitalists, 
monopolists, parasites that is to say, the classes that 
live not by manual labour, but by intellectual work, or the 
savings of any kind of labour. It abolished national wars, 
to replace them by social war. For this reason it so perti- 
naciously insisted on the abolition of all standing armies, 
which are of course great obstacles to its own plans. It 
therefore protested against the Franco-Prussian war, but as 
this opposition ended in mere talk, it need not further be 
dilated on. Its only results were to consign some of the 
most violent opponents to prison ; and there is no proof that 
one single soldier of the regular Prussian army, or even of 
the Landwehr, deserted or refused to fight, in order to remain 
faithful to the theories of the society. In France the affi- 
liated of the International were only brave in civil war. 

On September 3, 1870, the disaster of Sedan became 
known at Paris. On the next day, Lyons, Marseilles, 
Toulouse, and Paris proclaimed the Republic. This simul- 
taneous movement was the result of an understanding 
existing between the leading members of the International 
in the various parts of France ; but that the " Jules Favres 
and Gambettas," that verminc bourycoisc,a.B the International 


called them, should obtain any share of power, was very 
galling to the demagogues. At Lyons and Marseilles, how- 
ever, the supreme power fell into the hands of the lowest 
wretches. The Commune installed at Lyons began its work 
by raising the red flag that of the International. At Paris 
the association pretended at first to be most anxious to fight 
the Prussians. When the battalions were sent to the front, 
however, it was found that those comprising most Inter- 
nationals were the most ready " to fall back in good order," 
or even to flee in great disorder at the first alarm ; and 
General Clement Thomas pointed out this instructive fact 
to the readers of the Journal OfficieL But when a few 
Prussian regiments entered Paris, the International, through 
its central committee, announced that the moment for action 
was come ; and so the members seized the cannons scattered 
in various parts of the city, and then began that series of 
excesses, for which the Commune will always enjoy an in- 
famous notoriety. 

509. The International and the Commune. One would 
have supposed that the International would disavow the 
Communists ; but, on the contrary, it approved of their 
proceedings. Flames were still ascending from the Hotel 
de Ville, when already numerous sections of the Inter- 
national throughout Europe expressed their admiration of 
the conduct of the Parisian outcasts. 

At Zurich, at a meeting of the members of the Inter- 
national, it was declared that "the struggle maintained by 
the Commune of Paris was just and worthy, and that all 
thinking men ought to join in the contest." 

At Brussels the Belgian section of the International pro- 
tested against the prosecution of the malefactors of Paris. 
At Geneva, two days before the entrance of the Versaillais 
into Paris, an address to the Commune was voted, declaring 
that it (the Commune) represented "the economic aspira- 
tions of the working classes." The German Internationalists 
were no less positive in their praise of the Communists : 
" We are ready to defend the acts of the Commune at all 
times, and against all comers," said a socialistic paper pub- 
lished at Leipzig. The Italians sent an address to the 
Commune, ending thus: "To capital which said, Ye shall 
starve, they replied : We will live by our labour. To 
despotism they replied : We are free ! To the cannons 
and chassepots of the reactionnaires they opposed their 
naked breasts. They fell, but fell as heroes ! Now the 
reaction calls them bandits. Shall we permit it ? No ! 


Let us invite our brethren to our homes, and protect them. 
The principles of the Commune are ours ; we accept the 
responsibility of their acts." The English Internationalists 
were too few to prove their approbation of the Commune 
by any public demonstration ; but in private they did so 
very energetically. One of the members even declared 
that the good time "was really coming." "Soon," said 
he, "we shall be able to dethrone the Queen of England, 
turn Buckingham Palace into a workshop, and pull down 
the York column, as the noble French people has pulled 
down the Vendome column." (Be it observed here, that 
as this column chiefly commemorated French victories over 
the Germans, this act of vandalism has by some authorities 
been attributed to the influence of Prussian gold liberally 
distributed to certain patriotic members of the Commune.) 
But the London section of the International clearly put 
forth its views on the conduct of the Commune. The 
pamphlet, "The Civil War in France," published for the 
council by Truelove, 256 High Holborn, the office of the 
International, is a continuous panegyric on the Commune, 
and was at first signed by all the members of the council ; 
but two of them, Lucraft and Odger, afterwards withdrew 
their names, stating that they had, in the first instance, 
been appended without their knowledge which appeared 
to be the fact. 

510. Budget of the International. One portion of the 
organisation of the International, and that the most im- 
portant for the chiefs, of course ! its budget, remains to 
be noticed. It is scarcely necessary to say that there was a 
total absence of official accounts ; but the following details, 
referring to France and Belgium, will give some idea as to 
the way in which funds were raised and applied. Every 
member on his admission paid a fee of fifty centimes, for 
which he received his admission card, which was renewed 
annually and gratuitously. He had also to pay a minimum 
annual tax of ten centimes, to go towards the general ex- 
penses of the association. Then each federation imposed a 
special tax for its own expenses. At Lyons and Paris this 
amounted to ten centimes per month. Thus it appears that 
the annual tax was very light, amounting only to one franc 
thirty cents, which was not paying too dear for the honour 
of belonging to a society that aspired to the government of 
the world, and commenced by burning it. But this honour 
could be had at a still cheaper rate; for the Swiss branch 
charged its members only ten centimes a year. Yet even 


these small sums seemed difficult to be got in, and the 
statutes were very severe upon defaulters. But there were 
taxes to pay to the sections, which raised the yearly con- 
tributions to seven or eight francs. Nor was this all. In 
the various legal prosecutions the society had to undergo 
there was frequent reference to the caisse federative du sou, 
though the expression was nowhere exactly defined. So far 
as has been ascertained it alluded to a voluntary weekly 
subscription of five centimes, collected in workshops and 
factories, from workmen who did not belong to the associa- 
tion, but intended to join it, or to support it without joining 
it. In the statutes of the Parisian branch, Article 9 further 
said that the council may, if necessary, vote larger sums than 
the general budget would justify, and proportionately increase 
the amount of con tribu lions payable by the members. But 
the most powerful arm of the association, when any particular 
object was to be attained, such, for instance, as the success 
of a strike, was subscription. Thus the successful termina- 
tion of the strike in the building trade of Geneva in 1 868, 
was thought of such importance as to call forth unusual 
exertions. But the delegate who was sent to London to 
collect subscriptions from the English workmen met with 
but slight success ; not because these were niggardly, but 
because, in spite of their avowed hatred of state forms and 
aristocratic deliberation, they yet so closely imitated both, 
that the Genevese workmen might have been starved into 
submission before the English woikmen had resolved to 
succour them, had not the Parisian workmen at once sub- 
scribed ten thousand francs. What these annual subscriptions 
may have amounted to, it is impossible to tell. No doubt 
the total was very great, considering the large number of 
members ; and yet it was insufficient, in consequence of the 
strikes that were constantly taking place at all places and 
times. The journals were full of the fine phrases used by the 
chiefs of the International concerning the sufferings of the 
workmen reduced by infamous capitalists to the point of 
forsaking their work and of leaving the workshops where 
their misery was turned to account. A confidential letter of 
Varlin, one of the chiefs of the Paris federation, which was 
brought into court at the trial of the International on June 
22, 1870, at Paris, however, showed that the chiefs did not 
speak quite so feelingly of these sufferings, when they are 
not expected to be heard by their dupes : " This strike 
which we declared closed ten days ago, leaves four hundred 
workmen on our hands. The day before yesterday they 


wanted to destroy their former workshops and drive away 
the mogs that had taken their places. Fortunately we re- 
strained them, but we are greatly bothered by this affair 
(nous sommes bien embttte par cette affaire)." 

511. Attempt to Revive tlie International. An International 
Trades Union Congress was held in London in 1888 for the 
avowed purpose of reviving the International, which collapsed 
in 1871, though branches of it, such as the Jurassic Federa- 
tion of Workmen, the International Brethren, the Council of 
Dynamite, at whose meetings in Chicago the editor of Freiheit 
presided, continue to vegetate. But the discussions as to the 
means of physically and morally raising the working classes 
as yet remain mere talk. As one of the speakers at the 
London Congress remarked, "The chief difficulty in the way 
of the reconstruction of the International lies in the apathy 
and indifference of the workmen themselves," which shows 
that the workmen are after all not such fools as agitators 
think or wish them to be. 

512. Anarchists. The fear of hell, the only means known 
to the churches of all denominations, to keep men from 
vice, has never been an efficient one for that purpose. In 
the Middle Ages, which, we are told, were permeated by 
deep religious feeling, club-law, persecution of the Jews, 
and inhuman cruelties indulged in by Church and State 
were the rule. The latter two have in our days become 
more civilised, but the masses retain their sting, and men 
are driven by wretchedness to attempt its removal by the 
destruction of all existing order. Karl Marx in 1864 first 
thought of consolidating this principle by a secret society, 
the International Union of Working-Men. In 1868 the 
Russian, Michael Bakunin, and the Belgian, Victor Dave, 
infused into the association the poison of Anarchism, which 
in 1871 produced the Paris Commune. But disputes arose 
between the more moderate members, the Social Democrats, 
and the Anarchists in 1872, who thenceforth formed two 
distinct camps. The social democrat and bookbinder, John 
Most (born 1846), joined the Anarchists, and in 1879 
founded in London the Freiheit, an Anarchist paper of the 
most violent character. In 1 883 the Anarchists attempted 
to blow up the German Emperor and those around him at 
the unveiling of the monument in the Niederwald ; the two 
ringleaders were caught and beheaded, but in 1885 Dr. 
Rumpf, a high police official, who had been instrumental 
in securing the conviction of the criminals, was assassinated 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main ; only the least important of the 


assassins, Julius Lieske, twenty-two years of age, was dis- 
covered and beheaded. Most then founded another more 
secret society of propagandists, to which only the leading 
members of the association were admitted. When the 
Frciheit applauded the Phoenix Park murders it was sup- 
pressed, but reappeared in Switzerland, and lastly in the 
United States, to which Most in 1882 emigrated, and the 
propaganda of Anarchism, whose secret chief seat was at 
Chicago, made rapid progress in the States, as well as in 
Europe, and culminated in the dynamite outrages at Chicago, 
assassinations at Strasburg, Stuttgart, Vienna, and Prague. 

In the latter city, early in 1883, a secret council of 
Anarchists condemned the prefect of the police, who had 
had some of the assassins arrested, to death ; lots were 
drawn as to who was to do the deed, and it fell on a 
journeyman glove-maker, named Dressier, who, however, 
committed suicide to escape becoming a murderer. But 
before his death he had written a letter to his parents, 
revealing the existence of the society ; the information it 
gave enabled the police to arrest the most important 
members. On the 4th July 1883, a shoe manufacturer in 
one of the most frequented suburban streets of Vienna was 
set upon in his house by two individuals, who held a 
sponge saturated with chloroform to his face until ho 
became unconscious, when he was robbed of 782 florins. 
Some weeks after the crime was traced to an Anarchist 
association, and seventeen men and two women were arrested, 
who, after investigation, were found to be members of a 
secret association, whose aim, according to pamphlets found 
on them, was to do away with the throne, altar, and money- 
bags, and to establish a Red Republic. Small associations, 
it appeared, consisting of from five to nine members each, 
had been formed among the Radical workmen, each member 
being bound to establish another such small circle. The 
trial appears to have broken up the society, though Anar- 
chists in most countries of Europe and other parts of 
the world remain very active, openly avowing the results 
they aim at, results in themselves impracticable, and which, 
if they could be attained, would render the existence of 
society and of civilisation impossible. The Anarchists, 
who wish to reform the world, should begin by reforming 



" These were days, when my heart was volcanic, 
As the scoriae rivers that roll, 
As the lavas, that restlessly roll 
Their sulphurous currents down Yanik, 

In the clime of the boreal pole ; 
That groan as they roll down Mount Yanik, 
In the clime of the ultimate pole." 

E. A. FOE. 

VOL. II. 199 


513. Earliest Secret Chinese Societies. The earliest notice 
we have of a secret Chinese league is towards the close 
of the Han dynasty (A.D. 185). Three patriots, having 
then associated themselves, defended the throne against the 
" Yellow Cap " rebels, a society numbering among its mem- 
bers the flower of Chinese litterateurs. From that time until 
the establishment of the present Tartar dynasty (twelfth 
century), the League showed few signs of vitality. But at 
the beginning of the eighteenth century five monks and seven 
other persons bound themselves by an oath, which they 
ratified by mixing blood from the arm of each, and drinking 
it in common, to overthrow the Tsings, the present Tartar 
dynasty, and restore the Mings, the dispossessed Chinese 
dynasty. The name of the society they founded was Pe- 
lin-kiao, or the White Lily. The members relied on a 
prophecy that one of them should be emperor of China. 
The leaders were Wang-lung and a bonze named Fan-ui. 
The former made himself master of the town of Shoo-chang- 
hien, but was soon driven thence, and eventually captured, 
and executed with many of his followers. In 1777 the 
Pe-lin-kiao again appeared, only to be defeated again ; the 
heads of the leaders, including those of two women, were 
cut off and placed in cages for public inspection. In 1 800 
a sect called the Wonderful Association, and another, called 
the Tsing-lien-kiao, supposed to be the Pe-lin-kiao under a 
new name, conspired against the ruling dynasty, but un- 
successfully. Under the reign of the Emperor Kia-King 
(1799-1820) arose the Th'ien-Hauw-Hoi'h, that is, the family 
of the Queen of Heaven, spread through Cochin-China, 
Siam, and Corea, with its headquarters in the southern 
provinces of the empire. The society on being discovered 
and, as it was thought, exterminated, arose again under 
the name of the Great Hung League ; Hung literally means 
flood, and the leaders adopted the name to intimate that 


their society was to flood the earth. To avoid the appear- 
ance of all belonging to one society, they gave different 
names some borrowed from previously existing sects to 
the branches they established. Thus they were known as 
the Triad Society, the Blue Lotus Hall, the Golden Orchid 
District, and others. These soon attracted the attention of 
Government, and for some time they were kept in check. 
About 1826 the chief leader of the League was one Kwang 
San. It was reported that, to make himself ferocious he 
once drank gall, taken out of a murdered man's body, mixed 
with wine. He resided chiefly at the tin-mines of Loocoot, 
where the brethren then swarmed. The directing power 
was vested in three persons ; the chief, with the title of 
Koh, i.e. the Elder; the two others took that of Hiong 
Thi, i.e. Younger Brothers. In the Malacca branches the 
three chiefs were called Tai-Koh, eldest brother, Ji-Koh, 
second brother, and San-Koh, third brother. The oath of 
secrecy was taken by the aspirant kneeling before an image, 
under two sharp swords. Whilst the oath was being ad- 
ministered the Hiong Thi had also to kneel, the one on the 
right, the other on the left of the aspirant, and hold over 
his head the swords in such a fashion as to form a triangle. 
The oath contained thirty-six articles, of which the following 
was the most important: "I swear that I shall know 
neither father nor mother, nor brother nor sister, nor wife 
nor child, but the brotherhood alone; where the brother- 
hood leads or pursues, there I shall follow or pursue ; its foe 
shall be my foe." The aspirant, with a knife, then made an 
incision into his finger, and allowed three drops of blood to 
fall into a cup of arrack ; the three officials did the same 
thing, and then drank the liquor. In order further to ratify 
the oath, the newly-sworn member cut off the head of a 
white cock, which was to intimate that if he proved untrue, 
his head should be cut off. 

514. More recent Societies. In 1850 Tae-ping-wang, the 
noted revolutionary leader, made a fresh attempt to restore 
the Ming dynasty, from whom he pretended to be descended. 
With his defeat and death the League again subsided into 
obscurity. In the spring of 1 863 a quantity of books were 
accidentally found by the police in the house of a Chinaman, 
suspected of theft, at Padang (Sumatra), containing the 
laws, statutes, oaths, mysteries of initiation, catechism, de- 
scription of flags, symbols, and secret signs of the League, 
all of which were published in English in a 4to volume at 
Batavia in 1866. But this discovery showed the League to 


be still in existence, and about the year 1870 it started into 
activity again ; in Sarawak it assumed such a threatening 
aspect that the Government made a law decreeing death to 
every member ipso facto. The disturbances at Singapore in 
1 872 also were due to the secret societies of the Chinese in 
the Straits Settlements. On that occasion the Sam- Sings, 
or "fighting men," were the chief rioters, taking the part of 
the street hawkers, against whom some severe regulations 
had been issued. Murder and incendiarism, torturing and 
maiming, are the usual practices of the League, which again 
made itself very obnoxious in 1883 and 1885. The section 
of the " Black Flag," the remnant of the Taepings, as also 
the "White Lily," were the most active in their demonstra- 
tions against the Tsing dynasty. The last police reports 
from the protected state of Perak, in the Malay Peninsula, 
say that in 1888 secret societies "caused endless trouble 
and anxiety," although in 1887 four members of the Ghee 
Hin Association were sentenced to twenty years' imprison- 
ment for conducting an agency for their society. Half the 
Chinese in Perak are members of secret societies, tickets 
being found upon them whenever the police have occasion 
to search them. 

The Straits Times of the I7th September 1889 contained 
full particulars of the trial of a number of prisoners who 
were proved to be members of the Ghee Hin or Sam Tian 
secret society at Sarawak. The six leaders were shot ; 
eleven, being active members, carrying out orders of the 
leaders, beating, frightening, or murdering non-members, 
were sentenced to receive six dozen strokes with a rattan, 
to have their heads shaved, to be imprisoned during the 
Rajah's pleasure ; seven others, against whom no specific 
charges were made out, were dismissed on swearing to have 
no further dealings with the society. 

Towards the end of the year 1895 a number of Moham- 
medans rose against the Chinese Government and captured 
the capital of the province of Kansu ; the secret societies in 
Central China joined the Mohammedan insurgents. Their 
success, however, was of short duration ; in the month of 
December of the same year the insurrection was crushed, 
and some fifteen of the leaders were captured and beheaded. 
Others made their escape. Among these was Sun Yet Sun, 
or, as he is also called, Sun Wen, a medical man, well known 
in Hong-Kong. His being made a prisoner in the house of 
the Chinese Ambassador in London in the month of October 
1896, until, at the instance of Lord Salisbury, he was re- 


leased, is no doubt fresh in the memory of the reader. He 
asserted that he was kidnapped by the Chinese Ambassador's 
people, by being induced to walk into the Ambassador's 
house; but it is a curious circumstance that San Wen, who 
evidently knew something of London, should not have known 
where the Chinese Embassy was located, especially after all 
the excitement caused by Li Hung Chang's visit to the 
Continent and to England. 

In justice to the Taepings and other secret associations 
in China, it must be stated that the insurrection was and 
is the war of an oppressed nationality against foreign in- 
vaders. The Mantchoos or Tsing dynasty are an alien tribe, 
ruling over the vast Chinese empire ; their government is 
one of the most despotic the world has ever seen ; their laws 
are so ruthless and unjust, that it would seem they could 
never be carried out, did not the blood of millions, perishing 
by every kind of frightful death that the most diabolical 
cruelty could invent, attest the fact of their being obeyed. 
Yet British ministers did sanction the enlistment of British 
officers Bible Gordon being their leader, what a satire ! 
and men in the service of the Mantchoos, whom they further 
supplied with arms and artillery. 

515. Lodges. From the book published at Batavia, and 
mentioned above, we extract the following information : 

The lodge is built in a square, surrounded by walls, which 
are pierced at the four cardinal points by as many gates ; 
the faces are adorned by triangles, the mystic symbol of 
union. Within the enclosure is the hall of fidelity and 
loyalty, where the oaths of membership are taken. Here 
also stand the altar, and the precious nine-storied pagoda, 
in which the images of the five monkish founders are en- 
shrined. The lodges, of course, only appear in out-of-the- 
way places, where they are safe from the observation of 
the M andarins ; in towns and populous neighbourhoods the 
lodge is dispensed with ; the meetings are held at the house 
of the president. The instruments of the lodge are numerous. 
First in importance is the diploma; then there are numerous 
flags ; there is the " bushel," which contains among other 
articles the "red staff," with which justice is done to 
offenders against the laws of the society; the scissors, with 
which the hair of the neophytes is cut off; a jade foot 
measure, a balance, an abacus, &c. 

516. Government. The supreme government is vested in 
the grand masters of the five principal lodges, and the affairs 
of each lodge are administered by a president, a vice-president, 


one master, two introducers, one fiscal, thirteen coun- 
cillors, several agents, who are otherwise known as " grass 
shoes," " iron planks," or " night brethren," and some 
minor officials, who, as indicative of their rank, wear flowers 
in their hair. 

In times of peace the ranks of the society are filled up by 
volunteers, but when the League is preparing to take the field, 
threats and violence are used to secure members. The neo- 
phyte, as in Royal Arch Masonry, is introduced to the Hall of 
Fidelity tinder the " bridge of swords," formed by the brethren 
holding up their swords in the form of an arch ; he then 
takes the oath, and has his queue cut off, though this ceremony 
is dispensed with if he lives amongst Chinese who are faith- 
ful to the Tartar rule ; his face is washed, and he exchanges 
his clothes for a long white dress, as a token of purity, and 
the commencement of a new life. Straw shoes, signs of 
mourning, are put on his feet. He is then led up to the 
altar, and offers up nine blades of grass and an incense stick, 
while an appropriate stanza is repeated between each offering. 
A red candle is then lighted, and the brethren worship heaven 
and earth by pledging three cups of wine. This done, the 
seven-starred lamp, the precious imperial lamp, and the Hung 
lamp are lighted, and prayer is made to the gods, beseeching 
them to protect the members. The oath is then read, and each 
member draws some blood from the middle finger, and drops 
it into a cup partly filled with wine. Each neophyte having 
drunk of the mixture, strikes off the head of a white cock, as 
a sign that so all unfaithful brothers shall perish. Then each 
new brother receives his diploma, a book containing the oath, 
law, and secret signs, a pair of daggers, and three Hung 
medals. The secret signs are numerous, and by means of 
them a brother can make himself known by the way in which 
he enters a house, puts down his umbrella, arranges his shoes, 
holds his hat, takes a cup of tea, and performs a number of 
other actions. 

Henry Pottinger, in a despatch to Lord Aberdeen (1843), 
perhaps alludes to a secret society, saying : " The song being 
finished, Ke-Ying, the Chinese commissioner, having taken 
from his arm a gold bracelet, gave it to me, informing me, 
at the same time, that he had received it in his tender 
youth from his father, and that it contained a mysterious 
legend, and that, by merely showing it, it would in all parts 
of China assure me a fraternal reception." 

517. Seal of the Hung League. Every member of the 
Hung League is provided with a copy of its seal, which is 


printed in coloured characters on silk or calico. The original 
is kept in the custody of the Tai-Koh. Various descriptions 
of it have been given, and as they differ, it may be pre- 
sumed that there are more seals than one. But all of them 
are pentagonal, and inscribed with a multitude of Chinese 
characters, the translations given showing no real meaning ; 
the whole is a riddle, which it is scarcely worth while attempt- 
ing to solve. To give but one sample. In an octagonal space 
enclosed within the pentagon there are sixteen characters, 
which, according to the interpreters, signify: "The eldest 
brother unites to battle-order ; every one prepares himself 
(at the) signal (of the) chief. (The) swollen mountain 
stream spreads itself (into) canals ; ten thousand of years is 
(he) this day." By many members it is worn as a charm, 
and great care is taken to conceal its meaning from the 
uninitiated. As a charm, the seal may be as effective against 
wounds or death in battle as were the amulets furnished in 
the fifteenth century by the hangman of Passau, until a soldier 
had the curiosity to open one, and read, " Coward, defend 

518. The Ko lao Hui. The secret society which at the 
present day seems most powerful in China, is that known by 
the above name. It was at first a purely military association, 
whose object was mutual protection against the plunder and 
extortion practised by the civil officials in dealing with the 
pay and maintenance of the troops. It is believed that the 
initiation consists in killing a cock and drinking the blood, 
either by itself, or mixed with wine. It is also believed to 
use a planchette, whose movements are attributed to occult 
influence ; gradually persons not connected with the army 
were admitted ; the ticket of membership is a small oblong 
piece of linen or calico, stamped with a few Chinese charac- 
ters. The possession of one of these, if discovered, entails 
immediate execution by the authorities. 

The society is anti-foreign and anti-missionary, and is 
believed to be at the bottom of all the riots against foreigners, 
and especially against foreign missionaries, which have lately 
occurred in China. Of course, as long as missionaries, instead 
of making it their business to convert the heathens at home, 
will go among people who don't want them, and in China will 
establish themselves outside Treaty limits, they ought to be 
prepared to take the risks they voluntarily incur, but when- 
ever attacked, they make the Chinese Government pay them 
liberally for any inconvenience or loss they may have suffered 
of course, with the assistance of English gun-boats. In 1 89 1 


the Ko lao Hui, which is also anti-dynastic, caused inflam- 
matory placards to be posted up in various parts of the 
empire, which the authorities immediately tore down, only 
to be posted up afresh ; the society also distributed anti- 
missionary pamphlets, with titles such as this : " The Devil 
Doctriners ought to be killed," wherein the missionaries 
are charged with every kind of crime against morals and 
life ; the Eoman Catholics are more severely handled than 
the Protestants. 

In September 1891 it would appear that the society was 
organising a rising against the Government, and a Mr. 0. W. 
Mason, a British subject, and a fourth-class assistant in the 
Customs at Shanghai, was implicated in the project, he 
'having been instrumental in introducing arms and dynamite 
into the country for the use of the conspirators. He was 
sentenced to nine months' imprisonment with hard labour, 
and he was further, at the expiration of that period, to find 
two sureties of $2500 to be of good behaviour, and fail- 
ing in this he was to be deported from China. This latter 
happening on his release, he was sent out of the country in 
September 1892. 

In November 1891 a famous Ko lao Hui leader named 
Chen-kin-Lung fell into the hands of the Chinese Govern- 
ment. He had been staying at an inn with about thirty of 
his followers. Gagged and bound, he was taken on board a 
steam-launch kept ready to start, and carried to Shanghai. 
His examination was conducted with the greatest secrecy by 
the magistrate and deputies of the Viceroy and the Governor. 
On his person were found several official documents issued 
by the Ko lao Hui, and a short dagger with a poisoned 
blade. He was addressed in the despatches as the " Eighth 
Great Prince," and was evidently the commander of a strong 
force. Three examinations were held, but Chen preserved 
the strictest silence. Torture was employed, but in vain ; 
the only words that could be extracted from him were, 
" Spare yourselves the trouble and me the pain ; be con- 
vinced that there are men ready to sacrifice their lives for 
the good of a cause which will bring happiness to this 
country for thousands of generations to come." Then more 
gentle means were employed, but with what result is not 
known. The Hui League has various offshoots, which being 
known to be in reality* mutual aid societies, are secret 
societies in name only, and therefore attract but little 
attention from the Government. One of the largest of 
these offshoots is the "Golden Lily Hui," which flourishes 


in the western provinces of China. Its members are divided 
into four sections, respectively marshalled under the white, 
the black, the red, and the yellow flag. 

That the popular feeling against Christian missionaries in 
China is very strong cannot be denied, and for the last two 
or three years has displayed itself in frequent attacks on 
their persons and property. Even at the present time such 
outbreaks are almost regularly reported in the European 
press. A pretty plain intimation was given to Sir Ruther- 
ford Alcock on his bidding adieu to a high Chinese official. 
" I wish," said that functionary, " now you are going home, 
you would take away with you your opium, and your 
Christian missionaries." 

A law passed in 1889 in the Straits Settlements for the 
suppression of Chinese secret societies, according to a report 
issued in 1892 by the Protector of Chinese in those settle- 
ments, has led to the disappearance of those dangerous 
organisations. But it is admitted that it will take many 
years for the Triad element to become extinct ; the action of 
the Hung League is merely suspended, and out of it have 
sprung many minor societies, as offshoots from the parent 
society, who send gangs of roughs to brothels, coolie-depots, 
music halls and shops, demanding monthly contributions, 
under threat of coming in force and interrupting the busi- 
ness of the establishment. The fighting men of these 
societies are kept in the lodges by the head men on the 
proceeds of the exactions thus levied. The expulsion of the 
head men, as the speediest remedy of these evils, has been 
tried, with as yet only partial success. 



519. Introductory Remarks. The downfall of Napoleon, 
by a pleasant fiction, invented by historians who write 
history philosophically, that is, chisel and mould history to 
fit systems drawn from their inner consciousness, is eaid to 
have made Europe free. True, the battle of Waterloo and the 
Congress of Vienna restored the kings to their thrones, but 
to say that Europe was thereby made free is false. Instead 
of one mighty eagle hovering over Europe, the limbs of that 
ancient Virgin were now torn to pieces by a flock of harpies ; 
instead of one mighty ruler, a host of petty tyrants returned 
to revel in the delights of a terreur blanche. Religious des- 
potism, by the restoration of the pope, was to be the fit pre- 
lude to the political tyranny which followed the " Restoration." 
Bnt the Napoleonic meteor, in its flight across Europe, had 
shed some of its light into the dense brains even of the most 
slavishly loyal German peasant, accustomed to look up to 
the kingly, princely, or grand-ducal drill-sergeant as his 
heaven-appointed Landesvater, so that he began to doubt the 
ruler's divine mission. Hence secret societies in every 
country whose king had been restored by the Congress of 
Vienna in Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Austria. Some 
of those secret societies had been fostered by the princes 
themselves, as long as their own restoration was the object 
aimed at ; but when the societies and the nations they repre- 
sented demanded that this restoration should involve con- 
stitutional privileges and the rights of free citizens, the 
" restored " kings turned against their benefactors, and 
conspired to stippress them. But such is the gratitude of 
kings. However, turn we to the secret societies formed 
to undo the evils wrought by AVaterloo. I begin with 

520. Earliest Secret Societies in Spain. Even before the 
French Revolution there existed in Spain secret societies, 
some averse to monarchical government, others in favour 



of clerocracy. Among the latter may be mentioned the 
"Concepcionistas," or "Defenders of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion" (523), who carried their zeal for Ferdinand VII. and 
their tenderness for the Church to such a degree as to desire 
the return of the blessed times of the Holy Inquisition. 
They also sought to get hold of the management of public 
affairs, to turn them to their own profit; and the dismal 
administration of the Bourbons shows that they partly 
succeeded. Probably from this association arose that of 
the " Defenders of the Faith," Jesuits in disguise, who in 
1820 spread themselves over Spain, taking care of the 
throne and altar, and still more of themselves. During 
the reign of Ferdinand VII. also arose the " Realists," who, 
to benefit themselves, encouraged the king in his reactionary 

521. Freemasonry in Spain, the Forerunner of the Comu- 
neros. After the French invasion of 1809, Freemasonry 
was openly restored in the Peninsula, and a Grand Orient 
established at Madrid ; but it confined itself to works of 
popular education and charity, entirely eschewing politics. 
The fall of Joseph and the Restoration again put an end 
to these well-meant efforts. In 1816, some of the officers 
and soldiers, returned from French prisons, joined and 
formed independent lodges, establishing a Grand Orient 
at Madrid, very secret, and in correspondence with the 
few French lodges that meddled with politics. Among 
the latter is remembered the lodge of the "Sectaries of 
Zoroaster," which initiated several Spanish officers residing 
in Paris, among others Captain Quezada, who afterwards 
favoured the escape of the patriot Mina. The revolution of 
the island of Leon was the work of restored Spanish Masonry, 
which had long prepared for it under the direction of Quiroga, 
Riego, and five members of the Cortes. 

522. The Comuneros. After the brief victory, badly-con- 
cealed jealousies broke forth ; many of the brethren seceded 
and formed in 1821 a new society, the "Confederation of the 
Communists" (Comuneros), which name was derived from that 
memorable epoch of Spanish-history when Charles V. attempted 
to destroy the ancient liberties, and thus provoked the revolu- 
tion of the Commons in 1520, which was headed by John 
Padilla, and afterwards by his heroic wife, Maria Pacheco. 
In the battle of Villalar the Comuneros were defeated and 
scattered, and the revolution was doomed. The new Comu- 
neros, reviving these memories, declared their intentions, 
which could not but be agreeable to Young Spain ; nearly 


sixty thousand members joined the society : women could be 
initiated, who had their own lodges or torres, or towers, as 
their meetings were called, and which were presided over by a 
" Grand Castellan." The scope of the society was to promote 
by all means in its power the freedom of mankind ; to defend 
in every way the rights of the Spanish people against the 
abuses and encroachments of royal and priestly power ; and 
to succour the needy, especially those belonging to the 
society. Some of the more advanced of the Comuneros were 
for beheading the king, or exiling him to the Havannah, 
on the principle that to put a house, whether domestic or 
national, in order, it was first necessary to get rid of all 
greedy hangers-on and parasites, and the Spanish throne 
and the royal family of Spain with them came under the 
above designations. But the nation thought otherwise. 
On being initiated the candidate was first led into the 
"hall of arms," where he was told of the obligations 
and duties he was about to undertake. His eyes having 
been bandaged he was conducted to another room, where, 
after he had declared that he wished to be admitted into 
the confederation, a member acting as sentinel exclaimed: 
" Let him advance, I will escort him to the guard-house 
of the castle." Then there was imitated with great noise 
the lowering of a drawbridge, and the raising of a port- 
cullis ; the candidate was then led into the guard-room, un- 
bandaged, and left alone. The walls were covered with arms 
and trophies, and with patriotic and martial inscriptions. 
Being at last admitted into the presence of the governor, the 
candidate was thus addressed : " You stand now under the 
shield of our chief Padilla ; repeat with all the fervour you 
are capable of the oath I am about to dictate to you." 
By this oath, the candidate bound himself to fight for con- 
stitutional liberty, and to avenge every wrong done to his 
country. The new knight then covered himself with the 
shield of Padilla, the knights present pointed their swords at 
it, and the governor continued: "The shield of our chief 
Padilla will cover you from every danger, will save your life 
and honour; but if you violate your oath this shield shall 
be removed, and these swords buried in your breast." Both 
the Masons and Comuneros sought to gain possession of 
superior political influence. The former, having more ex- 
perience, prevailed in the elections and formed the ministry. 
Hence a contest that agitated the country and injured the 
cause of liberty. In 1832, the Comuneros endeavoured to 
overthrow the Freemasons, but unsuccessfully. Still Masons 


and Comuneros .combined to oppose the reactionary party. 
They also succeeded in suppressing Carbonarism, which had 
been introduced into Spain by some refugee Italians. These 
societies, in fact, though professing patriotic views, were 
nothing but egotistical cliques, bent on their own aggrandise- 
ment. How little they were guided by fixed principles is 
shown by their conduct in Spanish America. In Brazil they 
placed on the throne Don Pedro, and in Mexico they estab- 
lished a republican form of government, just as it best suited 
their own private interests. But such is the practice of most 

523. Clerical Societies. But the royal party also formed 
secret societies. Among these we have mentioned the "Con- 
cepcionistas," or "Defenders of the Immaculate Conception," 
founded in 1823 (see 520 ante), with the sanction, if not at 
the instigation, of Ferdinand VII. This was followed in 
1825 by the "Defenders of the Faith," also previously re- 
ferred to, and in 1827 by a third, known as the "Destroying 
Angels." The existence of the last is denied by clerical 
writers, but that it did exist, and that the Minister Calomarde 
was its chief, are facts proved beyond dispute. The doings 
of these clerical secret societies covered the king, a des- 
picable character in every way, with disgrace, and involved 
the country in constant internecine war and ruin, which are 
matters belonging to history. But as specially concerning 
the secret societies of Spain, it should be mentioned that 
at that period they were split up into four distinct parties : 
(i) the Aristocratic, who received great support from Eng- 
land ; its objects were the restoration of the constitution, 
and a change of dynasty. (2) The Mineros, whose head 
was General Mina. They were chiefly military men, closely 
allied with the Aristocrats, and largely subsidised by Eng- 
land. The American Government, with a view to the con- 
quest of Mexico, also favoured them. Opposed to them 
were (3) the Republicans, whose designation indicates their 
object. (4) The Comuneros, who, though also desiring a 
republican form of government in Spain, opposed the plans 
of the third party. 



524. Origin. The secret society which bore the above 
Greek name, signifying the "Union of Friends," is, like 
Carbonarism, one of the few secret associations which 
attained its objects, because it had a whole people to back 
it up ; a support which the Nihilists, for instance, lack as 
yet, and hence the present non-success of the latter. The 
origin of the Hetairia may be traced back to the Greek poet 
Constantinos Rhigas, who lived in the later half of the last 
century, and who plotted a Greek insurrection against 
Turkey, but was by the Austrian Government, in whose 
territory he was then travelling, basely delivered up to the 
Porte, and executed at Belgrade in 1798. But the Hetairia 
he had founded was not destroyed by his death ; its prin- 
ciples survived, and a new Hetairia was founded in 1812, on 
lines somewhat different, however, from those of the old 

525. The Hetairia of 1812. In 1812 a society was formed 
at Athens, which called itself the " Hetairia Philomuse." 
Since Lord Elgin had carried off whole cargoes of antiques, 
the need was felt of protecting the Greek treasures of 
antiquity. The object of the Philomuse, therefore, was to 
preserve relics of ancient art, to found museums, libraries, 
and schools. At the same time the members hoped by 
peaceful means to improve the social and political condition 
of Greece. They were conservative enough to place their 
hopes on princes and the Congress of Vienna. Count Capo 
d'Istria, the private secretary of the Czar, who possessed 
in the highest degree the confidence of his master, did his 
best to gain the goodwill of the Congress. The princes and 
diplomatists, composing it, had then drained the cup of 
pleasure to the dregs, and it seemed to them a pleasing 
variation to surround themselves, amidst fetes, balls, and 
amateur theatricals, with the halo of ancient Hellenistic 
interests. Ministers, princes, kings, were ready to wear the 



golden or iron ring, on which the ancient Attic obolus was 
engraved, the countersign of the Philomuse. The Emperor 
Alexander, the Crown Princes of Bavaria and Wiirtemberg, 
joined the society and subscribed to its funds. But these 
were not the men or the means to deliver Greece from the 
Turkish yoke, which had been the object of Rhigas, and of 
those who thought like him. 

526. Tlie Hetairia of 1 814. Hence in 1 8 14 a new Hetairia 
was founded with purely political objects. It was called the 
" Hetairia " or " Society of Friends " only, and stood to the 
Philomuse in the same relation the sword stands to the pen. 
It was founded at Odessa, where Greek and Russian interests 
always met, by a little-known merchant, Ikufas, of Arta, 
and two other obscure men of honour, Athanasius Tsakaloff 
and the Freemason, E. Xanthos, of Patmos. These men 
determined to achieve what Europe refused to do to raise 
the Cross above the Crescent ; and in the course of years 
they succeeded. The fate of Rhigas taught them secrecy. 
Tsakaloff, who had years before formed a secret league of 
Greek youths settled in Paris, had some experience as to ex- 
ternal forms, and so had Xanthos as a Freemason. The number 
of grades of their Hetairia was seven Brethren, Appren- 
tices, Priests of Eleusis, Shepherds, Prelates, Initiated, and 
Supreme Initiated. The latter two grades were invested with 
a military character, and directly intended for war. The 
candidates for initiation had to kneel down, at night, in an 
oratory, and to swear before a painting of the Resurrection, 
fidelity, constancy, secrecy, and absolute obedience. Little, 
however, was imparted on admission to a higher degree, the 
object being mainly to render the initiation more impressive. 
The brother was told to have his arms ready, and fifty cart- 
ridges in his cartridge-box ; the Priest, that the object of the 
Hetairia was the deliverance of Greece : but like all secret 
societies, this one did not remain untainted from egotism, 
falsehood, and humbug in general. As the priests were 
allowed to introduce neophytes, who had to pay them certain 
amounts of money, the office of priest was much sought after ; 
but it must have appeared strange to many of the candidates, 
that whilst the priest bade them swear on the Gospel, he at 
the same time informed them that he initiated them on the 
strength of the power conferred on him by the High-Priest 
of Eleusis. The leaders, further, did not hesitate to boast of 
a secret understanding with the Court of St. Petersburg, 
yea, it was intimated that Alexander was the Grand Arch. 
The Hetairists have been blamed for all this ; but it cannot 


be expected that a revolutionary military league should in 
all points be faultless, and keep within the rules of civic 
honesty. Legal means were of no avail; cunning and deceit 
are the weapons of the oppressed. Politicians have to 
accommodate themselves to the fancies and prejudices of 

527. Signs and Passwords. Some of the signs and pass- 
words were common to all the degrees, but others were 
known to the higher grades only, each of which had its 
peculiar mysteries. The Brethren saluted by placing the 
right hand on their friend's breast, and uttering the Albanian 
word sipsi (pipe), to which the other, if initiated, responded 
with sarroukia (sandals). The Apprentices pronounced the 
syllable Lon, and the person addressed, if in the secret, com- 
pleted the word by uttering the syllable don. In the higher 
grades the formulas were more complex. The mystical words 
of the Priests were, " How are you ? " and " As well as 
you are ; " and again, " How many have you ? " and " As 
many as you have." If the person accosted had reached the 
third degree, he understood the mystical sense of the question, 
and replied, " Sixteen." To be sure of his man the ques- 
tioner then asked, " Have you no more ? " to which his 
equally cautions friend replied, "Tell me the first, and I will 
tell you the second." The first then pronounced the first 
syllable of a Turkish word meaning justice, and the other 
completed it by uttering the second syllable. The sign of 
recognition was given by a particular touch of the right 
hand, and making the joints of the fingers crack, afterwards 
folding the arms and wiping the eyes. The Prelates pressed 
the wrist, in shaking hands, with the index finger, reclined 
the head on the left hand, and pressed the right on the 
region of the heart. The Prelate addressed responded by 
rubbing the forehead. If in doubt, the mystical phrases of 
the Priests of Eleusis were repeated, and if the answers were 
correctly given, the two repeated alternately the syllables of 
the mysterious word va-an-va-da. 

528. Skort Career of Galatis. The sect consisted at first 
of but few members. In 1819 the Directory or Grand Arch 
was composed of the three founders only and four other 
persons: Galatis, Komizopulos, A. Sekeris, and A. Gazis, 
with whom afterwards were joined Leventis, Dika'os, Ignatios, 
and Mavrocordato, and finally, Patsimadis and Alexander 
Ipsilanti. Galatis early -betrayed, and almost mined, the 
cause of the Hetairia. Exceedingly vain of his admission 
to the Grand Arch, he went to St. Petersburg, where he 



proclaimed himself as the ambassador of the Hellenes, in 
consequence of which the police arrested him, and an exa- 
mination of his papers revealed the whole secret of the 
Hetairia. The Czar, vacillating between his philo-Hellenism 
and the fear of revolution, was persuaded by Capo d'Istria to 
set Galatis free, and even to award him compensation in 
money for his imprisonment. Later on, when Skufas con- 
ceived the bold idea of attacking the enemy in his very 
capital, and had therefore settled at Constantinople, Galatis 
excited the suspicion of thinking more of his own advantage 
than of that of his country ; he was always asking for money, 
and when this was refused him, he uttered threats, whilst 
alluding to his intimacy with Halet Effendi, the Minister 
and favourite of Mahmoud. Thereupon the Hetairia decided 
that he must be removed. Towards the end of 1818 he was 
ordered on a journey ; a few trusted Hetairists were his 
companions. One day, while he was resting near Hermione, 
under a tree, a Hetairist suddenly discharged his pistol at 
him. With the cry, "What have I done to you? " he ex- 
pired. The murderers, with a strange mingling of ferocity 
and sentimentality, cut these last words of his into the bark 
of the tree. 

529. Proceedings of the Grand Arch. Skufas had died 
some months before, but thanks to the stupidity of the 
Turkish Government, Constantinople remained the seat of 
the league. The Grand Arch met at Xantho's house and 
instituted a systematic propaganda. In all the provinces of 
Turkey and adjoining states " Ephori " superintendents were 
appointed, who each had his own treasury, and authority to 
act in his district for the best of the common cause ; only 
in very important cases he was to refer to the Grand Arch. 
Gazis undertook preparing the mainland ; Greek soldiers, 
who had just then returned from Russia, were sent to the 
Morea and the island of Hydra. But it was essential to gain 
possession of the most important military point in the Morea, 
of Mani, usually called Maina, and by means of the patriarch 
Gregor, who was initiated into the secret of the Hetairia, 
Petros Mavromichalis, the powerful governor of Maina, was 
seduced from his allegiance. The emissaries of the Hetairia 
knew how to reconcile tribes who had for centuries been at 
feud, and to gain them for their cause, so that in 1820 the 
Hetairia had secret adherents all over the Peloponnesus, 
on the Cyclades, Sporades, on the coasts of Asia Minor, the 
Ionian Islands, and even in Jerusalem. It was now felt 
to be necessary to appoint a supreme head ; the choice lay 


between Capo d'Istria and Alexander IpsilantL The former 
was a diplomatist, the latter a soldier. Capo d'Istria de- 
clined to mix himself up in the matter, at least openly, 
because his master, the Emperor Alexander, was unwilling 
to appear as the protector of the Hetairia. Ipsilanti under- 
took its direction ; and as soon as it was known that he had 
done so, the hopes of the conspirators of the eventual support 
of Russia rose to fever-heat, and Ipsilanti in 1 820 found it 
advisable to leave St. Petersburg and go to Odessa, to be 
more in the centre of the movement. But though a soldier, 
he was no general, and allowed himself to be carried away 
by the enthusiasm he saw around him. Though contri- 
butions in cash came in so slowly that he had to make 
private loans, he lost none of his confidence. In July he 
appointed Georgakis commander of the "army of the 
Danube," and Perrhavos chief of the " army of Epirotes." 
He himself intended to enter the Peloponnesus, and to set 
up at Maina the standard of independence, fancying that 
the Peloponnesus was a fortified camp, outnumbering in 
soldiers the Turkish contingents. But he was soon con- 
vinced of this error, and he was advised to make his first 
attempt against the Turkish power in the Danubian princi- 
palities ; and though other counsellors rejected this proposal, 
Jpsilanti decided to adopt it, guided by the fact that the 
treaties between Russia and the Porte forbade the entry 
of an army into the Principalities, unless with the consent 
of both parties. Should the Porte, in consequence of the 
Hetairist rising, send troops to Bucharest, Russia would be 
bound to support the Greeks. 

5 30. Ipsilanti' s Proceedings. Further hesitation became 
impossible. A certain Asimakis, a member of the Hetairia, 
in conjunction with the brother of the murdered Galatis, 
betrayed to the Turkish police all the details of the con- 
spiracy. Kamarinos, who had been to St. Petersburg, on 
his return publicly revealed the futility of Russian promises; 
to silence him the Hetairists had him assassinated. They 
also endeavoured to take advantage of the quarrel which had 
broken out between Ali Pasha and the Sultan, whose best 
troops were then occupied in besieging Janina, Ali Pasha's 
capital. Ali, being sorely pressed by the Turks, promised 
the Hetairia his help, their cause being his the overthrow of 
the Sultan. The Suliotes, also, his ancient enemies, were 
won over by him, partly in consequence of the bad treatment 
they received from the Turks, whose side they had at first 
adopted, and partly because their leaders were initiated 


into the secret of the Hetairia, in "whose success they saw 
the recovery of their ancient territory, from which All had 
expelled them. In March 1821, Ipsilanti took up his resi- 
dence at Jassy, whence he issued pompous proclamations 
to the Greeks, Moldavians, and Wallachians, and also sent 
a manifesto to the princes and diplomatists, who were then 
assembled for the settlement of the Neapolitan revolution, 
inviting Europe, but especially llussia, to favour the cause of 
Greek independence. But the result of the latter step was 
fatal to it. Metternich's policy was totally opposed to it ; and 
the Emperor Alexander, who had jnst proclaimed his anti- 
revolutionary views, as applied to the Italian rising, could 
not repudiate them when dealing with the Greek question. 
Knowing nothing of the share his favourite, Capo d'Istria 
had in it, and of the underhand promises of Russian help the 
latter had made to the Hetairia, he assured the Emperor 
Francis, Metternich, and Bernstorff, of his adherence to 
the Holy Alliance, and his opposition to any revolution, 
with such zeal and mystical unction, that his listeners 
were "deeply moved." Ipsilanti's action was utterly re- 
proved; his name was removed from the Russian Army 
List; the Russian troops on the Pruth were instructed 
under no pretence to take any part in the disturbances in 
the Principalities ; and the Porte was informed that the 
Russian Government was a total stranger to them. Capo 
d'Istria was compelled to write to his friend, whom he 
had secretely encouraged, that " he must expect no support, 
either moral or material, from Russia, which could be no 
party to the secret undermining of the Turkish Empire by 
means of secret societies." 

531. Ipsilanti's Blunders. Ipsilanti, since his arrival at 
Jassy, had taken none of the steps which might have in- 
sured the success of his enterprise. He did nothing towards 
centralising the Government, or concentrating his troops. 
He seemed satisfied with looking upon the Principalities as 
a Russian depot, and to be waiting for the hand of the Czar 
to raise him on the Greek throne. As if the victory were 
already won, he bestowed civil and military appointments 
on the swarms of relations and flatterers who surrounded 
him. Chiefs of a few hundred adventurers were grandly 
called generals ; he placed his brothers on the staffs of his 
imaginary army corps, whilst he neglected and snubbed men 
who might have greatly advanced the revolution; he favoured 
worthless creatures, such as Karavias, who, with a band of 
. Arnaut mercenaries, had surprised and cut down the Turkish 


garrison of Galatz, plundered the town, desecrated the 
churches, and committed every kind of outrage. Ipsilanti 
shut his eyes when the rabble of Jassy, on hearing of the 
horrors committed at Galatz, suddenly attacked the Turks 
peacefully residing in the former town, and murdered 
them in cold blood. He further committed a great mis- 
take in imprisoning a rich banker on some frivolous pre- 
tence, and only releasing him on his paying a ransom of 
sixty thousand ducats. This act drove a great many wealthy 
people to take refuge on Russian or Austrian territory, and 
many others to wish for the restoration of Turkish authority, 
whose oppression was not quite so ominous as that of the 
newly-arrived "liberators." 

532. Progress of the Insurrection. At last Ipsilanti, with 
an army of two thousand men, whose numbers were 
everywhere proclaimed to be ten thousand, left Jassy for 
Bucharest. At Fokshany, on the borders of the two 
Principalities, he issued another proclamation to the " Da- 
cians," which was as unsuccessful as the former. On the 
other hand, his army was here reinforced by the Arnauts of 
Karavias, and later on by two hundred Greek horsemen, led 
by Georgakis, one of the most heroic of the Greek patriots. 
About this time, also, according to the pattern of the 
Thebans, five hundred youths, belonging to the noblest 
and richest families, formed themselves into a Sacred Bat- 
talion. They were clothed in black, and displayed on their 
breasts a cross with the words, " In this sign you shall con- 
quer." Their hats were decorated with a skull and cross- 
bones ! Still, this battalion henceforth distinguished itself 
above all the other troops of Ipsilanti by discipline and 
valour. But the chief, instead of affording those youths 
an opportunity of displaying their zeal, damped it by his 
delays and slow advance. He did not reach Bucharest 
before the Qth April. Here the higher clergy and the 
remaining Boyars declared their adhesion to the cause, in 
the hope that the leaders of irregular troops who had joined 
Ipsilanti would do the same, and thus subordinate the anar- 
chical elements of the revolution to the general object. But 
this hope was only partially fulfilled. Georgakis, indeed, 
placed himself under Ipsilanti's orders, but other leaders, 
like Savas and Vladimiresko, were far from following this 
example. It was even said that the former was secretly 
working towards the restoration of Turkish supremacy. 

533. Ipsilanti's Approaching Fall. In this crisis, Ipsi- 
lanti's chief occupation was the erection of a theatre and 


engaging comedians, whilst he himself was more of a 
comedian than a general. He daily showed himself in the 
gorgeous uniform of a Russian general. A numerous staff 
of officers rushed from morning till night, with aimless 
activity, through the streets of Bucharest. Wealthy people 
were visited with arbitrary requisitions ; the soldiers of the 
Hetairia lived, without discipline, at the expense of citizens 
and peasants; the Sacred Battalion only refrained from 
these excesses. Under these circumstances arrived the de- 
cision from Laybach, and with it the curse of the Church. 
The Patriarch laid Ipsilanti and the Hetairia under the ban ; 
Sovas and Vladimiresko now openly joined the Rumelian 
opposition to the Greek cause ; the Boyars and the clergy 
withdrew from it, and from the other classes of the people 
there had never been any real prospect of support. Ipsilanti 
endeavoured to weaken the force of the double blow which 
had befallen him by asserting that the ban of diplomacy and 
the Church was a mere form behind which the Czar and the 
Patriarch wished to conceal their secret sympathy with the 
Hetairia. He asserted that Capo d'Istria had secretly in- 
formed him that the Hetairists were not to lay down their 
arms before having learnt the issue of the proposals made by 
Russia to the Turks in favour of the Greeks. In the name 
of the Greek nation he addressed a number of demands to 
the Czar and his Ambassador at Constantinople, declaring 
that he would not relinquish the position he had assumed 
until these demands were complied with. Minds bolder 
than his advised him to make his way through Bulgaria 
to Epirus, to relieve AH Pasha, closely besieged in Janina, 
and with the latter's help to set Greece free. But Ipsilanti 
was not made of the stuff to execute so daring a coup-de- 
main ; and when Vladimiresko strongly supported the plan, 
Ipsilanti felt convinced that he and others intended to lead 
him into a trap by luring him out of the Principalities. He 
therefore, instead of moving towards the Danube, on the 
1 3th April, with his small army, and scarcely any artillery, 
turned northwards to the Carpathians, distributing his 
soldiers in so wide a belt that if the Turks had had any 
forces ready they might easily have exterminated Ipsilanti's 
army piecemeal. The revolutionary chief intended, should 
the Turks seriously threaten him, to take refuge on Austrian 
territory, hoping, through the intercession of the Russian 
Ambassador at Constantinople, to secure a free passage for 
himself and his followers. The Russian Government having 
permitted the advance of Turkish troops into the Princi- 


palities to quell the insurrection, Ipsilanti had to be prepared 
for a speedy encounter. In fact, under the pretence of in- 
tending resistance, he ordered intrenchments to be thrown 
up, and his troops to be exercised in the use of the bayonet, 
whilst he amused them again with the fable of Russian 

534. Advance of the Turks. In the second week of May 
the Turks crossed the Danube. The Pasha of Braila under- 
took the recovery of Galatz, which had been taken by Kara- 
vias. The first encounter took place before that town on 
the 1 3th May, on which occasion the Hetairists, by their 
bravery, redeemed many of the mistakes committed by their 
leaders. About seven hundred of the insurgents held three 
redoubts on the road to Braila ; they had two guns. Their 
position had been so skilfully chosen by their chief, Atha- 
nasius of Karpenisi, that it seemed possible to defend it for 
a long time against a fivefold number of Turks. But the 
majority of the defenders consisted of rabble sailors taken 
from the ships in the harbour, and of the robbers and mur- 
derers who, under the leadership of Karavias, had rendered 
themselves infamous, and now felt little inclination to sacri- 
fice themselves for a foreign cause. As soon as the Turks 
prepared for the attack, the bulk of them fled, leaving it to 
Athanasius and the few Greeks to engage in the fight. The 
unequal conflict lasted till night ; the redoubts were bravely 
held by the small number of Greeks; and when darkness 
came, and the fighting was suspended, the Greeks practised 
a trick to make their escape. They hung their cloaks out- 
side the redoubts, and the Turks, taking the cloaks for men, 
fired at them ; at the same time the Greeks had loaded their 
guns in such a way, as to go off one after another as soon as 
the garrison should have left the redoubts, by which means 
the attention of the Turks would be diverted from the 
fugitives. The ruse succeeded ; the Greeks escaped, first to 
a small peninsula at the mouth of the Pruth, and thence to 
Jassy. The greatest disorder prevailed in that town. Prince 
Kantakuzeno, to whom Ipsilanti had entrusted its defence, 
could maintain himself but a few days. In the middle of 
June, when tho Turkish troops advanced against him, he 
retreated to Bessarabia, advising Athanasius and the other 
Greeks to do the same. But these pronounced him a 
despicable coward; they, they said, were determined to 
defend the Greek cause to the last, and to die honourably 
or to conquer. With four hundred men and eight guns 
they resisted, behind a weak barricade of trees, near Skuleni, 


for eight days a vastly superior enemy, and by their heroic 
conduct threw a final halo round the Moldavian insurrection. 
Athanasius met with the death of a patriot. Nearly a thou- 
sand Turks had fallen ; three hundred Greeks perished in the 
fight or in the waters of the Pruth, the remnant took refuge 
on the opposite bank. 

535. Ipsilanti's Difficulties. Moldavia was lost; in the 
meantime the Pasha of Silistria had entered Bucharest on 
the 29th May; Ipsilanti, perfectly helpless, was encamped 
at Tergovist. His troops, even the Sacred Battalion, were 
thoroughly demoralised ; his dissensions with Savas and 
Vladimiresko continued. The former had readily surren- 
dered Bucharest to the Turks, and had followed Ipsilanti, 
whom on the first favourable opportunity he intended to 
take prisoner to give him up to the Turks. Vladimiresko 
prepared to withdraw to Little Wallachia, there to await the 
result of his negotiations with the Turks ; he had proposed 
to the Pasha of Silistria to have Ipsilanti and Georgakis 
assassinated. But his treachery became known to his in- 
tended victims ; Georgakis suddenly appeared in his camp, 
took him prisoner in the midst of his officers, and carried 
him to Tergovist. On being taken before Ipsilanti he pro- 
tested his innocence, declaring that he had only been trying 
to draw the Turks into a snare ; but Ipsilanti ordered him at 
once to be shot. 

536. Ipsilanti's Fall. Ipsilanti intended to occupy the 
strategically important village of Dragatschau, but the 
rapid advance from Bucharest of the Turkish vanguard left 
him no time to do so. On the 8th June it encountered a 
Greek division under Anastasius of Argyrokastro ; another 
division, sent for the support of the Greeks from Tergovist, 
under the command of Dukas, betook themselves to their 
heels, with their leader at their head, and spread such con- 
sternation in the camp at Tergovist, that Ipsilanti's troops, 
leaving their bag-gage behind, took to flight. Ipsilanti there- 
upon with great difficulty made his way to Ribnik, with a 
view of being near the Austrian frontier, which he intended 
to cross, if necessary. In spite of the losses he had sustained, 
he still commanded 7500 men, with four guns. Georgakis 
considered the opportunity favourable by an attack on 
Dragatschau, which the Turks had occupied with two thou- 
sand men, to raise the sinking courage of his troops. His 
dispositions were skilfully arranged to surround the enemy, 
inferior in numbers, and on the ipth June 1821, five thou- 
sand insurgents were concentred on the heights surrounding 


the village, entirely cutting off the retreat of the Turks. 
Ipsilanti's corps had not yet arrived. Georgalds sent messen- 
ger after messenger to hasten the advance of Ipsilanti, that 
he might share in the honours of the day. The Turks were 
aware of their dangerous position. Towards mid-day they 
attempted a debouch from the village to occupy a height in 
front of it ; but the attempt miscarried, the Greeks would 
not give way. Thereupon the Turks set fire to the village, 
in order to effect their retreat under the shelter of the 
flames. Karavias, whom Ipsilanti had appointed colonel 
of the cavalry, considered it a favourable moment to gather 
cheap laurels ; he took the burning of the village as a sign 
of the flight and defeat of the Turks; envious of Georgakis, 
he designed to rob him of the honour of this easy victory, 
and in spite of orders to the contrary, to adventure with his 
five hundred horsemen on storming the village. He per- 
suaded Nicholas Ipsilanti to support the mad attempt with 
the Sacred Battalion and his artillery, and, heated with wine, 
without even communicating with his chief, he led his men 
across the bridge leading to the village. The Turks at first 
retreated, as, in fact, they had already commenced a retrograde 
movement, apprehending a general attack. But when they 
discovered that Karavias and the Sacred Battalion only were 
coming against them, they wheeled round and first threw the 
cavalry into disorder ; the Sacred Battalion, tender youths 
having but lately assumed arms, could not resist the hardy 
veteran Spahis. They fell, " like blooming boughs " under 
the woodcutter's hatchet. Georgakis arrived in time to re- 
cover the standard and two guns and rescue the remainder, 
about one hundred men, of the Sacred Battalion. About 
thirty of the Arnauts, and twenty of Georgakis' devoted 
band, were also slain. By this defeat Ipsilanti's last hope 
was destroyed. Having taken refuge at Kosia, he nego- 
tiated with the Austrian Government for permission to cross 
the frontier. His safety was in danger from his own people. 
They talked of handing him over to the Turks and earning 
the price set on his head. All discipline disappeared. 
The Hetairists robbed and murdered one another. Among 
the few men of faith and honour, Georgakis was one of the 
most prominent. Though he would have preferred Ipsilanti 
remaining, he assisted his flight. Then he joined his friend 
Farmakis at Adjile, to continue, faithful to his oath, the 
struggle for Greece. 

537. Ipsilanti's Manifesto. Ipsilanti, true to his system 
of deceit, continued to spread false reports and letters, stating 


that the Emperor Francis had declared war against the Porte, 
that Austrian troops would occupy the Principalities, and that 
he was going to have an interview with the Imperial governor. 
But once on Austrian territory, Ipsilanti, who there called 
himself Alexander Komorenos, was seized and imprisoned in 
Fort Arad. There he attempted to justify his forsaking his 
companions in arms by shifting the want of success off his 
phoulders on those of others. In a boastful manifesto he 
said: " Soldiers! But no, I will not disgrace this honourable 
name by applying it to you. Cowardly hordes of slaves ! 
your treachery, and the plots you have hatched, compel me 
to leave you. From this moment every bond between you 
and me is severed ; to me remains the disgrace of having 
commanded you. You have even robbed me of the glory of 
dying in battle. Run to the Turks ; purchase your slavery 
with your lives, with the honour of your wives and children." 

538. Ipsilanti' s Imprisonment and Death. Treaties between 
Austria and Turkey stipulated that fugitives from either side 
were only to be received on condition of their being rendered 
harmless. Consequently, Ipsilanti was compelled to declare 
in writing, and on his honour, that he would make no attempt 
at flight. He then was, like a common criminal, taken to 
the fortress of Munkacs, surrounded by marshes, and obliged 
to take up his residence in a miserable garret. For years 
he remained in close confinement, and only when his health 
began to give way was he permitted to take up his residence 
in a less unhealthy prison at Theresienstadt, a fortified place 
of Bohemia. In 1 827, at the intercession of the Emperor of 
Russia, he was set free, but died next year, as it was said, 
of a broken heart. He had lived to see his followers per- 
secuted and slain, his family ruined, and himself unable to 
assist, when the people of Greece, more successful than the 
Hetairists of the Principalities, fought for liberty and their 
fatherland. Romance has thrown its halo around the prisoner 
of Munkacs, and the Greeks ended in beholding in him the 
martyr of Greek freedom. 

539. Fate of the Hetairists. The insurrection may be 
considered to have ended with Ipsilanti's flight ; the remnant 
of his followers now fought for honour only. Readily sup- 
ported by the people as foolishly as ever supporting their 
oppressors the Turks made rapid progress in annihilating 
the remains of Ipsilanti's army. Such Hetairist leaders as 
surrendered on good faith were mercilessly executed. The 
traitor Savas, in spite of the zeal he had shown in the 
Turkish cause, shared the same fate ; he was shot at 


Bucharest, together with his officers and soldiers, and their 
heads were sent to Constantinople. 

540. Georgakis' Death. Georgakis and Farmakis, the 
bravest and truest leaders of the insurgents, remained. 
They were determined not to entrust their lives either to 
Austrian protection or Turkish pity, and therefore again 
made their way into Moldavia. Georgakis, who was ill, 
had to be carried on a litter. During the long and painful 
march the number of his followers was reduced to three 
hundred and fifty. The peasants everywhere betrayed to 
the Turks in pursuit every one of his movements, and even 
before reaching the Moldavian frontier he was surrounded 
on all sides. Moreover, he was imprudent enough to take 
refuge in a cul-de-sac, by fortifying the monastery of Sekko, 
which, with but one outlet, is situate in a deep gorge. 
However, on the lyth September, he successfully drove back 
the first attack of the Turkish vanguard, and his confidence 
increased. He was, moreover, induced by a treacherous 
letter of the Greek bishop, Romanes, not to allow the 
treasures of the monastery to fall into Turkish hands, to 
prolong his stay. This decision proved fatal to the remnant 
of the Hetairia. On the 2Oth September, four thousand 
Turks, led by Roumanian peasants on hitherto unknown 
paths, made their appearance in the rear of the monastery, 
traversing the Greek lines of defence, and cutting off the 
defenders of the monastery, placed at the entrance of the 
gorge, from their comrades. Farmakis threw himself into 
the main building of the monastery, while Georgakis, with 
eleven companions, took refuge in the bell-tower. The 
Turks set fire to piles of wood close to it. "I shall die 
in the flames ; fly, if you choose, I open you the door ! " the 
intrepid chief exclaimed ; at the same time he threw down 
the door, flung a firebrand into the powder-stores, and in 
this way buried the Turks who had forced their way in, and 
ten of his companions, in the ruins. Only one of the Greeks 
escaped, as if by a miracle. 

541. Farmakis' Death. Farmakis held the monastery for 
eleven days longer, after which time his ammunition and 
stores of food were exhausted. On the 4th October he 
agreed to a favourable capitulation, which the Pasha of 
Braila and the Austrian Consul (!) guaranteed. The be- 
sieged were promised an honourable free marching off with 
their arms. But in the night, before the conclusion of the 
treaty, thirty-three of Farmakis' soldiers two hundred alto- 
gether made their escape, because they did not trust the 


Turkish promises. Those who remained had to regret their 
confidence. On the following day the Turks slaughtered 
the soldiers ; the officers were carried to Silistria, and there 
executed ; Farmakis was sent to Constantinople, where, after 
having been cruelly racked, he was beheaded. 

542. Final Success of the Hetairia. Thus the real Hetairia 
perished, but its overthrow was not without benefit to the 
cause ; for by the brutalities committed by the Turks who 
occupied the Principalities, there arose a series of compli- 
cations between the Cabinets of St. Petersburg and Con- 
stantinople, which at last led to an open quarrel. Ipsilanti 
lived to see the issue of the diplomatic fencing in the 
beginning of the Russo-Turkish war of 1828 and 1829, 
when the real Greek people, with genuine means, accom- 
plished to the south of the Balkans what he had vainly 
attempted with artificial ones in the north. But in this 
the action of the Hetairia, still existing as a remnant, 
played only a secondary part, and hence we may here fitly 
conclude the history of this secret society. 


543. History of the Association. Like all other associa- 
tions, the Carbonari, or charcoal-burners, lay claim to a very 
high antiquity. Some of the less instructed have even pro- 
fessed a descent from Philip of Macedon, the father of 
Alexander the Great, and have attempted to form a high 
degree, the Knight of Thebes, founded on this imaginary 
origin. Others go back only so far as the pontificate of 
Alexander III., when Germany, to secure herself against 
rapacious barons, founded guilds and societies for mutual 
protection, and the charcoal-burners in the vast forests of 
that country united themselves against robbers and enemies. 
By words and signs only known to themselves, they afforded 
each other assistance. The criminal enterprise of Kunz de 
Kauffungen to carry off the Saxon princes, 8th July 1455, 
failed through the intervention of a charcoal-burner, though 
his intervention was more accidental than prearranged. 
And in 1514 the Duke Ulrich of Wiirtemberg was compelled 
by them, under threat of death, to abolish certain forest laws, 
considered as oppressive. Similar societies arose in many 
mountainous countries, and they surrounded themselves with 
that mysticism of which we have seen so many examples. 
Their fidelity to each other and to the society was so great, 
that it became in Italy a proverbial expression to say, " On 
the faith of a Carbon aro." At the feasts of the Carbonari, the 
Grand Master diinks to the health of Francis I., King of 
France, the pretended founder of the Order, according to the 
following tradition : During the troubles in Scotland in 
Queen Isabella's time this Isabella is purely mythical 
many illustrious persons, having escaped from the yoke of 
tyranny, took refuge in the woods. In order to avoid all 
suspicion of criminal association, they employed themselves 
in cutting wood and making charcoal. Under pretence of 
carrying it for sale, they introduced themselves into the 
villages, aud bearing the name of real Carbonari, they easily 


met their partisans, and mutually communicated their dif- 
ferent plans. They recognised each other by signs, by touch, 
and by words, and as there were no habitations in the forest, 
they constructed huts of an oblong form, with branches of 
trees. Their lodges (vendite) were subdivided into a number 
of baracche, each erected by a Good Cousin of some distinc- 
tion. There dwelt in the forest a hermit of the name of 
Theobald; he joined them, and favoured their enterprise. 
He was proclaimed protector of the Carbonari. Now it 
happened that Francis I., King of France, hunting on the 
frontiers of his kingdom next to Scotland (sic), or following 
a wild beast, was parted from his courtiers. He lost himself 
in the forest, but stumbling on one of the baracche, he was 
hospitably entertained, and eventually made acquainted with 
their secret and initiated into the Order. On his return to 
France he declared himself its protector. The origin of this 
story is probably to be found in the protection granted by 
Louis XII. and continued by Francis I. to the Waldenses, 
who had taken refuge in Dauphine\ But neither the Hewers 
nor the Carbonari ever rose to any importance, or acted any 
conspicuous part among the secret societies of Europe till 
the period of the Revolution. As to their influence in and 
after that event, we shall return to it anon. 

The Theobald alluded to in the foregoing tradition, is said 
to have been descended from the first Counts of Brie and 
Champagne. Possessed of rank and wealth, his fondness 
for solitude led him to leave his father's house, and retire 
with his friend Gautier to a forest in Suabia, where they 
lived as hermits, working at any chance occupation by which 
they could maintain themselves, but chiefly by preparing 
charcoal for the forges. They afterwards made several pil- 
grimages to holy shrines, and finally settled near Vicenza, 
where Gautier died. Theobald died in 1066, and was cauon- 
ised by Pope Alexander III. From his occupation, St. 
Theobald was adopted as the patron saint of the Carbonari, 
and is invoked by the Good Cousins in their hymns ; and a 
picture, representing him seated in front of his hut, is usually 
hung up in the lodge. 

544. Real Orifjin of the Carboneria. The first traces of a 
league of charcoal-burners with political objects appear in the 
twelfth century, probably caused by the severe forest laws 
then in existence. About that period also the Fendcnrs 
(hewers), large corporations with rites similar to those of the 
Carbonari, existed in the French department of the Jura, 
where the association was called le bon cousinage (the good 


cousinship), which title was also assumed by the Carbonari. 
Powerful lords, members of the persecuted Order of the 
Temple, seeing the important services men scattered over so 
large an extent of country could render, entered into secret 
treaties with them. It further appears that the Fendeurs 
formed the first and the Carbonari the second, or higher, 
degree of the society collectively called the Carboneria. It 
is also probable that before the French Revolution the then 
French Government attempted by means of the society, which 
then exfsted at Genoa under the name of the Royal Car- 
boneria, to overthrow the ancient oligarchical government 
and annex Genoa to France. It is certain that from 1770 
to 1790 most of the members of the French chambers 
belonged to the Order of the Fendeurs, which continued to 
exist even under Napoleon I. The Carboneria was intro- 
duced into Southern Italy by returning Neapolitan exiles, 
who had been initiated in Germany and Switzerland, and as 
early as 1807 Salicetti, the Neapolitan minister of police, 
spoke of a conspiracy instigated by the Carbonari against 
the French army in the Neapolitan states. But the society 
was as yet powerless ; when, however, the Austrian war 
broke out in 1809, and French troops had largely to be 
withdrawn from Italy, the first and head Vendita was formed 
at Capua, its rules and ordinances being written in English, 
because the English Government desired to employ the 
society as a lever for the overthrow of Napoleon. Before, 
however, proceeding with the history of the Order, we will 
give particulars of their ritual and ceremonies. 

545. The Vendita or Lodge. From the " Code of Carbon- 
arism " we derive the following particulars respecting the 
lodge : It is a room of wood in the shape of a barn. The 
pavement must be of brick, in imitation of the mosaic floor 
of the Masons' lodge, the interior furnished with seats without 
backs. At the end there must be a block supported by three 
legs, at which sits the Grand Master ; at the two sides there 
must bs two other blocks of the same size, at which sit the 
orator and secretary respectively. On the block of the Grand 
Master there must be the following symbols : a linen cloth, 
water, salt, a cross, leaves, sticks, fire, earth, a crown of white 
thorns, a ladder, a ball of thread, and three ribbons, one blue, 
one red, and one black. There must be an illuminated 
triangle, with the initial letters of the password of the 
second rank in the middle. On the left hand there must be 
a triangle, with the arms of the Vendita painted. On the 
right three transparent triangles, each with the initial letters 


of the sacred words of the first rank. The Grand Master, 
and first and second assistants, who also sit each before a 
large wooden block, hold hatchets in their hands. The 
.masters sit along the wall of one side of the lodge, the 
apprentices opposite. 

546. Ritual of Initiation. The ritual of Carbonarism, as 
it was reconstituted at the beginning of the present century, 
was as follows. In the initiation : 

" The Grand Master having opened the lodge, says, First 
Assistant, where is the first degree conferred ? 

A. In the hut of a Good Cousin, in the lodge of the 

G. M. How is the first degree conferred ? 

A. A cloth is stretched over a block of wood, on which 
are arranged the bases, firstly, the cloth itself, water, fire, 
salt, the crucifix, a dry sprig, a green sprig. At least three 
Good Cousins must be present for an initiation; the intro- 
ducer, always accompanied by a master, remains outside 
.the place where are the bases and the Good Cousins. The 
master who accompanies the introducer strikes three times 
with his foot and cries : ' Masters, Good Cousins, I need 
succour.' The Good Cousins stand around the block of wood, 
against which they strike the cords they wear round the 
waist and make the sign, carrying the right hand from the 
left shoulder to the right side, and one of them exclaims, 
' I have heard the voice of a Good Cousin who needs help, 
perhaps he brings wood to feed the furnaces.' The introducer 
is then brought in. Here the Assistant is silent, and the 
Grand Master begins again, addressing the new-comer: 
'My Good Cousin, whence come you? 

7. From the wood. 

G. M. Whither go you ? 

7. Into the Chamber of Honour, to conquer my passions, 
submit my will, and be instructed in Carbonarism. 

G. M. What have you brought from the wood ? 

7. Wood, leaves, eaith. 

G. M. Do you bring anything else ? 

7. Yes; faith, hope, and charity. 

G. M. Who is he whom you bring hither ? 

7. A man lost in the wood. 

G. M. What does he seek ? 

7. To enter our order. 

G. M. Introduce him.' 

The neophyte is then brought in. The Grand Master 
puts several questions to him regarding his morals and 


religion, and then bids him kneel, holding the crucifix, and 
pronounce the oath : ' I promise and bind myself on my 
honour not to reveal the secrets of the Good Cousins ; not 
to attack the virtue of their wives or daughters, and to 
afford all the help in my power to every Good Cousin need- 
ing it. So help me God ! " 

547. First Degree. After some preliminary questioning, 
the Grand Master addresses the novice thus : " What means 
the block of wood ? 

N. Heaven and the roundness of the earth. 

G. M. What means the cloth ? 

N. That which hides itself on being born. 

G. M. The water ? 

N. That which serves to wash and purify from original 

G.M. The fire? 

N. To show us our highest duties. 

G. M. The salt? 

N. That we are Christians. 

G. M. The crucifix ? 

N. It reminds us of our redemption. 

G. M. What does the thread commemorate ? 

N. The Mother of God that spun it. 

G. M. What means the crown of white thorns ? 

N. The troubles and struggles of Good Cousins. 

G. M. What is the furnace ? 

N. The school of Good Cousins. 

G. M. What means the tree with its roots up in the air ? 

N. If all the trees were like that, the work of the Good 
Cousins would not be needed." 

The catechism is much -longer, but I have given only so 
much as will suffice to show the kind of instruction imparted 
in the first degree. Without any explanations following, 
one would think one was reading the catechism of one of 
those religions improvised on American soil, which seek by 
the singularity of form to stir up the imagination. But as 
in other societies, as that of the Illuminati, the object was 
not at the first onset to alarm the affiliated ; his disposition 
had first to be tested before the real meaning of the ritual 
was revealed to him. Still, some of the figures betray them- 
selves, though studiously concealed. The furnace is the 
collective work at which the Carbonari labour ; the sacred 
fire they keep alive, is the flame of liberty, with which they 
desire to illumine the world. They did not without design 
choose coal for their symbol ; for coal is the fountain of 



light and warmth, that purifies the air. The forest repre- 
sents Italy, the wild wood of Dante, infested with wild 
beasts that is, foreign oppressors. The tree with the roots 
in the air is a figure of kingdoms destroyed and thrones 
overthrown. Catholic mysticism constantly reappears ; the 
highest honours are given to Christ, who was indeed the 
Good Cousin of all men. Carbonarism did not openly assail 
religious belief, but made use of it, endeavouring to simplify 
and reduce it to first principles, as Freemasonry does. The 
candidate, as in the last-named Order, was supposed to per- 
form journeys through the forest and through fire, to each 
of which a symbolical meaning was attached ; though the 
true meaning was not told in this degree. In fact, to all 
who wished to gain an insight into the real objects of 
Carbonarism, this degree could not suffice. It was necessary 
to proceed. 

548. The Second Degree. The martyrdom of Christ occupies 
nearly the whole of the second degree, imparting to the 
catechism a sad character, calculated to surprise and terrify 
the candidate. The preceding figures were here invested 
with new and unexpected meanings, relating to the minutest 
particulars of the crucifixion of the Good Cousin Jesus ; 
which more and more led the initiated to believe that the 
unusual and whimsical forms with stupendous artifice served 
to confound the ideas and suspicions of their enemies, and 
cause them to lose the traces of the fundamental idea. In 
the constant recurrence to the martyrdom of Christ we 
may discern two aims the one essentially educational, to 
familiarise the Cousin with the idea of sacrifice, even, if 
necessary, of that of life ; the other, chiefly political, intended 
to gain proselytes among the superstitious, the mystics, the 
souls loving Christianity, fundamentally good, however, pre- 
judiced, because loving, and who constituted the greater 
number in a Roman Catholic country like Italy then even 
more than now. The catechism, as already observed, lias 
reference to the Crucifixion, and the symbols are all explained 
as representing something pertaining thereto. Thus the 
furnace signifies the Holy Sepulchre ; the rustling of the 
leaves symbolises the flagellation of the Good Cousin the 
Grand Master of the Universe ; and so on. The candidate 
for initiation into this degree has to undergo further trials. 
He represents Christ, whilst the Grand Master takes the 
name of Pilate, the first councillor that of Caiaphas, the 
second that of Herod ; the Good Cousins generally are called 
the people. The candidate is led bound from one officer to 


the other, and finally condemned to be crucified ; but he is 
pardoned on taking a second oath, more binding than the 
first, consenting to have his body cut in pieces and burnt, 
as in the former degree. But still the true secret of the 
Order is not revealed. 

549. The Degree of Grand Elect. This degree is only to be 
conferred with the greatest precautions, secretly, and to Car- 
bonari known for their prudence, zeal, courage, and devotion 
to the Order. Besides, the candidates, who shall be intro- 
duced into a grotto of reception, must be true friends of the 
liberty of the people, and ready to fight against tyrannical 
governments, who are the abhorred rulers of ancient and 
beautiful Ausonia. The admission of the candidate takes 
place by voting, and three black balls are sufficient for his 
rejection. He must be thirty-three years and three months old, 
the age of Christ on the day of His death. But the religious 
drama is now followed, by one political. The lodge is held 
in a remote and secret place, only known to the Grand Masters 
already received into the degree of Grand Elect. The lodge 
is triangular, truncated at the eastern end. The Grand 
Master Grand Elect is seated upon a throne. Two guards, 
from the shape of their swords called flames, are placed 
at the entrance. The assistants take the name of Sun 
and Moon respectively. Three lamps, in the shape of sun, 
moon, and stars, are suspended at the three angles of the 
grotto or lodge. The catechism here reveals to the candidate 
that the object of the association is political, and aims at the 
overthrow of all tyrants, and the establishment of universal 
liberty, the time for which has arrived. To each prominent 
member his station and duties in the coming conflict are 
assigned, and the ceremony is concluded by all present 
kneeling down, and pointing their swords to their breasts, 
whilst the Grand Elect pronounces the following formula : 
" I, a free citizen of Ausonia, swear before the Grand Master 
of the Universe, and the Grand Elect Good Cousin, to de- 
vote my whole life to the triumph of the principles of liberty, 
equality, and progress, which are the soul of all the secret 
and public acts of Carbonarism. I promise that, if it be 
impossible to restore the reign of liberty without a struggle, 
I will fight to the death. I consent, should I prove false to 
my oath, to be slain by my Good Cousins Grand Elects ; to 
be fastened to the cross in a lodge, naked, crowned with 
thorns ; to have my belly torn open, the entrails and heart 
taken out and scattered to the winds. Such are our con- 
ditions; swear!" The Good Cousins reply: "We swear." 


There was something theatrical in all this ; but the organisers 
no doubt looked to the effect it had on the minds of the 
initiated. If on this ground it could not be defended, then 
there is little excuse for judicial wigs and clerical gowns, 
episcopal gaiters, aprons, and shovel-hats, lord mayors' shows, 
parliamentary procedure, and royal pageants. 

550. Degree of Grand Master Grand Elect. This, the 
highest degree of Carbonarism, is only accessible to those 
who have given proofs of great intelligence and resolution. 
The Good Cousins being assembled in the lodge, the candi- 
date is introduced blindfolded ; two members, representing 
the two thieves, carry a cross, which is firmly planted in the 
ground. One of the two pretended thieves is then addressed 
as a traitor to the cause, and condemned to die on the cross. 
He resigns himself to his fate, as fully deserved, and is tied 
to the cross with silken cords ; and, to delude the candidate, 
whose eyes are still bandaged, he utters loud groans. The 
Grand Master pronounces the same doom on the other robber, 
but he, representing the non-repentant one, exclaims : " I 
shall undergo my fate, cursing you, and consoling myself 
with the thought that I shall be avenged, and that strangers 
shall exterminate you to the last Carbonaro. Know that I 
have pointed out your retreat to the chiefs of the hostile 
army, and that within a short time you shall fall into their 
hands. Do your worst." The Grand Elect then turns to 
the candidate, and, alluding to the punishment awarded to 
traitors as done on the present occasion, informs him that he 
also must be fastened to the cross if he persists in his inten- 
tion to proceed, and there receive on his body the sacred 
marks, whereby the Grand Masters Grand Elects of all the 
lodges are known to each other, and must also pronounce 
the oath, whereupon the bandage will be removed, he will 
descend from the cross, and be clothed with the insignia of 
the Grand Master Grand Elect. He is then firmly tied to 
the cross, and pricked three times on the right arm, seven 
times on the left, and three times under the left breast. 
The cross being erected in the middle of the cave, that 
the members may see the marks on the body, on a given sign, 
the bandage being removed, the Cousins stand around the 
candidate, pointing their swords and daggers at his breast, 
and threatening him with even a worse death should he turn 
traitor. They also watch his demeanour, and whether he 
betrays any fear. Seven toasts in his honour are then 
drunk, and the Grand Elect explains the real meaning of the 
symbols, which may not be printed, but is only to be written 


down, and zealously guarded, the owner promising to burn 
or swallow it, rather then let it fall into other hands. The 
Grand Master concludes by speaking in praise of the revolu- 
tion already initiated, announcing its triumph not only in the 
peninsula, but everywhere where Italian is spoken, and ex- 
claims : " Very soon the nations weary of tyranny shall cele- 
brate their victory over the tyrants ; very soon "... Here 
the wicked thief exclaims : " Very soon all ye shall perish ! " 
Immediately there is heard outside the grotto the noise of 
weapons and fighting. One of the doorkeepers announces 
that the door is on the point of being broken open, and an 
assault on it is heard directly after. The Good Cousins rush 
to the door placed behind the crosses, and therefore unseen by 
the candidate ; the noise becomes louder, and there are heard 
the cries of Austrian soldiers; the Cousins return in- great 
disorder as if overpowered by superior numbers, say a few 
words of encouragement to the candidate fastened to the 
cross, and disappear through the floor, which opens beneath 
them. Cousins, dressed in the hated uniform of the foreigner, 
enter and marvel at the disappearance of the Carbonari. 
Perceiving the persons on the crosses, they, on finding them 
still alive, propose to kill them at once ; they charge and pre- 
pare to shoot them, when suddenly a number of balls fly into 
the cave, the soldiers fall down as if struck, and the Cousins 
re-enter through many openings, which at once close behind 
them, and shout : " Victory ! Death to tyranny ! Long live 
the republic of Ausonia ! Long live liberty ! Long live the 
government established by the brave Carbonari ! " In an in- 
stant the apparently dead soldiers and the two thieves are 
carried out of the cave ; and the candidate having been helped 
down from the cross, is proclaimed by the Grand Master, who 
strikes seven blows with his axe, a Grand Master Grand Elect. 
551. Signification of the Symbols. Not to interrupt the 
narrative, the explanation of the meaning of the symbols, 
given in this last degree, was omitted in the former para- 
graph, but follows here. It will be seen that it was not 
without reason that it was prohibited to print it. The cross 
serves to crucify the tyrant that persecutes us. The crown 
of thorns is to pierce his head. The thread denotes the cord 
to lead him to the gibbet ; the ladder will aid him to mount. 
The leaves are nails to pierce his hands and feet. The pick- 
axe will penetrate his breast, and shed his impure blood. The 
axe will separate his head from his body. The salt will pre- 
vent the corruption of his head, that it may last as a monument 
of the eternal infamy of despots. The pole will serve to put 


his head upon. The furnace will burn his body. The shovel 
will scatter his ashes to the wind. The baracca will serve to 
prepare new tortures for the tyrant before he is slain. The 
water will purify us from the vile blood we shall have shed. 
The linen will wipe away our stains. The forest is the place 
where the Good Cousins labour to attain so important a 
result. These details are extracted from the minutes of the 
legal proceedings against the conspiracy of the Carbonari. 

552. Other Ceremonies and Regulations. The candidate 
having been received into the highest degree, other Good 
Cousins entered the cave, proclaiming the victory of the 
Carbonari and the establishment of the Ausonian republic, 
whereupon the lodge was closed. The members all bore 
pseudonyms, by which they were known in the Order. These 
pseudonyms were entered in one book, whilst another con- 
tained their real names ; and the two books were always kept 
concealed in separate places, so that the police, should they find 
one, should not be able to identify the conspirator. Officers 
of great importance were the Insinuators, Censors, Scrutators, 
and Coverers, whose appellations designate their duties. The 
higher officers were called Great Lights. Some of the affi- 
liated, reserved for the most dangerous enterprises, were 
styled the Forlorn Hope; others Stabene, or the " Sedentary," 
who were not advanced beyond the first degree, on account 
of want of intelligence or courage. Like the Freemasons, 
the Carbonari had their own almanacs, dating their era from 
Francis I. They also had their passwords and signs. The 
decorations in the Apprentice degree were three ribbons 
black, blue, and red ; and in the Master's degree they wore a 
scarf of the same three colours. The ritual and the ceremonies, 
as partly detailed above, were probably strictly followed on 
particularly important occasions only ; as to their origin, little 
is known concerning it most likely they were invented 
among the Neapolitans. Nor were they always and at all places 
alike, but the spirit that breathed in them was permanent 
and universal ; and that it was the spirit of liberty and 
justice can scarcely be denied, especially after the events of 
the last decades. The following summary of a manifesto 
proceeding from the Society of the Carbonari will show this 
very clearly. 

553. The Ausonian Republic. The epoch of the following 
document, of which, however, an abstract only is here given, 
is unknown. The open proceedings of Carbonarism give us 
no clue, because in many respects they deviate from the 
programme of this sectarian charter ; sectarian, inasmuch as 


the document has all the fulness of a social pact. But to 
whatever time these statutes belong, they cannot be read 
without the liveliest interest. 

Italy, to which new times shall give a new name, sonorous 
and pure, Ausonia (the ancient Latin name), must be free 
from its threefold sea to the highest summit of the Alps. 
The territory of the republic shall be divided into twenty- 
one provinces, each of which shall send a representative to 
the National Assembly. Every province shall have its local 
assembly ; all citizens, rich or poor, may aspire to all public 
charges ; the mode of electing judges is strictly laid down ; 
two kings, severally elected for twenty-one years, one of 
whom is to be called the king of the land, the other of the 
sea, shall be chosen by the sovereign assembly ; all Ausonian 
citizens are soldiers ; all fortresses not required to protect 
the country against foreigners shall be razed to the ground ; 
new ports are to be constructed along the coasts, and the 
navy enlarged ; Christianity shall be the State religion, but 
every other creed shall be tolerated ; the college of cardinals 
may reside in the republic during the life of the pope reign- 
ing at the time of the promulgation of this charter after 
his death, the college of cardinals will be abolished ; heredi- 
tary titles and feudal rights are abolished ; hospitals, charit- 
able institutions, colleges, lyceums, primary and secondary 
schools, shall be largely increased, and properly allocated ; 
punishment of death is inflicted on murderers only, trans- 
portation to one of the islands of the republic being sub- 
stituted for all other punishments ; monastic institutions are 
preserved, but no man can become a monk before the age 
of forty-five, and no woman a nun before that of forty, 
and even after having pronounced their vows, they may 
re-enter their own families. Mendicity is not allowed ; the 
country finds work for able paupers, and succour for invalids. 
The tombs of great men are placed along the highways ; 
the honour of a statue is awarded by the sovereign assembly. 
The constitutional pact may be revised every twenty-one 

554. Most Secret Carbonaro Degree. It was stated in sect. 
550 that the Grand Master Grand Elect was the highest Car- 
bonaro degree. But this requires qualification ; there was 
one still higher, called the Seventh, to which few members 
were admitted. To the Principi Summo Patriarcho alone 
the real object of Carbonarism was revealed, and that its 
aims were identical with those of the Illuminati (356). 
Witt von Dorring (b. 1800), an initiate, tells us in his 


Autobiography, that the candidate swore destruction to every 
government, whether despotic or democratic. " The Summo 
Maestro," he says, "laughs at the zeal of the common 
Carbonari, who sacrifice themselves for Italian liberty and 
independence ; to him this is not the object, but a means. 
I received this degree under the name of Giulio Alessandro 
Jerimundo Werther Domingone." As there were two modes 
of initiation, one in open lodge and another by " communica- 
tion," the supreme chief notifying by a document to the new 
member his election, which was done in De Witt's case, he 
never took the oath of secrecy, and thus considered himself 
at liberty to divulge what had been communicated to him. 

555. De Witt, Biographical Notice of. As Jean de Witt 
was a prominent character in the secret associations of this 
century, we give a few biographical notes concerning him. 
Born in 1800 at Altona, he was early placed under the 
tuition of Pastor Meier of Alsen, who had been a member 
of the Jacobin club. At the age of seventeen he went to 
the University of Kiel, and afterwards to that of Jena ; 
in i Si 8 he joined the Burschenschaft, and was soon after 
initiated into the sect of the Black Knights, in consequence 
of which he had to flee to England, where he contributed many 
articles on German politics and princes full of scandalous 
details to the Morning Chronicle. Invited by his maternal 
uncle, the Baron Eckstein, Inspector-General of the Ministry 
of Police, to come to Paris, he there became acquainted 
with Count Serre, Minister of Justice, who protected him, 
whilst De Witt was in close communication -with French 
and Italian conspirators. In 1821 he was at Geneva as 
Inspector-General of Swiss and German Carbonari. He 
was soon after seized in Savoy, and thence taken to Turin, 
where, however, the Austrian Field-Marshal Bubna, who 
then commanded all the troops in Upper Italy, and who was 
a Freemason, treated him with the greatest respect, for as 
a Freemason De Witt occupied a much higher rank than 
Bubna ; and when the ambassadors of all the Courts at Turin, 
that of England excepted, insisted on De Witt's extradition 
to their respective states, he allowed him, on his giving hii 
word of honour to make no attempt at escape, to go 
Milan, where he was received with great honour in the 
house of the Chief of Police, Baron von Gohausen. Bubna 
had made himself personally answerable to his government 
for the safe custody of De Witt, and this latter had pro- 
mised not to escape, though he was allowed to go about 
almost like a freeman. But when he found that the Austrian 


authorities intended to begin his trial, he wrote to Bubna 
that he was determined to make his escape. Orders were 
sent to watch him closely ; but within a week he was in 
possession of false keys, which fitted all the doors of his 
prison, and the head gaoler, who had shown himself too 
zealous in watching him, was transferred to Mantua, and 
1 200 lire were provided for his journey. He escaped to 
Genoa, intending thence to sail for Spain, where he was 
sure of meeting with friends, but finding all vessels bound 
for that country under close police surveillance, he made his 
way into Switzerland. Under different names and various 
disguises he stayed there and in Germany for about a year. 
All the German Governments offered a large reward for his 
apprehension, and at last he was seized at Bayreuth, though 
he had previously been warned that the police were on his 
traces, a warning which could only have come from highly- 
placed officials. And as soon as he was taken some of them 
waited on him with offers of friendship and protection. But 
Berlin was then the seat of the Prussian masonic chiefs, 
and through them De Witt was secretly informed of all the 
charges which would be brought against him, and the result 
was that he was acquitted of them all, and restored to 
liberty, as also was Cousin, a fellow-conspirator and fellow- 
prisoner. Cesare Cantu, the Italian historian, accuses De 
Witt of having, by his own admission, been thoroughly 
initiated into all the revolutionary plots in Europe but in 
order to betray them, and stir up discord among them (see 
II Condliatore e i Carbonari, Milano, 1878, p. 164). De 
Witt's subsequent career seems to lend some support to this 
charge. In 1828 he married a wealthy lady, and purchased 
an estate in Upper Silesia, where he was living in 1855, 
professing highly conservative principles, in fact, to such 
a degree as to be charged with belonging to the Ultra- 
montanes, in consequence of which he was detested, and 
frequently attacked, by the democratic party. 

556. Carbona/ro Charter proposed to England. A charter 
or project, said to have been proposed by the Carbonari to 
the English Government in 1813, when the star of Napoleon 
was fast declining, is to the following effect : Italy shall be 
free and independent. Its boundaries shall be the three 
seas and the Alps. Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, the seven 
islands, and the islands along the coasts of the Mediter- 
ranean, Adriatic, and Ionian Seas shall form an integral 
portion of the Roman Empire. Rome shall be the capital of 
the empire. ... As soon as the French shall have evacuated 


the peninsula, the new emperor shall be elected from among 
the reigning familiesof Naples, Piedmont, or England. Illyria 
shall form a kingdom of itself, and be given to the King of 
Naples as an indemnity for Sicily. This project in some re- 
spects widely differs from the one preceding it, and there is 
great doubt whether it ever emanated from the Carbonari. 

557. Carbonarism and Murat. The excessive number of 
the affiliated soon disquieted rulers, and especially Murat, 
King of Naples, whose fears were increased by a letter from 
Dandolo, Councillor of State, saying : " Sire, Carbonarism is 
spreading in Italy ; free your kingdom from it, if possible, 
because the sect is opposed to thrones." Maghella, a native 
of Genoa, who became Minister of Police under Murat, ad- 
vised that king, on the other hand, to declare openly against 
Napoleon, and to proclaim the independence of Italy, and for 
that purpose to favour the Carbonari ; but Murat was too 
irresolute to follow the course thus pointed out, and declared 
against the Carbonari. The measures taken by him, how- 
ever, only increased the activity of the sect and the hopes 
of the banished Bourbons, who in the neighbouring Sicily 
watched every turn of affairs that might promise their 
restoration. Murat proscribed the sect, which induced it to 
seek the assistance of England, as we have already seen. 
It also grew into favour with the Bourbons and Lord William 
Bentinck. The emissaries sent to Palermo, to come to terms 
with the exiled royal family, returned to Naples with a plan 
fully arranged, the results of which were soon seen in Cala- 
bria and the Abruzzi. The promise of a constitution was 
the lure with which England whose chief object, however, 
was the overthrow of Napoleon attracted the sectaries ; the 
Bourbons, constrained by England, promised the Neapolitans 
a liberal constitution on their being restored to the throne. 
The Prince of Moliterno suggested to England that the only 
means of defeating France was to favour Italian unity ; and 
the idea was soon widely promulgated and advocated through- 
out the country. Murat sent General Manhes against the 
Carbonari, with orders to exterminate them. Many of the 
leaders were captured and executed, but the sect, neverthe- 
less, succeeded in effecting a partial and temporary revolution 
in favour of the Bourbons ; which, however, was soon quelled 
by the energetic measures of Queen Caroline Murat, who 
was regent during her husband's then absence. About this 
time, also, dissensions arose among the members of the sect ; 
its leaders, seeing the difficulty of directing the movements 
of so great a confederacy, conceived the plan of a reform, 


and executed it with secrecy and promptitude. The mem- 
bers who were retained continued to bear the name of Car- 
bonari, while those who were expelled, according to some 
accounts, took that of Calderari (Braziers), and an implacable 
hatred arose between the rival sects. Murat wavered for 
some time between the two parties, and at last determined 
on supporting the Carbonari, who were most numerous. But 
it was too late. They had no confidence in him ; and they 
also knew his desperate circumstances. Murat fell. 

558. Trial of Carbonari. An extensive organisation for 
the union of all secret Carbonaro societies was discovered 
in 1817 by an attempt, which was to have been made at 
Macerata, on the 24th June in that year, to raise the standard 
of revolt, but which failed through a mere accident the pre- 
mature firing of two muskets. A great many of the leading 
Carbonari were apprehended, and conveyed to the Castle 
of St. Angelo and other prisons in Rome, where they were 
tried in October 1818 by order of the pope; five of them 
were sentenced to death, but the pope mitigated their pun- 
ishment to perpetual confinement in a fortress ; three were 
sentenced to the galleys for life, which punishment was 
reduced by the pope to ten years. We learn from this 
Roman trial that the Republican Brother Protectors one of 
the branches of Carbonarism swore over a phial of poison 
and a red-hot iron, "never to divulge the secrets of the society, 
and to submit in case of perjury to the punishment of dying 
by poison, and having their flesh burnt by the red-hot iron." 

559. Carbonarism and the Bourbons. King Ferdinand, 
having, to recover his crown, favoured the Carbonari, when 
he thought himself again firmly seated on the throne, and 
secretly disliking the society, endeavoured to kick down the 
ladder by which he had mounted. The Carbonari, who had 
restored not only the king, but order in Calabria and the 
Abruzzi, and rendered roads and property secure the Car- 
bonari, so highly extolled at one time, that the pope had 
ordered priests and monks to preach, that making the signs 
of the Carbonaro would suffice to justify Saint Peter to open 
the gate of Paradise these same Carbonari were now declared 
the enemies of God and man. The king refused to keep the 
promises he had made, and forbade the holding of Carbonari 
meetings. The Prince of Canosa, who became Minister of 
Police in 1819, determined to exterminate them. For this 
purpose he formed the Brigands, who had played a part in 
the sanguinary scenes of 1799, into a new society, of which he 
himself became the head, inviting all the old Calderari to join 


him, on account of their enmity to the Carbonari. He re- 
quired them to take the following oath : " I, A. B., promise 
and swear upon the Trinity, upon this cross and upon this 
steel, the avenging instrument of the perjured, to live and 
die in the Roman Catholic and Apostolic faith, and to 
defend with my blood this religion and the society of 
True Friendship, the Calderari. I swear never to offend, 
in honour, life, or property, the children of True Friend- 
ship, Ac. I swear eternal hatred to all Masonry, and its 
atrocious protectors, as well as to all Jansenists, Materialists 
(Molinists ?), Economists, and Illuminati. I swear, that if 
through wickedness or levity I suffer myself to be perjured, 
I submit to the loss of life, and then to be burnt, &c." But 
the king having learnt what his Minister had been attempt- 
ing without his knowledge, deprived him of his office and 
banished him ; and thus his efforts came to nothing. In 
1819 took place the rising at Cadiz, by which the King of 
Spain, Ferdinand VII. , was compelled to give Spain consti- 
tutional privileges. This again stirred up the Carbonari ; 
but there was no unanimity in their counsels, and their in- 
trigues only led to many being imprisoned and others 
banished. An attempt made in 1820 extorted a constitution ; 
the leader was the Abbe Menichini. The influence of the 
Carbonari increased; lodges were established everywhere. 
Between 1815 and 1820, in the Neapolitan states alone, 
more than two hundred thousand members were affiliated, 
comprising all classes, from the palace to the cottage ; it 
included priests, monks, politicians, soldiers. Giampietro 
was then chief of the Neapolitan police, who used the most 
cruel means to suppress the sect ; but public discontent was 
brought to a climax in July 1820, when two officers, Morelli 
and ISilvati, with one hundred and twenty non-commissioned 
officers and privates, deserted from their regiment at Nola, 
and, accompanied by the priest Menichini and some leading 
Carbonari, took the road to Avellino. Lieutenant-Colonel 
De Concili, also a Carbonaro, who was in command of the 
troops at Avellino, joined the insurgents. When the news of 
these events reached Naples, the students of the University, 
as well as many of the soldiers forming the garrison of the 
capital, hastened to De Concili's camp. The house of the 
advocate Colletta became the centre of action at Naples ; all 
the Carbonari prepared to second the action of their brethren. 
The king, advised to send General Pe"p($ against the insur- 
gents, declined the proposal, because Pe*pe was suspected of 
being a Liberal. In his stead he sent General Carrascosa, 


who left Naples on the 4th July ; on the 5th he despatched 
General Nunziante from Nocera, and General Campana from 
Salerno, against the insurgents. Carrascosa, unwilling to 
shed the blood of his countrymen, wished to negotiate. But 
before he could do so, General Campana had suffered a 
defeat, and the soldiers of Nunziante raised the standard of 
the Carbonari, and, joining the troops of De Concili, placed 
themselves under his command. Carrascosa, with the king's 
connivance, proposed to bribe the leaders of the insurrection 
with large sums of money to give up the enterprise and leave 
the country, but before he had an opportunity of making the 
attempt, the soldiers remaining in Naples, as well as the 
population, rose against the king, who found himself entirely 
forsaken. He was compelled to yield. The Duke of Picco- 
tellis and five other Carbonari presented themselves in the 
palace and compelled the king to grant them a personal 
interview, at which they demanded the immediate publication 
of a Constitution. The king promised one in " perhaps two 
hours." Piccotellis drawing out his watch held it up to the 
king's face and said, " It is now one o'clock in the morning ; 
at three o'clock the Constitution must be proclaimed." And 
he turned bis back on the king, and with his attendants left 
the room. The king granted the Constitution, though with 
the mental reserve of overthrowing it on the first favourable 
opportunity. He swore, nevertheless, in the most solemn 
manner to keep it ; the Carbonari leaders were invited to 
Naples; the king's son, the Duke of Calabria, became a 
member of the sect, a fatal concession on its part, for now 
all its secrets, signs, words, and symbols were openly pro- 
claimed ; Carbonarism, in fact, was cunningly betrayed by 
the king and his satellites. Russia, Austria, and Prussia 
threatened to interfere in Neapolitan affairs in favour of 
Ferdinand ; at a secret meeting of some of the oldest Car- 
bonari it was proposed to shut up the king in the Castle of 
St. Eleno. Unfortunately this advice was not immediately 
acted on. The Holy Alliance, to save the king's life, which 
they knew to be in danger, invited him to join the congress 
at Laybach, that, in common with the European potentates, 
he might assist in the settlement of the affairs of his own 
kingdom. Unwisely the Neapolitan parliament allowed him 
to depart; yet even on board ship the treacherous despot 
repeated his assurances of maintaining the Constitution he 
had granted his subjects. But on his arrival at Laybach 
he declared that, in granting the Constitution, he had only 
yielded to superior force, and that he was determined to 


return to Naples as an absolute monarch. The pope absolved 
him from the oath he had taken, and even in a solemn ency- 
clical commanded priests to violate the secret of the confes- 
sional whenever wives, mothers, sisters, or daughters had 
declared relations to belong to the sect of the Carbonari. 
At the request of Ferdinand himself an Austrian army of 
50,000 men, with a Russian army in reserve, marched upon 
Naples. The king on his way south stopped at Florence, 
where he decorated the Chapel of the Annunciation with 
gorgeous gold and silver lamps, and the inscription : " Maria' 
genitrici Dei Ferd. I. Utr. Sic. rex Don. d.d. anno 1821 ob 
pristinum impcrii decus, ope eius prestaniissima recuperation. 
(To Mary, the Mother of God, Ferdinand L, King of the Two 
Sicilies, for the restored splendour of the kingdom, by means 
of her most valiant help, dedicated these in the year 1821.) 
Proving once more, if proof were necessary, that "blood- 
thirsty tyrants are most zealous saints." Every one of the 
king's immediate attendants had upon him a new cockado 
bearing the inscription : " Viva Vassoluto potere di Ferdi- 
nando I. ! " 

560. The King's Revenge. General Pupe, who in his youth 
had for three years been a prisoner in the horrible prison of 
Marettimo a rock-hewn cistern turned into a dungeon 
endeavoured to arrest the advance of the foreigner, but his 
raw militia were ill prepared to meet the disciplined forces 
of Austria, who defeated Pe'pe' at Rieti, and followed up this 
victory by marching on the 23rd March into Naples. Then 
the king glutted his desire for vengeance. All the past 
treaties with his subjects were considered as void, and all 
previous acts of pardon annulled. Not a day passed without 
the sound of the bell tolling for an execution ; thousands of 
the most respected citizens of Naples were condemned to 
horrible dungeons in the penal islands off Sicily and Naples 
or the rock-dungeons of San Stefano and Pantelleria, while 
numbers fled the country as exiles. Morelli and Silvati were 
hanged for having deserted their standard, and been the 
prime movers of the revolution. But the king had entered 
into a treaty with his people, and sworn to uphold the Con- 
stitution he had granted in consequence of the revolution, 
hence their execution is condemned by logic and justice. 

561. Revival of Carbonarism. Carbonarism marks a tran- 
sition period in the history of secret societies. From secret 
societies occupied with religion, philosophy, and politics in 
the abstract, it leads us to the secret societies whose objects 
are more immediately and practically political. And thus in 


France, Italy, and other States, it gave rise to numerous and 
various sects, wherein we find the men of thought and those 
of action combining for one common object the progress, 
as they understood it, of human society. Carbonarisrn, in 
fact, was revived about the year 182 5, and some ten years 
after combined, or rather coalesced, with the society known 
, as Young Italy, whose aims were identical with those of the 
Carbonari the expulsion of the foreigner from Italian soil, 
and the unification of Italy. 

The Duke of Modena had for some time coquetted 
with the Carbonari, in the hope of obtaining through them 
the sovereignty of the minor duchies, the kingdom of Sar- 
dinia and the Lombardo-Venetian states, and had thus 
encouraged Menotti, the foremost patriot of Central Italy, 
in counting on his help in driving out the foreigner. When, 
however, he found that France, on whose co-operation he had 
relied, would disappoint him, he abandoned the Carbonari 
and denounced them, but they compelled the Duke to fly 
to Mantua. They also drove Maria Louisa, the Duchess of 
Parma, and widow of Napoleon I., into exile. But their 
triumph lasted only twenty-eight days. At the end of that 
period the Duke of Modena and the Duchess of Parma were 
restored by the assistance of Austrian troops, and the Duke 
caused Menotti to be hanged. From that day the prisons 
of Modena were filled with Italian patriots. Count Charles 
Arrivabene said of them, "No words can give an idea of the 
horrors of the prisons of Modena when I saw them. . . . 
Excepting the infamous dens of the Papal and Neapolitan 
states, there is nothing that can be compared with them." 

But Carbonarism continued to be at work under the name 
of Unita Italiana, whose signs and passwords were made 
public by the prosecution it underwent at Naples in 1850. 

562. Carbonarism and the Church. The Carbonari in the 
Roman States aimed at the overthrow of the papal power, 
and chose the moment when the pope was expected to die to 
carry out their scheme. They had collected large forces and 
provisions at Macerata ; but the sudden recovery of the pope 
put a stop to the enterprise. The leaders were betrayed 
into the hands of the government, and some of them con- 
demned to death and others to perpetual imprisonment, 
though the pope afterwards commuted the sentences (558). 

563. Carbonarism in Northern Italy. In Lombardy and 
Venetia also the Carbonari had their lodges, and their object 
was the expulsion of the foreigner, the Austrian. The most 
important and influential was the Italian Federation. But 


here also they failed ; and among the victims of the failure 
were Silvio Pellico, Confalonieri, Castiglia, Torelli, Maroncelli, 
and many others, who, after having been exposed on the 
pillory at Milan and other places, were sent to Spielberg and 
other German fortresses. 

564. Carbonarism in France. Carbonarism was intro- 
duced into France under the names of Adelphes or Phila- 
delphians, by Jonbert and Dugied, who had taken part in 
revolutionary movements in their own country in 1820, and 
after having for some time taken refuge in Italy, where they 
had joined the Carbonari, brought their principles to France 
on their return from their expatriation. The sect made 
rapid progress among the French ; all the students at the 
different universities became members, and ventas were 
established in the army. Lafayette was chosen their chief. 
Lodges existed at La Rochelle, Poitiers, Niort, Bordeaux, 
Colmar, Neuf-Brisach, and Belfort, where, in 1821, an un- 
successful attempt was made against the government 
unsuccessful, because in this, as in other attempts, the govern- 
ment knew beforehand the plans of the conspirators, betrayed 
to them by false Carbonari. Risings in other places equally 
failed ; and though the society continued to exist, and had a 
share in the events of the revolution of 1830, still, considering 
the number of its members, and the great resources and in- 
fluence it consequently possessed, it cannot be said to have 
produced any adequate results. 

565. Carbonarism in Germany. Carbonari lodges existed 
in all parts of Germany, but I will mention one only, because 
of the excitement its discovery caused at the time. In 1 849 
the police of Bremen arrested one Hobelmann, who was tutor 
in the family of a Thuringian nobleman, and who proved to 
be the chief of a Carbonaro sect calling itself the Todtenbund, 
or " Society of Death," since its aim was to kill all who 
should oppose its objects. Its statutes, and a long list of 
persons condemned to death, were found by the police. 

566. Carbonarism in Spain. The sect was introduced into 
Spain by refugee Italians about 1820, spreading chiefly in 
Catalonia, without, however, acquiring much influence at 
first. Their importance dates from the time of the quarrel 
between the Spanish Freemasons and the Comuneros (1822), 
when they sided with the former ; but when the Freemasons 
and the Comuneros were reconciled (1823), the Carbonari 
were opposed by both parties, and lost all influence (522). 

567. Giardiniere. As the Freemasons had their Adoptive 
Lodges, so the Carbonari admitted women, who were collec- 


tively called yiardiniere, garden-women, each sister taking 
the name of a flower. Their mission, of course, was to 
act as lures or spies. But they also fulfilled higher func- 
tions ; they alleviated the condition of the prisoners of des- 
potism, especially in Italy, where many lady members of the 
SocietA delta Misericordia were Giardiniere, and, having free 
access to the Austrian prisons in Piedmont, supplemented 
the scanty food allowed to the imprisoned Carbonari by the 
authorities with liberal additions. 



568. Gudpliic Knights. One of the most important socie- 
ties that issued, about the year 1816, from the midst of the 
Carbonari was that of the Guelphic Knights, who were very 
powerful in all parts of Italy. A report of the Austrian 
police says : " This society is the most dangerous, on account 
of its origin and diffusion, and the profound mystery which 
surrounds it. It is said that this society derives its origin 
from England or Germany." Its origin, nevertheless, was 
purely Italian. The councils consisted of six members, who, 
however, did not know each other, but intercommunicated 
by means of one person, called the " Visible," because he 
alone was visible. Every council also had one youth of 
undoubted faith, called the " Clerk," to communicate with 
students of universities, and a youth called a " Friend," to 
influence the people ; but neither the Clerk nor the Friend 
were initiated into the mysteries of the Order. Every council 
assumed a particular name, such as "Virtue," "Honour," 
" Loyalty," and met, as if for amusement only, without 
apparatus or writing of any kind. A supreme council sat 
at Bologna ; there were councils at Florence, Venice, Milan, 
Naples, &c. They endeavoured to gain adherents, who 
should be ignorant of the existence of the society, and should 
yet further its ends. Lucien Bonaparte is said to have been 
a " great light " among them. Their object was the inde- 
pendence of Italy, to be effected by means of all the secret 
societies of the country united under the leadership of the 

569. Guelphs and Carbonari. The Guelphs in reality 
formed a high vendita or lodge of the Carbonari, and the 
chiefs of the Carbonari were also chiefs among the Guelphs ; 
but only those that had distinct offices among the Carbonari 
could be admitted among the Guelphs. There can be no 
doubt that the Carbonari, when the sect had become very 

numerous, partly sheltered themselves under the designation 



of Guelphs and Adelphi or Independents, by affiliating them- 
selves to these societies. 

570. The Latini. This sect existed about 1817. Only 
those initiated into the higher degrees of Carbonarism could 
become members. In their oath they declared : "I swear 
to employ every means in my power to further the happi- 

.ness of Italy. I swear religiously to keep the secret and 
fulfil the duties of this society, and never to do aught that 
could compromise its safety ; and that I will only act in 
obedience to its decisions. If ever I violate this oath, I will 
submit to whatever punishment the society may inflict, even 
to death." The most influential vendite were gradually 
merged in this degree. 

571. The Centres. An offshoot of Carbonarism was the 
society formed in Lombardy, under the designation of the 
" Centres." Nothing was to be written ; and conversation 
on the affairs of the Order was only to take place between 
two members at a time, who recognised each other by the 
words, " Succour to the unfortunate," and by raising the 
hand three times to the forehead, in sign of grief. The 
Centres once more revived the hopes of Murat. A rising 
was to take place under his auspices against the detested 
Austrians ; the ringing of the bells of Milan was to be the 
signal for the outbreak ; and it is said that " Vespers " had 
been arranged, from which no Austrian was to escape alive. 
But on the appointed day fear or horror held the hand that 
was to have given the signal, that of General Fontanelli. 
Hence, fatal delay and the discovery of the secret. For 
Bellegarde or Talleyrand sent a certain Viscount Saiut- 
Aignan among the conspirators, who after having discovered 
all their plans, betrayed them to Austria, and was never 
heard of again. Austria seized the ringleaders and instituted 
proceedings against them, which lasted about three years, 
and were finally closed by delivering it is not known 
why, but probably through Carbonaro influence very mild 
sentences against the conspirators. 

572. Italian Litterateurs. This sect, introduced into 
Palermo in 1823, had neither signs nor distinctive marks. 
In every town there was a delegate, called the " Radical," 
who could affiliate unto himself ten others or more, acquir- 
ing the name of " decurion," or " centurion." The initiated 
were called " sons," who in their turn could affiliate unto 
themselves ten others, and these could do the same in their 
turn ; so that thus a mighty association was formed. The 
initiated were called " Brethren Barabbas," Christ repre- 


senting the tyrant, and Barabbas the people a singular 
confusion of ideas, by which the victim slain on the cross 
for the redemption of human conscience and thought was 
considered as an example and upholder of tyranny. But 
it was a symbolism which concealed juster ideas, and more 
conformable with truth. They recognised each other by 
means of a ring, and attested their letters by the well- 
known initials I. N. R: I. The society was much feared 
and jealously watched, and helped to fill the prisons. It 
only ceased when other circumstances called forth other 

573. Societies in Calabria and the Abruzzi. These dis- 
tricts, by their natural features and the disposition of their 
inhabitants, were at all times the favourite resorts of con- 
spirators. We there find the sects of the " European 
Patriots or White Pilgrims," the "Philadelphians," and the 
" Decisi," who thence spread into other Italian provinces, 
with military organisation, arms, and commanders. The 
first two partly came from France ; nor were their opera- 
tions, as the names intimate, confined to the peninsula. The 
lodges of the "Decisi" (Decided) were called "Decisions," 
as the assemblies of the Patriots were called " Squadrons," 
each from forty to sixty strong, and those of the Philadel- 
phians, " Camps." The Decisi, whose numbers amounted 
perhaps to forty thousand, held their meetings at night, 
carefully guarded by sentinels ; and their military exercises 
took place in solitary houses, or suppressed convents. Their 
object was to fall upon Naples and proclaim a republic ; but 
cinfcim stances were not propitious. Their leader, Giro Anni- 
chiarico, a priest, was a man of great resources and vast 
influence, so that it was necessary to despatch against him 
General Church, who captured him and had him shot. As 
Giro was rather a remarkable personage, a brief account of 
him may not be uninteresting. 

574. Giro Annicliiarico. This priest was driven from 
society by his crimes. He was accused of murder, com- 
mitted in a fit of jealousy, and sentenced to fifteen years of 
exile, although there is strong reason to believe that he was 
innocent. But instead of being permitted to leave the 
country, according to the sentence, he was for four years 
kept in prison, whence at last lie made his escape, took 
refuge in the forests, and placed himself at the head of a 
band of outlaws, and, as his enemies declare, committed all 
kinds of enormities. At Martano, they say, he penetrated 
into one of the first houses of the place, and, after having 


offered violence to its mistress, massacred her with all her 
people, and carried off 96,000 ducats. He was in corre- 
spondence with all the brigands ; and whoever wished to get 
rid of an enemy, had only to address himself to Giro. On 
being asked, after his capture, how many persons he had 
killed with his own hand, he carelessly answered, " Who can 
remember ? Perhaps sixty or seventy." His activity, arti- 
fice, and intrepidity were astonishing. He was a first-rate 
shot and rider ; his singular good fortune in extricating him- 
self from the most imminent dangers .acquired for him the 
reputation of a necromancer, upon whom ordinary means of 
attack had no power. Though a priest himself, and exer- 
cising the functions of one when ho thought it expedient, he 
was rather a libertine, and declared his clerical colleagues to 
be impostors without any faith. He published a paper against 
the missionaries, who, according to him, disseminated illiberal 
opinions among the people, and forbade them on pain of 
death to preach in the villages, "because, instead of the true 
principles of the Gospel, they taught nothing but fables and 
impostures." Probably Giro was pretty correct in his esti- 
mate of their performances. He could be generous on 
occasions. One day he surprised General D'Octavio, a Cor- 
sican, in the service of Murat who pursued him for a long 
time with a thousand men walking alone in a garden. 
Giro discovered himself, remarking, that the life of the 
general, who was unarmed, was in his hands; "but," said 
he, " I will pardon you this time, although I shall no longer 
be so indulgent if you continue to hunt me about." So 
saying, he leaped over the wall and disappeared. His phy- 
siognomy was rather agreeable ; he was of middle stature, 
well made, and very strong. He had a verbose eloquence. 
Extremely addicted to pleasure, he had mistresses, at the 
period of his power, in all the towns of the province over 
which he was continually ranging. When King Ferdinand 
returned to his states on this side the Taro, he recalled such 
as had been exiled for political opinions. Giro attempted to 
pass for one of these, but a new order of arrest was issued 
against him. It was then that he placed himself at the head 
of the Decisi. Many excesses are laid to their charge. A 
horde of twenty or thirty of them overran the country in 
disguise, masked as punchinellos. In places where open 
force could not be employed, the most daring were sent to 
watch for the moment to execute the sentences of secret 
death pronounced by the society. It was thus that the jus- 
tice of the peace of Luogo Rotondo and his wife were killed 


in their own garden ; and that the sectary, Perone, plunged 
his knife into the bowels of an old man of seventy, and 
afterwards massacred his wife and servant, having introduced 
himself into their house under pretence of delivering a letter. 
As has already been intimated, it was finally found necessary 
to send an armed force, under the command of General 
Church, against this band of ruffians. Many of them having 
been taken, and the rest dispersed. Giro, with only three 
companions, took refuge in one of the fortified farm-houses 
near Francavilla, but after a vigorous defence was obliged 
to surrender. The Council of War, by which he was tried, 
condemned him to be shot. A missionary offered him the 
consolations of religion. Giro answered him with a smile, 
"Let us leave alone this prating; we are of the same pro- 
fession ; don't let us laugh at one another." On his arrival 
at the place of execution, Giro- wished to remain standing ; 
he was told to kneel, and did so, presenting his breast. He 
was then informed that malefactors like himself were shot 
with their backs to the soldiers ; he submitted, at the same 
time advising a priest, who persisted in remaining near him, 
to withdraw, so as not to expose himself. Twenty-one balls 
took effect, four in the head, yet he still breathed and mut- 
tered in his throat ; the twenty-second put an end to him. 
This fact was confirmed by all the officers and soldiers pre- 
sent at his death. " As soon as we perceived," said a soldier 
very gravely, "that he was enchanted, we loaded his own 
musket with a silver ball, and this destroyed the spell." 
After the death of the leader, some two hundred and 
thirty persons were brought to trial; nearly half of them, 
having been guilty of murder and robbery with violence, 
were condemned to capital punishment, and their heads ex- 
posed near the places of their residence, or in the scene of 
their crimes. 

575. Certificates of the Decisi. To render the account of 
the Decisi as complete as it need be, I subjoin a copy of one 
of their patents or certificates : 







Hea(1 - S(alentina). D(ecisione). 

N V. Grand! Muratori. 
L. D. D. G. T.E. D. T. D. U* 

II Afortale Gaetano Caffieri e tin F. D. A'umero Quinto, 
appartenente alia D e del Tonante <7iove, sparsa sulla 
superficie della Terra, per la sua D e avuto il piacere di 
far parte in questa R. S. D. Noi dunque invitiamo 
tutte le Societa .Filantropiche a prestar il loro braccio 
forte al medesimo ed a soccorerlo ne' suoi bisogni, essendo 
egli gitinto alia D e di acquistare la .Liberia o Morte. 
Oggi li 29 Ottobre 1817. 

Pietro Gargaro. 

V. de Serio 2 Deciso 

II G. M. D. N. 1. 

Gaetano Caffieri 
Cross bones. Registratore de' Morti. ' Seal - 


Cross bones. 


The Salentine Decision. 

Health ! 
No. 5, Grand Masons. 

The Decision of Jupiter Tonans (the name of the lodge) hopes to 
make war against the tyrants of the universe, &c. 

The mortal Gaetano Caffieri is a Brother Decided, No. 5, belonging to 
the Decision of Jupiter the Thunderer, spread over the face of the earth, 
has had the pleasure to belong to this Salentine Republican Decision. We 
invite, therefore, all Philanthropic Societies to lend their strong arm to 
the same, and to assist him in his wants, he having come to the decision 
to obtain liberty or death. Dated this day, the 2Qth October 1817. 

Pietro Gargaro, the Decided Grand Master, No. i. 
Vito de Serio, Second Decided. 
Gaetano Caffieri, Registrar of the Dead. 

1 That is: La Decisione di Giove Tonante Esterminatore del Tiranni 
dell' Universo. 


The letters in italics in the original were written in blood. 
The upper seal represents fasces planted upon a death's head, 
surmounted by the Phrygian cap, and flanked by hatchets ; 
the lower, thunderbolts casting down royal and imperial 
crowns and the tiara. The person in whose favour the certifi- 
cate is issued, figures himself among the signatures with the 
title of Registrar of the Dead, that is, of those they immolated 
*to their vengeance, of whom they kept a register apart. 
The four points observable after the signature of Pietro 
Gargaro indicate his power of passing sentence of death. 
When the Decisi wrote to any one to extort contributions, 
if they added these four points, it was known that the person 
they addressed was condemned to death in case of disobedi- 
ence. If the points were not added he was threatened with 
milder punishment. Their colours, yellow, red, and blue, 
surrounded the patent. 

576. The Calderari. This society, alluded to before, is 
of uncertain origin. Count Orloff, in his work, "Memoirs 
on the Kingdom of Naples," says they arose in 1813, when 
the reform of Carbonarism took place. Canosa, on the other 
hand, in a pamphlet published at Dublin, and entitled, " The 
Mountain Pipes," says they arose at Palermo, and not at 
Naples. In the former of these towns there existed different 
trade companies, which had enjoyed great privileges, until 
they lost them by the constitution of Lord William Bentinck. 
The numerous company of braziers (calderari) felt the loss 
most keenly, and they sent a deputation to the Queen of 
Naples, assuring her that they were ready to rise in her de- 
fence. The flames of the insurrection were communicated to 
the tanners and other companies, and all the Neapolitan emi- 
grants in Sicily. Lord William Bentinck put the emigrants 
on board ship and sent them under a neutral flag to Naples, 
where Murat received them very kindly. But they were not 
grateful. Immediately on their arrival they entered into 
the secret societies then conspiring against the French 
Government, and their original name of Calderari was com- 
municated by them to the conspirators, before then called 
" Trinitarii." We have seen that on the return of Ferdinand, 
Prince Canosa favoured the Calderari. He styled them the 
Calderari of the Counterpoise, because they were to serve as 
such to Carbonarism. The fate of Canosa and that of the 
Calderari has already been mentioned (557, 559). 

577. The Independents. Though these also aimed at the 
independence of Italy, yet it appears that they were not dis- 
inclinetf to effect it by means of foreign assistance. The 


report at that time was that they actually once intended to 
offer the crown of Italy to the Duke of Wellington ; but this 
is highly improbable, since our Iron Duke was not at all 
popular in Italy. But it is highly probable that they sought 
the co-operation of Russia, which, since 1815, maintained 
many agents in Italy with what purpose is not exactly 
known ; the collection of statistical and economical informa- 
tion was the ostensible object, but Austria looked on them 
with a very suspicious eye, and watched them narrowly. 
The Independents had close relations with these Russian 
agents, probably, as it is surmised, with a view of turning 
Russian influence to account in any outbreak against 

578. The Delphic Priesthood. This was another secret 
society, having the same political object as the foregoing. 
The Delphic priest, the patriotic priest, the priest militant, 
spoke thus : " My mother has the sea for her mantle, high 
mountains for her sceptre ; " and when asked who his mother 
was, replied : "The lady with the dark tresses, whose gifts 
are beauty, wisdom, and formerly strength : whose dowry is 
a flourishing garden, full of flagrant flowers, where bloom the 
olive and the vine ; and who now groans, stabbed to the 
heart." The Delphics entertained singular hopes, and would 
invoke the " remedy of the ocean " (American auxiliaries) 
and the epoch of " cure " (a general European war). They 
called the partisans of France " pagans," and those of Austria, 
"monsters"; the Germans they styled "savages." Their 
place of meeting they designated as the " ship," to fore- 
shadow the future maritime greatness of Italy, and the help 
they expected from over the sea; their chief was the 
" pilot." 

579. Egyptian Lodges. Immediately after the downfall 
of Napoleon, societies were formed also iu foreign countries 
to promote Italian independence. The promoters of these 
were chiefly exiles. Distant Egypt even became the centre 
of such a propaganda ; and under the auspices of Mehemet 
Ali, who aspired to render himself independent of the Sub- 
lime Porte, there was established the Egyptian rite of 
Cagliostro with many variations, and under the title of the 
" Secret Egyptian Society." Under masonic forms, the 
Pacha hoped to further his own views ; and especially, to 
produce political changes in the Ionian Islands and in Italy, 
he scattered his agents all over the Mediterranean coasts. 
Being masonic, the society excluded no religion ; it retained 
the two annual festivals, and added a third in memory of 


Napoleon, whose portrait was honoured in the lodge. The 
rites were chiefly those of the ancient and accepted Scotch. 
Women were admitted, Turks excluded ; and in the lodges 
of Alexandria and Cairo, the Greek and Arab women 
amounted to more than three hundred. The emissaries, 
spread over many parts of Europe, corresponded in cipher ; 
but of the operations of the society nothing was ever posi- 
tively known. 

580. American Hunters. The Society of the "American 
Hunters" was founded at Ravenna, shortly after the pro- 
secutions of Macerata, and the measures taken by the 
Austrian Government, in 1818, against the Carbonari. Lord 
Byron is said to have been at its head, having imbibed his 
love for Italy through the influence of an Italian beauty, 
the Countess Guiccioli, whose brother had been exiled a 
few years before. Its ceremonies assimilated it to the 
" Comuneros " of Spain, and it seems to have had the same 
aims as the Delphic Priesthood. The saviour was to come 
from America, and it is asserted that Joseph Bonaparte, the 
ex- King of Spain, was a member of the society. It is not 
improbable that the partisans of Napoleon gathered new 
hopes after the events of 1815. A sonnet, of which the 
first quatrain is here given, was at that time very popular 
in Central Italy, and shows the direction of the political 

" Scandalised by groaning under kings so fell, 
Killing Europe with dismay in ev'ry part, 
We are driven to solicit Bonaparte 
To return from Saint Helena or from hell." 

The restored sect made itself the centre of many minor 
sects, among which were the " Sons of Mars," so called 
because composed chiefly of military men ; of the " Artist 
Brethren " ; " the Defenders of the Country " ; the " Friends 
of Duty ; " and others, having the simpler and less com- 
promising forms of Carbonarism. In the sect of the " Sons 
of Mars," the old Carbonari vendita was called "bivouac"; 
the apprentice, " volunteer " ; the good cousin, " corporal " ; 
the master, "sergeant"; the grand master, "commander"; 
and the chief dignitaries of Carbonarism still governed, from 
above and unseen, the thoughts of the sect. Many other 
sects existed, of which scarcely more than the names are 
known, the recapitulation of which would only weary the 

581. Secret Italian Society in London. London was a great 
centre of the sectaries. In 1822, a society for liberating 


Italy from the Austrian yoke was formed in that city, 
counting among its members many distinguished Italian 
patriots. Austria took the alarm, and sent spies to discover 
their plans. These spies represented the operations of the 
society as very extensive and imminent. An expedition 
was to sail from the English coasts for Spain, to take on 
board a large number of adherents, land them on the Italian 
shores, and spread insurrection everywhere. The English 
general, Robert Wilson, was said to be at the head of the 
expedition ; of which, however, nothing was ever heard, and 
the Austrian Government escaped with the mere fright. 

582. Secret Italian Societies in Paris. A society of Italians 
was formed in Paris, in 1829; and in 1830, French Liberals 
formed a society under the title of " Cosmopolitans," whose 
object was to revolutionise all the peoples of the Latin race, 
and form them into one grand confederacy. La Fayette 
was at its head, but the man who was the real leader of 
the movement was totally unknown to the public. Henry 
Misley seemed occupied only in the sale of the nitre and wheat 
of his native country, Modena, and afterwards was engaged 
in the construction of railways in Italy and Spain. But 
he was the intimate friend of Menotti, and the connecting 
link between the Italian Carbonari and the revolutionary 
movement in France. He was also active, from 1850 to 
1852, in placing Louis Napoleon at the head of the French 
nation, co-operating with Lord Palmerston, who, as a Mason, 
was the great friend and protector of the European revolu- 
tion, and was the first to recognise Louis Napoleon as 
Emperor of the French, not hesitating, to further his objects, 
to falsify despatches which had already received the royal 
signature. But when Garibaldi, in 1864, visited England, 
Lord Palmerston co-operated with Victor Emmanuel and 
Louis Napoleon in restraining the Italian patriot from com- 
ing in contact with the revolutionary leaders then in this 
country, lest he, in conjunction with them, should plan 
expeditions, which might have interfered with his (Lord 
Palmerston's) or the King of Italy's plans. Garibaldi was 
surrounded with a brilliant suite, and overwhelmed with 
official fetes. Then Dr. Fergusson declared that Garibaldi's 
health demanded his immediate return to Italy. His in- 
tended visit to Paris was stopped by the Duke of Sutherland 
taking him in his yacht to the Mediterranean ; but Mazzini 
informed Garibaldi of the scheme to keep him an honoured 
prisoner, and Garibaldi insisted at Malta on returning at 
once to Caprera. 


583. Mazzini and Young Italy. Joseph Mazzini, who 
sixty years ago was a prisoner in Fort Savona for revolu- 
tionary speeches and writings, may be looked upon as the 
chief instigator of modern secret societies in Italy having 
revolutionary tendencies. The independence and unity of 
their country, with Rome for its capital, of course were the 
objects of Young Italy. One of the earliest of these societies 
was that of the Apophasimenes, many of whom Mazzini drew 
over to his " Young Italy " association. 

Here are some of the articles of the " Organisation of 
Young Italy" : I. The society is founded for the indispen- 
sable destruction of all the governments of the Peninsula, in 
order to form one single State with the republican govern- 
ment. 2. Fully aware of the horrible evils of absolute power, 
and the even worse results of constitutional monarchies, we 
must aim at establishing a republic, one and indivisible. 30. 
Those who refuse obedience to the orders of this secret 
society, or reveal its mysteries, die by the dagger without 
mercy. 31. The secret tribunal pronounces sentence, and 
appoints one or two affiliated members for its execution. 32. 
Who so refuses to perform such duty assigned to him, dies 
on the spot. 33. If the victim escapes, he shall be pursued, 
until struck by the avenging hand, were he on the bosom of 
his mother or in the temple of Christ. 34. Every secret 
tribunal is competent not only to judge guilty adepts, but to 
put to death any one it finds it necessary to condemn. 
(Sig.) Mazzini. 

We have seen, in the account of the Mafia (329), that 
Mazzini constantly recommended the use of the dagger 
though he took good care to avoid personal danger ; and, to 
give but one instance, that he did not hesitate to employ it, 
by proxy, was proved in the case of Signer Emiliani, who 
was assassinated, by Mazzini's order, which is still existing, 
signed by Mazzini, and countersigned by the secretary La 
Cecilia, in the streets of Rhodez, a town in the department 
of the Aveyron, seventy miles from Toulouse. Mazzini had 
come from Geneva on purpose to sit in judgment on Signor 
Kmiliani, who was accused of having opposed the plans of 
the Mazzinists. 

Committees were established in all parts of the Peninsula ; 
the presses, not only of Italy, but also of Marseilles, London, 
and Switzerland, were largely employed to disseminate the 
views of the conspirators ; and the police, though they con- 
sidered themselves well informed, were always at fault. 
Thus Livio Zambeccari, a leading member, went from 


Bologna to Naples, thence into Sicily, held interviews with 
the conspirators, called meetings, and returned to Bologna, 
whilst the police of Naples and Sicily knew nothing at all 
about it. General Antonini, under a feigned name, went to 
Sicily, passed himself off for a daguerreotypist, and lived 
in great intimacy with many of the officials without being 
suspected. A Piedmontese officer, who had fought in the 
Spanish and Portuguese revolutionary wars, arrived at Mes- 
sina under a Spanish name, with letters of introduction from 
a Neapolitan general, which enabled him to visit and closely 
inspect the citadels, this being the object of his journey. 
Letters from Malta, addressed to the conspirators, were inter- 
cepted by the police, but recovered from them before they had 
read them, by the address and daring of the members of Young 
Italy. A thousand copies of a revolutionary programme, printed 
at Marseilles, were smuggled into Italy in a despatch addressed 
to the Minister Delcaretto. Though occasionally the corre- 
spondence fell into the hands of the authorities as, for 
instance, on the 4th June 1832, the Custom-house officers of 
Genoa seized on board the steamer Sulh/, coming from Mar- 
seilles, a trunk full of old clothes, addressed to Mazzini's 
mother, in the false bottom of which were concealed a large 
number of letters addressed to members of Young Italy, 
revolutionary proclamations, lists of lodges, and instructions 
as to the proposed rising. Then the revolutionary corre- 
spondence was carried on by means of the official letters 
addressed to the Minister Santangelo, at Palermo. A well- 
known Spanish general, who was one of the conspirators, 
whose departure and object had been publicly announced in 
the French papers, went from Marseilles to Naples, and the 
police were unable to catch him. Italian and other Conti- 
nental revolutionists in those days, and later on, received 
much moral support from Lord Palmerston, wherefore it 
was a saying of Austrian Conservatives 

" If the devil has a son, 
Surely it's Lord Palmerston." 

Panizzi also, a Carbonaro, exiled from Italy, and for many 
years Chief Librarian of the British Museum, was an ardent 
supporter of Italian unification. 

584. Mazzini, the Evil Genius of Italy. Gregory XVI. died 
in 1846. The Italians thought this the favourable moment 
for general action, and the revolutions of Rome, Naples, 
Palermo, Florence, Milan, Parma, Modena, and Venice fol- 
lowed in quick succession. But they failed, and their failure 


notably that of the operations of Charles Albert was due 
to the political intrigues carried on by the Mazzinists, who 
tampered with the fidelity and discipline of the Sardinian 
army. Mazzini, in those days, ruined the national cause, 
and rejoiced in that ruin, because he was not the leader of 
the enterprise. Later on, his Roman triumvirate led to the 
French occupation of Rome, and to the return to that city 
of Italy's greatest curse, the pope. Many of Garibaldi's 
noble efforts were thwarted or frustrated by Mazzini's revo- 
lutionary fanaticism ; and yet such is the mockery of 
Fate ! that selfish demagogue who, to gratify his political 
crotchets, sent hundreds of misguided youths to a violent 
death, has a statue in the Palazzo del Municipio at 
Genoa, an honour which posterity will certainly rescind. 
Like O'Donovan Rossa, he planned his murderous schemes 
at a safe distance, taking care never to imperil himself 
personally, and if danger came near, to run away. In the 
expedition to Savoy in January 1834, Mazzini at Carra 
brandished his rifle to rush to the combat, but was con- 
veniently seized by a fit and carried across the border in 
safety. In 1833 Louis Mariotti (a pseudo-name), provided 
with a passport and money by Mazzini, attempted Charles 
Albert's life ; shortly after another man made the same 
attempt he had a dagger which was proved to have be- 
longed to Mazzini : this hero was one of the first to take 
flight when Radetzky entered Milan. When in that city 
he thwarted the endeavours of the royal commissioners to 
procure men and money, and fed the republican animosities 
towards the Piedmontese in every part of Italy. The king 
knew of the Mazzinian manoeuvres, and therefore did not 
make peace after his defeat, for the republicans would have 
said he had thrown up the cause of Italy. 

585. Assassination of Rossi. This adventurer was born 
at Carrara, and began his public career as a member of the 
provisional government of Bologna, when Murat attempted 
the conquest of Italy. At his master's defeat, he fled into 
Switzerland, where the Diet entrusted him with the revision 
of the pact of 1815 ; in the changes he proposed, radicalism 
was carried to its utmost limits, and aimed at the overthrow 
of the Federal Government. With such antecedents, it was 
but natural that Rossi became a member of Young Italy ; 
though Mazzini placed no faith in him, for he knew that the 
ci-devant Carbonaro had no fixed political convictions. For 
this once violent demagogue, having, in the July revolution 
of 1830, assisted Louis Philippe to ascend the French throne, 


accepted from him the title of count and peer of France, 
and was sent as ambassador to Rome. Though he had once 
belonged to the secret societies of Italy, and by Gregory XVI. 
been designated as the political renegade, he eventually 
accepted office under Pius IX., who in 1848, a short time 
before his flight from Rome, had no one to appeal to, to 
form a new ministry, but this very adventurer, who did so 
by keeping three of the portfolios in his own hands, viz., 
those of Finances, Interior, and Police, whilst the other 
ministers mutually detested each other ; a fact from which 
Rossi expected to derive additional advantages. His poli- 
tical programme, which excluded all national participation 
or popular influence, filled Young Italy with rage. At a 
meeting of Young Italy, held at the Hotel Feder at Turin, 
the verdict went forth : Death to the false Carbonaro ! By 
a prearranged scheme the lot to kill Rossi fell on Canino, 
a leading man of the association, not that it was expected 
that he would do the deed himself, but his position and 
wealth were assumed to give him the most; ready means of 
commanding daggers. A Mazzinian society assembled twice 
a week at the Roman theatre, Capranica. At a meeting of 
one hundred and sixteen members, it was decided, at the 
suggestion of Mazzini, that forty should be chosen by lot to 
protect the assassin. Three others were elected by the same 
process they were called feratori ; one of them was to slay 
the minister. 

The 1 5th of November 1848, the day fixed upon for the 
opening of the Roman Chambers, was also that of Rossi's 
death. He received several warnings, but ridiculed them. 
Even in going to the Chancellerie, he was addressed by a 
priest, who whispered to him, " Do not go out ; you will be 
assassinated." "They cannot terrify me," he replied; "the 
cause of the Pope is the cause of God," which is thought by 
some to have been a very noble answer, but which was simply 
ridiculous, because not true, and was, moreover, vile hypo- 
crisy on the part of a man with his antecedents. When 
Rossi arrived at the Chancellerie, the conspirators were 
already awaiting him there. One of them, as the minister 
ascended the staircase, struck him on the side with the hilt 
of a dagger, and as Rossi turned round to look at his 
assailant, another assassin plunged his dagger into Rossi's 
throat. The minister soon after expired in the apartments 
of Cardinal Gozzoli, to which he had been carried. At that 
very instant one of the chiefs of Young Italy at Bologna, 
looking at his watch, said, "A great deed has just been 


accomplished ; we no longer need fear Rossi." The estima- 
tion in which Rossi was held by the Chamber cannot have 
been great, for the deputies received the news of his death 
with considerable sang-froid; and at night a torchlight 
procession paraded the streets of Rome, carrying aloft the 
dagger which had done the deed, whilst thousands of voices 
exclaimed, " Blessed be the hand that struck Rossi ! Blessed 
be the dagger that struck him ! " A pamphlet, published at 
Rome in 1850, contains a letter from Mazzini, in which occur 
the words : " The assassination of Rossi was necessary and 

In the first edition I added to the foregoing account the 
following note : 

" P.S. Since writing the above I have met with documents 
which induce me to suspend my judgment as to who were 
the real authors of Rossi's assassination. From what I have 
since learnt it would seem that the clerical party, and not 
the Carbonari, planned and executed the deed. Persons 
accused of being implicated in the murder were kept in 
prison for more than two years without being brought to 
trial, and then quietly got away. Rossi, shortly before his 
death, had levied contributions to the extent of four million 
scudi on clerical property, and was known to plan further 
schemes to reduce the influence of the Church. But the 
materials for writing the history of those times are not yet 

More than twenty years after the above was written, now 
in 1896, the question is as much involved in doubt as ever. 
True, one Santa Constantini, a radical fanatic, as he was 
called on his conviction, has been proved to have struck the 
fatal blow, but as to who instigated him to do the deed, 
opinions are still divided ; the secret has not oozed out. 
The reasons for attributing the death of Rossi to the 
Carbonari or the Jesuits are of equal weight on both sides. 

The assassination of Rossi and the commotions following 
it, led, as is well known, to the pope's flight to Gaeta. 
.During his absence from Rome, Mazzini was the virtual 
ruler of that city, which was during his short reign the 
scene of the greatest disorders, of robberies, and assassina- 
tions. But Rome gained nothing by the restoration of the 
pope through French arms ; the papalians, when once more 
in power, raged as wildly against the peaceful inhabitants as 
the Mazzinists had done. The Holy Father personally, and 
the cardinals and other dignitaries of the Church, caused 
thousands of the inhabitants of Rome to be cast into noisome 


dungeons, many of them underground, where they were 
starved or killed by bad treatment, or after long-delayed 
trials condemned to the most unjust punishments. I could 
give numerous instances, did they enter into the scope 
of this work. The subsequent action of Carbonarism, its 
renewal of the war against the pope, the collapse of the 
latter's army, largely composed of Irish loafers, who entered 
Rome in potato sacks, with a hole for the head and two 
for the arms, and his final overthrow, are matters of public 

586. Sicilian Societies. Sicily did not escape the general 
influence. In 1827 there was formed a secret society in 
favour of the Greek revolution, the "Friends of Greece," 
who, however, also occupied themselves with the affairs of 
Italy. There was also the " Secret Society of the Five," 
founded ten years before the above, which prepared the 
insurrection of the Greeks. In Messina was formed the 
lodge of the " Patriotic Reformers," founded on Carbonarism, 
which corresponded with lodges at Florence, Milan, and 
Turin, by means of musical notes. But the Sicilian Car- 
bonari did not confine themselves to political aims : to them 
was due in a great measure the security of the roads through- 
out the island, which before their advent had been terribly 
infested by malefactors of every kind, who almost daily com- 
mitted outrages against peaceful travellers. 

587. The Consistorials. But the conspirators against 
thrones and the Church were not to have it all their own 
way ; clerical associations were formed to counteract their 
efforts. The sect of the " Consistorials " aimed at the 
preservation of feudal and theocratic dominion. The rich 
and ambitious patricians of Rome and other Italian states 
belonged to it; Tabot, an ex- Jesuit and Confessor to the 
Holy Father, was the ruling spirit. It is said that this 
society proposed to give to the Pope, Tuscany ; the island 
of Elba and the Marches, to the King of Naples ; Parma, 
Piacenza, and a portion of Lombardy, with the title of King, 
to the Duke of Modena ; the rest of Lombardy, Massa 
Carrara, and Lucca, to the King of Sardinia ; and to Russia, 
which, from jealousy of Austria, favoured these secret designs, 
either Ancona, or Genoa, or Civita Vecchia, to turn it into 
their Gibraltar. From documents found in the office of the 
Austrian governor at Milan, it appears that the Duke of 
Modena, in 1818, presided at a general meeting of the 
Consistorials, and that Austria was aware of the existence 
and intentions of the society. 



588. The Roman Catholic Apostolic Congregation. It was 
formed at the period of the imprisonment of Pius VII. The 
members recognised each other by a yellow silk ribbon with 
five knots ; the initiated into the lower degrees heard of 
nothing but acts of piety and charity ; the secrets of the 
society, known to the higher ranks, could only be discussed 
between two ; the lodges were composed of five members ; 
the password was " Eleutheria," i.e. Liberty ; and the secret 
word " Ode," i.e. Independence. This sect arose in France, 
among the Neo-catholics, led by Latnmenais, who already, 
in the treatise on "Religious Indifference," had shown that 
fervour which afterwards was to carry him so far. Thence 
it passed into Lombardy, but met with but little success, 
and the Austrians succeeded in obtaining the patents which 
were given to the initiated, two Latin texts divided by this 

C I C 1 

sign , meaning Congregazione Catholica Apostolica 

A. I li 

Romana, and their statutes and signs of recognition. Though 
devoted to the independence of Italy, the Congregation was 
not factions ; for it bound the destinies of nations to the 
full triumph of the Roman Catholic religion. Narrow in 
scope, and restricted in numbers, it neither possessed nor, 
perhaps, claimed powers to subvert the political system. 

589. Sanfedisti. This society was founded at the epoch 
of the suppression of the Jesuits. There existed long before 
then in the Papal States a society called the "Pacific" or 
" Holy Union," which was established to defend religion, 
the privileges and jurisdiction of Rome, and the temporal 
power of the popes. Now from this society they derived the 
appellation of the Society of the Holy Faith, or Sanfedisti. 
The way in which the existence of the society was dis- 
covered, was curious. A friend of De Witt (555) during 
carnival time in 1821, entered a shop in the Coiitrada di 
Po at Turin to purchase a costume. He was examining a 
cassock, when he noticed a pocket in it, containing some 
papers. He bought it and took it home. The papers gave 
the statutes, signs, passwords, &c., of the Sanfedisti. The 
owner of the cassock, one of the highest initiates, had 
been struck by apoplexy, and his belongings had been sold. 
Finding themselves discovered, the Sanfedisti changed the 
password and sign, making, instead of the former one, an 
imperceptible cross with the left hand on the left breast. 
They had been in existence long before 1821 ; in France 
they conspired against Napoleon, who sent about twenty of 
them to prison at Modena, whence they were released by 


Francis IV. The supposed chiefs, after 1815, were the 
Duke of Modena and Cardinal Consalvi. The first had 
frequent secret interviews with the cardinals, and even the 
King of Sardinia was said to be in the plot. Large sums 
also are said to have been contributed by the chiefs to 
carry on the war against Austria, which, however, is doubt- 
ful. Some attribute to this society the project of divid- 
ing Italy into three kingdoms, expelling the Austrians and 
the King of Naples ; others, the intention of dividing it 
into five, viz., Sardinia, Modena, Lucca, Home, and Naples ; 
and yet others and these latter probably are most in the 
right the determination to perpetuate the status quo, or to 
re-establish servitude in its most odious forms. They also 
intrigued with Russia, though at certain times they would 
not have objected to subject all Italy politically to the 
Austrian eagle, and clerically to the keys of St. Peter. 
Their machinations at home led to much internal dissension 
and bloodshed ; their chief opponents were the Carbonari. 
At Faenza the two parties fought against one another under 
the names of "Cats" and "Dogs." They caused quite 
as much mischief and bloodshed as any of the bands of 
brigands that infested the country, and their code was quite 
as sanguinary as that of any more secular society. They 
swore with terrible oaths to pursue and slay the impious 
liberals, even to their children, without showing pity for age 
or sex. Under the pretence of defending the faith, they 
indulged in the grossest licentiousness and most revolting 
atrocity. In the Papal States they were under the direc- 
tion of the inquisitors and bishops, who, especially under 
Leo XII., gave them the greatest encouragement ; in the 
kingdom of Naples, under the immediate orders of the police. 
They spread all over Germany, where Prince Hohenloh- 
Schillingsfiirst, Bishop of Sardica, protected them. Prince 
Julius de Polignac was head of the society in France. 



590. The Philaddphians. As early as the year 1780 a 
society of about sixty young men had formed at Besanc^on a 
masonic lodge under the above name. Colonel James Joseph 
Oudet, who, though he served under Napoleon, hated him, 
and had for some time been looking out for dupes to assist 
him in bringing back to France the detested Bourbon race, 
whose secret agent he was, pitched on the members of that 
lodge, still composed of enthusiastic, but inexperienced, 
youths, as suitable for his purpose. Having been initiated 
into nearly every secret society in Europe, Oudet soon in- 
vested the Philadelphians with all the machinery of one on a 
more elaborate scale than they had hitherto thought neces- 
sary. According to the approved pattern, every member 
assumed a pseudonym ; Oudet called himself Philopoemen ; 
General Moreau, who, as we shall see, succeeded him as chief 
of the Order, took the name of Fabius, and so on. Oudet 
further created a dignity, sovereign, monarchical and abso- 
lute, with which, of course, he invested himself, and under 
which were two degrees : the first, that of Frank Federate, 
and the second, that of Frank Judge; this second degree 
comprehended the complement of all the secrets, up to the 
secret belonging, and known to the supreme chief alone. 
But to give his adepts something to think and talk about, he 
told them the establishment of a Sequanese (from Sequana, 
Seine) republic was his object, whilst he really intended the 
total overthrow of Napoleon. He introduced the Philadel- 
phian rites into the army, simultaneously into the 9th, 68th, 
and 69th regiments of the line, into the 2Oth of dragoons, 
the 1 5th of light infantry, and from thence into all the army. 
Bonaparte heard of the society, and suspected Oudet, who 
was sent back to his corps, which then occupied the garrison 

of St. Martin, in the Isle of Rhe". General Moreau took his 



place, but shortly after had to resign it again to Oudet, he, 
Moreau, having been implicated in the conspiracy of Piche- 
gru. Before then the conspiracy of Arena to assassinate 
Bonaparte had been discovered, and a book, seized among 
the papers of Arena, and entitled " The Turk and the French 
Soldier," certainly was written by Oudet. The Philadel- 
phians next attempted to seize Bonaparte while traversing 
the forests and mountains of the Jura attended by a very 
small retinue ; but the attempt failed, one of the Order 
having betrayed the plot. Oudet was killed at the 
battle of Wagram (1809), and with his death the society 

591. The Rays. During the power of Napoleon, he was 
opposed by secret societies in Italy, as well as in France. 
But his fall, which to many seemed a revival of liberty, to 
others appeared as the ruin of Italy ; hence they sought to 
re-establish his rule, or at least to save Italian nationality 
from the wreck. The "Rays" were an Anti-Napoleonic 
society, composed of officials from all parts, brought together 
by common dangers and the adventures of the field. They 
had lodges at Milan and Bologna. The Sanfedisti also were 
an Anti-Napoleonic society (589). 

592. Secret League in Tirol. A very powerful association 
against Napoleon was in the year 1809 formed in Tirol. 
This country had by the treaty of Presburg (1805) been 
ceded by Austria to Bavaria. But the Tirolese, strongly 
attached to their former master, resented the transfer, and 
when in 1808 a renewal of the war between France and 
Austria was imminent, secret envoys, among whom was the 
already famous Andreas Hofer, were sent to Vienna to con- 
cert measures for reuniting the Tirol with Austria. But 
in consequence of the battle of Wagram, and the truce of 
Znaim, which followed it, Tirol was again surrendered to 
French troops. Then the Tirolese, betrayed by Austria, formed 
a number of secret societies among themselves, to drive out 
the French. The results of these associations are matters of 
history ; but to show how the secret societies worked, and tested 
the character and loyalty of some of the leading members, the 
following incident, communicated by the hero of the adven- 
ture, may be mentioned. He had once enjoyed Napoleon's 
confidence, but having unjustly become suspected by him, 
he was obliged to take refuge in the most alpine part of the 
Austrian provinces, in Tirol. There he formed connections 
with one of the societies for the overthrow of Napoleon, and 
went through a simple ceremony of initiation. Two months 


elapsed after this without his hearing any more of the society, 
when at last he received a letter asking him to repair to a 
remote place, where he was to meet a number of brothers 
assembled. He went, but found no one. He received three 
more similar summonses, but always with the same result. 
He received a fifth, and went, but saw no one. He was just 
retiring, disgusted with the often-repeated deception, when 
he heard frightful cries, as from a person in distress. He 
hastened towards the spot whence they proceeded, and found 
a bleeding body lying on the ground, whilst he saw three 
horsemen making their escape in the opposite direction, who, 
however, fired three shots at him, but missing him. He was 
about to examine the body lying at his feet when a detach- 
ment of armed force, attracted by the same cries, darted 
from the forest ; the victim on the ground indicated our 
hero as his assailant. He was seized, imprisoned, accused 
by witnesses who declared they had seen him commit the 
murder for the body of the person attacked had been re- 
moved as dead and he was sentenced to be executed the 
same night, by torchlight. He was led into a courtyard, 
surrounded by ruinous buildings, full of spectators. He had 
already ascended the scaffold, when an officer on horseback, 
and wearing the insignia of the magistracy, appeared, an- 
nouncing that an edict had gone forth granting a pardon to 
any man condemned to death for any crime whatever, who 
could give to justice the words of initiation and signs of re- 
cognition of a secret society, which the officer named ; it 
was the one into which the ci-devant officer of Napoleon 
had recently been received. He was questioned if he knew 
anything about it ; he denied all knowledge of the society, 
and being pressed, became angry and demanded death. 
Immediately he was greeted as a brave and faithful brother, 
for all those present were members of the secret society, and 
had knowingly co-operated in this rather severe test. 

593. Societies in Favour of Napoleon. Many societies in 
favour of the restoration of Napoleon were formed, such as 
the " Black Needle," the " Knights of the Sun," " Universal 
Regeneration," &c. They were generally composed of the 
soldiers of the great captain, who were condemned to in- 
activity, and looked upon the glory of their chief as some- 
thing in which they had a personal interest. Their aim was 
to place Napoleon at the head of confederated Italy, under 
the title of " Emperor of Rome, by the will of the people 
and the grace of God." The proposal reached him early in 
the year 1815. Napoleon accepted it like a man who on 


being shipwrecked perceives a piece of wood that may save 
him, and which he will cast into the iire when he has reached 
the land. The effects of these plots are known Napoleon's 
escape from Elba, and the reign of a hundred days. 

According to secret documents, the machinations of the 
Bouapartists continued even in 1842, the leaders being 
Peter Bonaparte, Lady Christina Stuart, the daughter of 
Lucien Bonaparte, the Marchioness Pepoli, the daughter of 
the Countess Lipona (Caroline Murat), and Count Rasponi. 
Then appeared the sect of the "Italian Confederates," first 
called "Platonica," which in 1842 extended into Spain. 
Another sect, the " Illuminati, Vindicators or Avengers of 
the People," arose in the Papal States ; also those of " Re- 
generation," of "Italian Independence," of the "Com- 
munists," the " Exterminators," &c. Tuscany also had its 
secret societies that of the "Thirty-one," the "National 
Knights," the " Revolutionary Club," &c. A " Communistic 
Society " was formed at Milan ; but none of these sects did 
more than excite a little curiosity for a time. Scarcely any- 
thing of their ritual is known. 

594. The Illuminati. This society, not to be confounded 
with an earlier one of the same name (351 et scq.}, was founded 
in France, but meeting with too many obstacles in that 
country, it spread all over Italy. Its object was to restore 
the Napoleon family to the French throne, by making Marie- 
Louise regent, until the King of Rome could be set on the 
throne, and by bringing Napoleon himself from St. Helena, 
to command the army. The society entered into corre- 
spondence with Las Casas, who was to come to Bologna, 
the chief lodge, and arrange plans ; but the scheme, as need 
scarcely be mentioned, never came to anything. 

595. Various other Societies. At Padua a society existed 
whose members called themselves Selvaggi, " Savages," 
because the German democrat, Marr, had said, that man 
must return to the savage state to accomplish something 
great. They cut neither their nails nor their hair, cleaned 
neither their clothes nor boots ; the medical students who 
were members of the sect surreptitiously brought portions of 
human bodies from the dissecting-rooms of the hospitals to 
their meetings, over which the initiated performed wild and 
hideous ceremonies. Not being able to obtain human blood 
for the purpose, they purchased bullocks' blood in which to 
drink death to tyrants. One of the members having over- 
gorged himself was found dead in the street. The medical 
examination of his body led to the discovery of the cause, 


and by the police inquiry resulting therefrom, to the ex- 
posure of the society, their statutes, oaths, and ceremonies. 

The members of the Unitfi Jtaliana, discovered at Naples 
in 1850, recognised each other by a gentle rubbing of noses. 
They swore on a dagger with a triangular blade, with the 
inscription, " Fraternity Death to Traitors Death to 
Tyrants," faithfully to observe all the laws of the society, 
on pain, in case of want of faith, to have their hearts pierced 
with the dagger. Those who executed the vengeance of the 
society called themselves the Committee of Execution. In 
1 849 the grand council of the sect established a " Committee 
of Stabbers," c&mitato de pugnalatori. The heads of the 
society were particular as to whom they admitted into it; 
the statutes say, " no ex-Jesuits, thieves, coiners, and other 
infamous persons are to be initiated." The ex- Jesuits are 
placed in good company truly ! 

In 1849 a society was discovered at Ancona calling itself 
the " Company of Death," and many assassinations, many of 
them committed in broad daylight in the streets of the town, 
were traced to its members. The "Society of Slayers," 
Ammazzatori, at Leghorn ; the " Infernal Society," at Sini- 
gaglia ; the " Company of Assassins," Sicarii, at Faenza ; 
the "Terrorists" of Bologna, were associations of the same 
stamp. The " Barbers of Mazzini," at Rome, made it their 
business to " remove " priests who had rendered them- 
selves particularly obnoxious. Another Bolognese society 
was that of the " Italian Conspiracy of the Sons of 
Death," whose object was the liberation of Italy from 
foreign sway. 

596. The Accoltellatori. A secret society, non-political, 
was discovered, and many of its members brought to trial, at 
Ravenna, in 1874. Its existence had long been surmised, 
but the executive did not dare to interfere ; some private 
persons, indeed, tried to bring the assassins to justice, but 
wherever they succeeded a speedy vengeance was sure to 
follow. To one shopkeeper who had been particularly active 
a notice was' sent that his life was forfeited, and the same 
night a placard was posted up upon the shutters of his shop 
announcing that the establishment was to be sold, as the 
proprietor was going away. In many cases there were 
witnesses to the crimes, and yet they dared not interfere 
nor give evidence. One of the gang at last turned traitor ; 
he gave the explanation of several " mysterious disappear- 
ances," and the names of the murderers. The gang had 
become too numerous, and amongst the number there were 


members whose fidelity was suspected. It was resolved to 
sacrifice them. They were watched, set upon and murdered 
by their fellow-accomplices. This society was known as the 
Accoltcllatori, literally "knifers" cut-throats. It originally 
consisted of twelve members only, who used to meet in the 
Cafu Mazzavillani a very appropriate name ; mazza means 
a club or bludgeon, and villano, villainous at Ravenna, 
where the fate of their victims was decided. The trial 
ended in most of the members being condemned to penal 


597. Various Societies after the Restoration. One would 
think that, according to the "philosophical" historians, no 
nation ought to have been more content and happy, after 
being delivered from their tyrant Napoleon, than the French. 
But, in accordance with what I said in sect. 519, no nation 
had more reason to be dissatisfied and unhappy through the 
restoration of a king " by grace of God " and " right divine." 
Draconian statutes were promulgated by the Chambers, the 
mere tools of Louis XVIII., which led to the formation of a 
secret society called the "Associated Patriots," whose chief 
scenes of operation were in the south of France. But 
Government had its spies everywhere; many members of 
the society were arrested and sentenced to various terms of 
imprisonment. Three leaders, Pleignier, a writing-master, 
Carbonneau, a leather-cutter, and Tolleron, an engraver, 
were sentenced to death, led to the place of execution with 
their faces concealed by black veils, as parricides were 
formerly executed, and before their heads were cut off, their 
right hands were severed from their arms for had they not 
raised them against their father, the king? The conspiracy 
of the Associated Patriots collapsed. But other societies 
arose. In 1820 the society of the " Friends of Truth," con- 
sisting of medical students and shopmen, was established in 
Paris, but was soon suppressed by the Government. The 
leading members made their escape to Italy, and on their 
return to France founded a Carbonaro society, the leader- 
ship of which was given to General Lafayette. It made two 
attempts to overthrow the Government, one at Belfort, and 
another at La Rochelle, but both were unsuccessful, and the 
Carbonaro society was dissolved. The society of the " Shirt- 
less," founded by a Frenchman of the name of Manuel, who 
invoked Sampson, as the symbol of strength, had but a very 
short existence. That of the " Spectres meeting in a Tomb," 
which existed in 1822, and whose object was the overthrow of 


the Bourbons, also came to a speedy end. The " New Re- 
form of France," and the " Provinces," which were probably 
founded in 1820, only admitted members already initiated 
into Oarbonarism, Freemasonry, the European Patriots, 
or the Greeks in Solitude. A mixture of many sects, they 
condensed the hatred of many ages and many orders against 
tyranny, and prescribed the following oath : " I, M. N., 
promise and swear to be the eternal enemy of tyrants, to 
entertain undying hatred against them, and, when oppor- 
tunity offers, to slay them." In their succinct catechism 
were the following passages: "Who art thou?" "Thy 
friend." " How knowest thou me?" "By the weight press- 
ing on thy brow, on which I read written in letters of blood, 
To conquer or die." " What wilt thou ? " " Destroy the 
thrones and raise up gibbets." "By what right?" "By 
that of nature." "For what purpose?" "To acquire the 
glorious name of citizen." "And wilt thou risk thy life?" 
" I value life less than liberty." 

Another sect was that of the " New French Liberals," 
which existed but a short time. It was composed of but few 
members ; they, however, were men of some standing, chiefly 
such as had occupied high positions under Napoleon. They 
looked to America for assistance. They wore a small black 
ribbon attached to their watches, with a gold seal, a piece of 
coral, and an iron or steel ring. The ribbon symbolised the 
eternal hatred of the free for oppressors; the coral, their 
American hopes; the ring, the weapon to destroy their 
enemies : and the gold seal, abundance of money as a means 
of success. 

After the July revolution in 1830, the students of the 
Quartier Latin formed the society of " Order and Progress," 
each student being, in furtherance of these objects, provided 
with a rifle and fifty cartridges. And if they nevertheless 
did not distinguish themselves, they afforded the Parisians a 
new sensation. About three o'clock on the afternoon of the 
4th January 1831, the booming of the great bell of Notre 
Dame was heard, and one of the towers of the cathedral was 
seen to be on fire. The police, who, though forewarned of 
the intended attempt, had taken no precautionary measures, 
speedily made their way into the building, put out the fire, 
and arrested six individuals, young men, nineteen or twenty 
years old, and their leader, a M. Considere. The young 
men were acquitted, Cousidcre was sentenced to five years' 
imprisonment. And thus ended this farcical insurrection. 

Another association, called the " Society of Schools," ad- 


vocated the abolition of the universities and the throwing 
open of all instruction to the public gratuitously. The 
" Constitutional Society," directed by a man who had power- 
fully supported the candidature of the Duke of Orleans, 
Cauchois-Lemaire, insisted on the suppression of monopolies, 
the more equal levy of taxes, electoral reform, and the aboli- 
tion of the dignity of the peerage. The " Friends of the 
People" was another political society, one section of which, 
called the " Rights of Man," adopted for its text-book th^e 
"Declaration of the Rights of Man" by Robespierre, and 
drew to itself many minor societies, too numerous, and in 
most cases too unimportant, to be mentioned. Their efforts 
ended in the useless insurrection of Lyons on the I3th and 
1 4th April 1834. 

598. The Acting Company. But a separate corps of the 
Rights of Man, selected from among all the members, was 
formed and called the Acting Company, under the command 
of Captain Kersausie, a rich nobleman with democratic pre- 
dilections. On certain days the loungers on the boulevards 
would notice a crowd of silent promenaders whom an un- 
known object seemed to draw together. No one understood 
the matter except the police ; the chief of the Acting Com- 
pany was reviewing his forces. Accompanied by one or two 
adjutants he would accost the chief of a group, whom he 
recognised by a sign, hold a short conversation with him, and 
pass on to another ; the police agents would follow, see him 
enter a carriage, which was kept in waiting, drive up to a 
house which had a back way out, whence he would gain one 
of his own for he had several residences, and keep in- 
doors for three or four days. 

The Rights of Man society arranged the plot, proposed 
by Fieschi, to assassinate the king, Louis Philippe, on the 
28th July 1835. Delahodde, the police spy, in his Memoirs, 
says that by the imprudence of one of the conspirators, 
Boireau, the police obtained a hint of what was intended, 
but that it was so vague, that it could not be acted on. 
This is evidently said to screen the police, for on the trial 
of Fieschi and the other conspirators, it was proved that on 
the morning of the attempt Boireau had sent a letter 
doing which was not a mere imprudence to the Prefect 
of Police, giving full information as to the means to be 
employed, the individuals engaged in the plot, and the very 
house in which the infernal machine was placed all which 
was more than a mere hint but the letter was thrown aside 
by the Prefect as not worth reading! The failure of the 


attempt broke up the society of the Rights of Man, but the 
remnants thereof formed themselves in the same year into 
a new society, called the " Families," under the leadership 
of Blanqui and Barbes. Admission to this new society was 
attended with all the mummery and mystification considered 
necessary to form an orthodox initiation. Its object, of 
course, was the overthrow of the monarchical government 
and the establishment of a republic ; but the society having 
in 1836 been discovered and suppressed, many of its leaders 
being sent to prisons, the members who remained at liberty 
reconstituted themselves into a new society, called the 
" Seasons," into the meeting-place of which the candidate 
was led blindfolded, and swore death to all kings, aristo- 
crats, and other oppressors of mankind, and to sacrifice his 
own life, if needful, in the cause. On the 1 2th May the 
" Seasons," led by Blanqui and Barb6s, rose in insurrection, 
but were defeated by the Government. Blanqui was sen- 
tenced to be transported, and Barb6s condemned to death ; 
the king, however, commuted the sentence of the latter to 
imprisonment. After a time the " Seasons" were reorganised, 
and about 1840, Communism first began to be active in 
Paris, and various attempts were made against the king's 
life. Considering the number of police spies in the pay 
of Government, it is surprising that secret societies should 
have continued to flourish, and should at last have succeeded 
in overthrowing the throne of Louis Philippe. The spies 
would get themselves introduced into the secret societies, 
and then betray them. One of the most notorious of these 
spies was Lucien Delahodde, who sent his reports to Govern- 
ment under the pseudonym of " Pierre." When, in con- 
sequence of the revolution of 1848, "Citizen" Caussidiere 
became Prefect of Police, and overhauled the secret archives 
of that department, he found voluminous papers, containing 
more than a thousand informations, signed " Pierre," proving 
that the writer had got hold of all the secrets of the " Rights 
of Man," the " Families " (though strong suspicion rests 
on Blanqui of having supplied the Minister of the Interior 
with a secret report on the latter, when under sentence of 
death), the "Seasons," and sold them to the Government. 
But who was this Pierre ? Unluckily for himself Lucien 
Delahodde, or Pierre himself, wrote a letter to Caussidiere, 
asking to be employed in the police. Caussidiere was 
struck by the writing, compared it with that of the secret 
reports, and found it to be identical. Delahodde was invited 
to meet Caussidiere at the Luxembourg, where he was made 


to confess, and declare in writing, that he was the author 
of all the reports signed "Pierre." Some members of the 
provisional government were for shooting him, but he got 
off with a few months' imprisonment in the Conciergerie. 
On recovering his liberty Delahodde went to London, where 
he published a small journal, attacking the Republic and the 

599. The Communistic societies of the Travaillcurs Egali- 
taires and Communistes Recolutionnaires introduced some of 
their members into the provisional government that preceded 
the accession of Louis Napoleon ; and their influence even to 
the present day is too notorious to need specification here. 
The " Mountaineers," or " Reds of the Mountain," a revival 
of the name given during the French Revolution to the 
leaders of the Jacobins, was one of the societies that brought 
about the events of 1848. According to the Univers of the 
2nd February 1852, they swore on a dagger, "I swear by 
this steel, the symbol of honour, to combat and destroy all 
political, religious, and social tyrannies." Secret societies 
continued to play at hide-and-seek after the accession of 
Louis Napoleon, but were not immediately put down, though 
he issued the most severe prohibitions against them, and the 
members who could be apprehended were condemned to 
transportation to Cayenne or Algiers ; they continued to 
exist for some years after the coup d'e'tat. 

600. Causes of Secret Societies in France. The succession 
of secret associations against the government of Louis 
Philippe is not to be wondered at. The king himself was 
solely bent on the aggrandisement of his own dynasty, 
either by foreign marriages, or conferring on the members 
of his own family- every office in the state which could secure 
the paramount power in directing the destinies of France. 
The princes had re-established the orgies of the Regency ; 
the court, the ministers, the aristocrats, the inferior func- 
tionaries made the public offices and national institutions 
the objects of shameful corruption ; the deputies speculated 
with their political functions ; peers of France patronised 
gambling in the funds and railway scrip ; princes, ministers, 
ambassadors, and other personages in high positions were 
constantly making their appearance in the assize courts and 
found guilty of swindling, forgery, rape, and murder; com- 
mercial and manufacturing interests were fearfully depressed, 
hence the frequent risings of the working classes; hence 
secret associations to put an end to this rotten condition 
of society. 


601. Polish Patriotism. It is the fashion to express great 
sympathy with the Poles and a corresponding degree of 
indignation against Russia, Austria, and Prussia; the Poles 
are looked upon as a patriotic race, oppressed by their more 
powerful neighbours. But all this rests on mere misappre- 
hension and ignorance of facts. The Polish people under 
their native rulers were abject serfs. The aristocracy were 
everything, and possessed everything ; the people possessed 
nothing, not even political or civil rights, when these clashed 
with the whims or interests of the nobles. It is these last 
whose power has been overthrown it is they who make war 
on and conspire against Russia, to recover (as is admitted by 
some of their own writers) their ancient privileges over their 
own countrymen, who blindly, like most nations, allow them- 
selves to be slaughtered for the benefit of those who only seek 
again to rivet on the limbs of their dupes the chains which 
have been broken. It is like the French and Spaniards and 
Neapolitans fighting against their deliverer Napoleon, to 
bring back the Bourbon tyrants, and with them the people's 
political nullity, clerical intolerance, Icttres de cachet, and the 
Inquisition. How John Bull has been gulled by these Polish 
patriots ! Many of them were criminals of all kinds, who 
succeeded in breaking out of prison, or escaping before they 
could be captured ; and, managing to come over to this coun- 
try, have here called themselves political fugitives, victims 
of Russian persecution, and have lived luxuriously on- the 
credulity of Englishmen ! Moreover, the documents pub- 
lished by Adolf Beer from the Vienna, and by Max Duncker 
from the Berlin archives (1874), show that the statement of 
Frederick the Great, that the partition of Poland was the only 
way of avoiding a great European war, was perfectly true. 

602. Various Revolutionary Sects. One of the first societies 
formed in Poland to organise the revolutionary forces of the 
country was that of the "True Poles"; but, consisting of 


few persons only, it did not last long. In 1818 another 
sect arose, that of "National Freemasonry," which borrowed 
the rites, degrees, and language of Freemasonry, but aimed 
at national independence. The society was open to persons 
of all classes, but sought chiefly to enlist soldiers and officials, 
so as to turn their technical knowledge to account in the day 
of the struggle. But though numerous, the society lasted 
only a few years ; for disunion arose among the members, 
and it escaped total dissolution only by transformation. It 
altered its rites and ceremonies, and henceforth called itself 
the "Scythers," in remembrance of the revolution of 1794, 
in which whole regiments, armed with scythes, had gone 
into battle. They met in 1821 at Warsaw, and drew up 
a new revolutionary scheme, adopting at the same time the 
new denomination of "Patriotic Society." In the mean- 
while the students of the University of Wilna had formed 
themselves into a secret society ; which, however, was dis- 
covered by the llussian Government and dissolved. In 
1822 the Patriotic Society combined with the masonic 
rite of "Modern Templars," founded in Poland by Captain 
Maiewski ; to the three rites of symbolical masonry was 
added a fourth, in which the initiated swore to do all in his 
power towards the liberation of his country. These com- 
bined societies brought about the insurrection of 1830. In 
1834 was established the society of "Young Poland"; one 
of its most distinguished members and chiefs being Simon 
Konarski, who had already distinguished himself in the insur- 
rection of 1830. He then made his escape, and in order 
better to conceal himself learned the art of watchmaking. 
Having returned to Poland and joined " Young Poland," 
he was discovered in 1838, and subjected to the torture to 
extort from him the names of his accomplices. But no 
revelations could be obtained from him, and he bore his 
sufferings with such courage that the military governor of 
Wilna exclaimed, " This is a man of iron ! " A llussian 
officer offered to assist him in escaping, and being detected, 
was sent to the Caucasian army for life. Konarski was 
executed in 1839, the people tearing his clothes to pieces 
to possess a relic of him. The chains he had been loaded 
with were formed into rings and worn by his admirers. 
Men like these redeem the sins of many so-called "Polish 

603. Secret National Government. Some time before the 
outbreak of the Crimean war a secret national government 
was formed in Poland, of course with the object of organising 


an insurrection against Russia. Little was known for a 
long time about their proceedings. Strange stories were 
circulated of midnight meetings in subterranean passages ; 
of traitors condemned by courts composed of masked and 
hooded judges, from whose sentence there was no appeal 
and no escape ; of domiciliary visits from which neither the 
palace nor the hovel was exempt ; and of corpses found 
nightly in the most crowded streets of the city, or on the 
loneliest wastes of the open country, the dagger which 
had killed the victim bearing a label stamped with the 
well-known device of the insurrectionary committee. So 
perfectly was the secret of the modern Vehmgericht kept 
that the Eussian police were completely baffled in their 
attempts to discover its members. At that period the Poles 
were divided into two parties, the " whites " and the " reds" ; 
the former representing the aristocratic, the latter the demo- 
cratic element of the nation. Each had its own organisation. 
The whites were mostly in favour of strictly constitutional 
resistance ; the reds were for open rebellion and an imme- 
diate appeal to arms. But a union was brought about be- 
tween the two parties in consequence of the conscription 
introduced by Russia into Poland in 1863, which set fire to 
the train of rebellion that had so long been preparing. But 
Langiewicz, the Polish leader, having been defeated, the 
movements of the insurgents in the open field were arrested ; 
though the rebellion was prolonged in other ways, chiefly 
with a view of inducing the Western Powers to interfere in 
behalf of Poland. But these naturally thought that as the 
Polish people, the peasantry, had taken very little share 
in the insurrection, and as Alexander II. had really intro- 
duced a series of reforms which materially improved the 
position of his Polish subjects, there was no justification for 
the outbreak ; and therefore justice was allowed to take its 
course. Subsequent attempts at insurrection, with a view 
to re-establish the independence of Poland, were defeated 
by the action of Italian and other revolutionary sects, be- 
cause, as Petrucelli della Gatina declared in the Chamber of 
Deputies at Turin in 1864, the Poles, being Roman Catholics, 
would, immediately on their emancipation, throw themselves 
at the feet of the pope and offer him their swords, blood, 
and fortunes. These revolutionists are far more astute than 
our beloved diplomatists. 

VOL. n. 


604. The Panslavists. The desire of the Sclavonic races, 
comprising Bohemians, Moravians, Silesians, Poles, Croats, 
Servians, and Dalmatians, to be united into one grand con- 
federation, is of ancient date. It was encouraged by Russia 
as early as the days of Catherine II. and of Alexander I., who, 
as well as their successors, hoped to secure for themselves 
the hegemony in this confederation. But the Sclavonians 
dreaded the supremacy of Russia, and in the earlier days 
the Sclavonian writers subject to Austria wished to give the 
proposed Panslavist movement the appearance more of an 
intellectual and literary, than of a political and social league. 
But the European revolution of 1848 infused a purely 
political tendency into Panslavist ideas, which already in 
June of the above year led to a Sclavonic-democratic insur- 
rection at Prague, which, however, was speedily put down, 
Prince Windischgratz bombarding the town during two 
days. The further progress of the Panslavistic movement 
is matter of public history ; but a society arose out of the 
Sclavonic races, whose doings have of late been brought into 
prominence ; this society is the Omladina. The exact date 
of the origin of this society is not at present known ; probably 
it arose at the time when the Italian party of action, led 
by Mazzini, about 1863, attempted, by assisting the so-called 
national party of Servia, Montenegro, and Roumania, to 
cripple Austria in Italy, and so render the recovery of the 
Venetian territory more easy. Simon Deutsch, a Jew, who 
had been expelled from Austria for his revolutionary ideas, 
and afterwards, on the same grounds, from Constantinople, 
who was the friend of Gambetta, an agent of the International, 
and of " Young Turkey," was one of the most active members 
of the society, whose inner organisation was known as the 
Society Slovanska Liga, the Slav Limetree. This latter, 
however, did not attract the attention of the authorities till 
1876, when its chief, Miletich, a member of the Hungarian 


Diet, was arrested at Neusalz. But the society continued 
to exist, and occasionally gave signs of life, as, for instance, 
in 1882, when it seriously talked of deposing the Prince of 
Montenegro, and electing Menotti Garibaldi perpetual presi- 
dent of the federation of the Western Balkans. At last, 
in January 1894, seventy-seven members of the Omladina, 
including journalists, printers, clerks, and artisans, mostly 
very young men, were put on their trial at Prague for being 
members of a secret society, and guilty of high treason. 
When the arrests began, one Mrva, better known as Rigoletto 
di Toscana, was assassinated by Dolezal, who afterwards was 
seized, and was one of the accused included in the prosecu- 
tion. This Mrva had been a member of the Omladina, and 
was said to be a police spy. He made careful notes of all 
the proceedings of the society, as also of another with which 
he was connected, and which was called " Subterranean 
Prague," the object of which was to undermine the houses 
of rich men, with a view to robbing them. His papers and 
pocket-books, which after his death fell into the hands of 
the police, served largely in drawing up the indictment 
against the Omladina. The result of the trial, ended on the 
2 1 st February 1 894, was that all the prisoners but two were 
convicted and sentenced to terms of imprisonment ranging 
from seven months to eight years. Whether the Omladina 
is killed or only scotched, remains to be seen ; probably it 
is the latter, for the Panslavic movement it represents is 
alive, and will some day lead to the solution of the Eastern 
question. For Panslavism of which the Omladina was the 
outcome means Muscovite patriotism, and its war-cry, 
" Up against the unbelieving Turkish dogs ! " finds an echo 
in all Russia ; and though the Berlin Congress has for a time 
checked the progress of Panslavism, yet, as we said above, it 
is alive. 



605. Young Turkey. The vivifying wave of revolutionary 
ideas which swept over Europe in the first half of this cen- 
tury extended even to Turkey, and, in imitation of its effects 
in other countries, produced a Young Turkey, as it had pro- 
duced a Young Germany, a Young Poland, a Young Italy, 
and so on. Mr. David Urquhart, as violent a Turcophile as 
he was a Russophobe, attributed to Moustapha Fazyl-Pacha, 
whom he calls a Turkish "Catiline," the doubtful honour 
of having been the founder of Young Turkey, whose aims 
were the abolition of the Koran and of the Sultan's authority, 
the emancipation, in fact, of Turkey from religious and civil 
despotism. The society did not make much progress in the 
earlier half of the century, hence, in 1867, a new association 
with the same title, and under the same chief, was formed 
at Constantinople, Paris, and London. Its objects were the 
same as those of the first society, with the additional aim of 
destroying Russian influence in the East by the emancipation 
of the Christian subjects of the Porte. The members of the 
directing committee in Paris and London were Zia Bey, 
Aghia-Effendi, Count Plater, a Pole, living at Zurich, Kemal 
Bey, and Simon Deutsch. The chief agent of the committee 
at Constantinople was M. Bonnal, a French banker at Pera. 
Moustapha Pacha agreed to contribute annually three hun- 
dred thousand francs to the funds of the association. Murad 
Bey, the brother of the present Sultan, is now the leader of 
the Young Turkey party, of which Midhat Pacha was a 
prominent member. Murad Bey attributes to the Sultan 
himself and the palace camarilla all the evils from which the 
country is now suffering. 

606. Armenian Society. We shall see further on (637) 
that the Armenians of Russia formed a secret society against 
that country in 1 888 ; recent events (i 896) have prominently 
brought before Europe the existence in Turkey of Armenian 
societies. They are organised in the same way as the old 
venditas of the Carbonari ; that is to say, the committees do 
not know one another, nor even the central committee from . 
which they receive orders. They number five, and comprise 
altogether about two hundred members. Each committee 


has a significant name. They are called Huntchak (Alarm), 
Frochak (Flag), Abdag (Bellows), Gaizag (Thunderbolt), and 
Votchintchak (Destruction). The last two are the most re- 
cently created. The committees act according to a plan fixed 
by the occult central committee. Thus the Huntchak orga- 
nised the demonstration in 1895 at the Porte, while the 
attack on the Ottoman Bank (1896) devolved on the Frochak 
committee. There remain three, who will have to act suc- 
cessively. In the following month of October the Armenian 
revolutionary leaders sent a letter to the French Embassy at 
Constantinople, threatening further outrages. The latest 
detailed account of the society, published in December 1 896, 
says : The discovery of seditious papers found in the posses- 
sion of Armenian conspirators, when arrested in December 
1896 at Kara Hissar Charki, reveals all the details of the 
revolutionary programme, circulated by the leaders of the in- 
surrection, and imposed on their adherents. The programme 
includes thirty-one draconic rules, to which the members of 
the numerous Armenian bands have to submit. For instance, 
each band must be composed of at least seven members, who 
take an oath that they will submit to torture, and even to 
death, rather than betray the secrets of the society. By Rule 
14 the band is ordered to carry off into the mountains any 
unjust or cruel Ottoman official, to compel him to reveal any 
State secret which he may possess, and even to put him to 
death. Rule 1 5 authorises the band to attack and plunder 
the mails and couriers, but it must not assail any person 
found travelling alone on the roads, unless it is absolutely 
necessary in the interest of the band to do so. Any member 
showing cowardice, when fighting, is to be shot at once. The 
chief is the absolute master of the band, and may punish 
as he chooses any member with whom he is dissatisfied. 
Amongst some of the most stringent clauses is one which 
orders the members to act as spies upon each other, and to 
report to the chief all the doings and movements of one 
another. One of the characteristic features of the Armenian 
revolution is the use of numerous disguises, which enable 
them to go secretly through towns and circulate arms and 
seditious literature, pamphlets, and even pictures, with the 
view of inciting the Armenian population against the Im- 
perial Government. The English agitation of the present 
day in favour of the Armenians shows the crass ignorance 
existing in this country as to the true character of that people. 
If the Armenians were worthy of, or fit for, the liberty they 
claim, they would do as the Swiss a poor nation, whilst the 
Armenians are rich did five hundred years ago in fighting 
Austria they would fight Turkey. 


607. Historical Sketch of Society. Russia has ever been a 
hotbed of secret societies, but to within very recent times 
such societies were purely local ; the Eussiaii people might 
revolt against some local oppression, or some subaltern tyrant, 
but they never rose against the emperor, they never took up 
arms for a political question. Whatever secret associations 
were formed in that country, moreover, were formed by the 
aristocracy, and many of them were of the most innocent 
nature ; it was at one time almost fashionable to belong to 
such a society, as there are people now who fancy it an 
honour to be a Freemason. But after the wars of Napoleon, 
the sectarian spirit spread into Russia. Some of the officers 
of the Russian army, after their campaigns in Central Europe, 
on their return to their native country felt their own degrada- 
tion and the oppression under which they existed, and con- 
ceived the desire to free themselves from the same. In 1822 
the then government of Russia issued a decree, prohibiting 
the formation of a new, or the continuance of old, secret 
societies. The decree embraced the masonic lodges. Every 
employe of the State was obliged to declare on oath that he 
belonged to no secret society within or without the empire ; 
or, if he did, had immediately to break off all connection 
with them, on pain of dismissal. The decree was executed 
with great rigour ; the furniture of the masonic lodges was 
sold in the open streets, so as to expose the mysteries of 
masonry to ridicule. When the State began to prohibit secret 
societies, it was time to form some in right earnest. Alex- 
ander Mouravief founded the Union of Safety, whose rites 
and ceremonies were chiefly masonic frightful oaths, daggers, 
and poison figuring largely therein. It was composed of three 
classes Brethren, Men, and Boyards. The chiefs were taken 
from the last class. The denomination of the last degree 
shows how much the aristocratic element predominated in 

the association, which led, in fact, to the formation of a 



society still more aristocratic, that of the " Russian Knights," 
which aimed at obtaining for the Russian people a constitu- 
tional charter, and counteracting the secret societies of 
Poland, whose object was to restore Poland to its ancient 
state, that is to say, absolutism on the part of the nobles, 
and abject slavery on the part of the people. The two socie- 
ties eventually coalesced into one, under the denomination 
of the " Union for the Public Weal " ; but, divided in its 
counsels, it was dissolved in 1821, and a new society formed 
under the title of the " Union of the Boyards." The pro- 
gramme of this union at first was to reduce the imperial 
power to a level with that of the President of the United 
States, and to form the empire into a federation of provinces. 
But gradually their views became more advanced ; a republic 
was proposed, and the emperor, Alexander I., was to be put 
to death. The more moderate and respectable members 
withdrew from the society, and after a short time it was 
dissolved, and its papers and documents carefully burnt. 
The revolutions of Spain, Naples, and Upper Italy led 
Pestel, a man who had been a member of all the formei 
secret societies, to form a new one, with the view of turning 
Russia into a republic ; the death of Alexander again formed 
part of the scheme. But circumstances were not favour- 
able to the conspirators, and the project fell to the ground. 
Another society, called the North, sprang into existence, of 
which Pestel again was the leading spirit. In 1824, the 
" Union of the Boyards " heard of the existence of the Polish 
Patriotic Society. It was determined to invite their co- 
operation. The terms were speedily arranged. The Boyards 
bound themselves to acknowledge the independence of 
Poland ; and the Poles promised to entertain or amuse the 
Archduke Constantine at Warsaw whilst the 'revolution was 
being accomplished in Russia. Both countries were to adopt 
the republican form of government. This latter condition, 
however, made by the Poles, displeased the Boyards, who, 
themselves lusting after power, did not see in a republic the 
opportunity of obtaining it. The Boyards therefore united 
themselves with another society, that of the " United Slavo- 
nians," founded in 1823 by a lieutenant of artillery, named 
Borissoff, small in numbers, but daring. As the name implied, 
it proposed a Slavonian confederation under the names of 
Russia, Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, Dalmatia, and 
Transylvania. The insurrection was on the point of breaking 
out ; but the Emperor Alexander had already (in June 1823), 
by the revelations of Sherwood, an Englishman in Russian 


service, who was ennobled, received some intimation of the 
plot, but seems to have neglected taking precautions ; whilst 
he was lying ill at Taganrog, Count De Witt brought him 
further news of the progress of the conspiracy, but the 
emperor was too near his death for active measures. He 
died, in fact, a few days after of typhoid fever he had caught 
in the Crimea. It was rumoured that he died of poison, but 
such was not the case : the report of Sir James Wylie, who 
was with him to the last, disproves the rumour. Besides, it 
is certain that the conspirators were guiltless of the emperor's 
death, since it took them unprepared and scattered at incon- 
venient distances over the empire. Immediately on Alex- 
ander's death General Diebitsch, commanding at Kieff, 
ordered Colonel Pestel and about a dozen officers to be 
arrested. But the conspirators did not therefore give up 
their plan. They declared Nicholas, who succeeded Alex- 
ander, to be a usurper, his elder brother Constantino being 
the rightful heir to the throne. But Constantino had some 
years before signed a deed of abdication in favour of his 
brother, which however was not publicly known ; and Alex- 
ander I. having died without naming his successor, the con- 
spirators took advantage of this neglect to further their own 
purposes. But they were not supported by the bulk of the 
army or the people ; still, when it came to taking the oath 
of fidelity to the new emperor, an insurrection broke out 
at St. Petersburg, which was only quelled by a cruel and 
merciless massacre of the rebellious soldiers. Pestel, with 
many others, was executed, but his equanimity never deserted 
him, and he died with sealed lips, though torture is said to 
have been employed to wring confessions from him. Prince 
Troubetskoi, who had been appointed Dictator by the con- 
spirators, but who at the last moment pusillanimously 
betrayed them, was nevertheless by the merciless Nicholas I. 
exiled to Siberia for life, and condemned for fourteen years 
to work in the mines, and he belonged to a family which had, 
with the Romanoffs, competed for the throne ! 

These secret societies, with another discovered at Moscow 
in 1838, whose members were some of the highest nobles of 
the empire, and who were punished by being scattered in 
the army as private soldiers these secret societies were the 
precursors of the Nihilists, whose history we have now to tell. 

"There are alarmists who confer upon th% issuers of these revolu- 
tionary [Nihilistic] tracts the dignified title of a secret society, . . . but 
the political atmosphere of the country [Russia] ... is no longer so 
favourable as it used to be to their development." 

ATHENAEUM, 29^/1 January 1870. 

"A political movement that is perhaps the most mysterious and 
romantic the world has ever known." ATHENAEUM, 23rd September 1882. 

"Nihilism is the righteous and honourable resistance of a people 
crushed under an iron foe ; Nihilism is evidence of life. . . . Nihilism 
is crushed humanity's only means of making the oppressor tremble." 
WENDELL PHILLIPS (in speech at Harvard University). 

608. Meaning of the term Nihilist. When the first edition 
of this work was published, but scanty information concern- 
ing this society had as yet reached Western Europe. As will 
be seen by the first quotation above, its scope and importance 
were at that date not understood ; twelve years after, the 
same publication in eloquent and coming from such an 
authority significant language paid due honour to it. And 
indeed since 1870 the Nihilists have made their existence 
known to the world both by burning words and astounding 
deeds, which we will record as concisely as possible. 

The term " Nihilist " was first used by Turgheneff, the 
novelist, in his " Fathers and Sons," where one of the char- 
acters, Arkadi, describes his friend Bazaroff as a "Nihilist." 
" A Nihilist ? " says his interlocutor. " As far as I understand 
the term, a Nihilist is a man who admits nothing." "Or 
rather, who respects nothing," is the reply. "A man who 
bows to no authority, who accepts no principle without 
examination, however high this principle may stand in the 
opinions of men." This was Turgheneff's original definition 
of a Nihilist ; at present he means something very different. 
The term was at first used in a contemptuous sense, but 
afterwards was accepted from party pride by those against 
whom it was employed, just as the term of Gueux had in a 


former age been adopted by the nobility of the Nether- 

609. Founders of Nihilism. The original Nihilists were 
not conspirators at all, but formed a literary and philo- 
sophical society, which, however, now is quite extinct. It 
nourished between 1860 and 1870. Its transformation to 
the actual Nihilism is due, in a great measure, to the Paris 
Communists and the International, whose proceedings led 
the youth of Russia to form secret societies, having for their 
object the propagation of the Liberal ideas which had long 
before then been preached by Bakunin and Herzen, who 
may indeed be looked upon as the real fathers of Nihilism, 
with whom may be joined Cernisceffski, who, in 1863, pub- 
lished his novel, " What is to be Done ? " for which he was 
sentenced to exile in Siberia, but which mightily stirred up 
the revolutionary spirit of Russia. Herzen, who died in 
1 869, aimed only at a peaceful transformation of the Russian 
empire; but Bakunin, who died in 1878, dreamt of its 
violent overthrow by means of a revolution and fraternisa- 
tion with other European States equally revolutionised. 
Even during his lifetime an ultra-Radical party was formed, 
having for its organ the Onward, founded in 1 874 by Lavroff, 
whose programme was, " The party of action is not to waste 
its energies on future organisation, but to proceed at once 
to the work of destruction." 

610. Sergei Nechayeff. Another important and influential 
personage in the early days of Nihilism was Sergei Nechayeff, 
a self-educated man, and at the time when he first became 
active as a conspirator, in 1 869, a teacher at a school in St. 
Petersburg. He advocated the overthrow, though not the 
death, of the Tsar. But the conspiracy was prematurely 
discovered ; Nechayeff had an intimate friend, the student 
Ivanoff, but ultimately they disagreed in political matters, 
and Ivanoff, declaring that his friend was going too far, 
threatened to leave the secret association. This was looked 
upon as an act of treason, and on the 2 1 st November 1 869 
Nechayeff slew Ivanoff in a grotto near the Academy of 
Agriculture at Moscow. This murder led to the discovery 
of the society, and eighty-seven members thereof were tried 
in 1871. Prince Cherkesoff was implicated in this attempt; 
he had on several occasions supplied the required funds. 
He was deprived of his rights and privileges, and banished 
to Siberia for five years. Nechayeff himself escaped to 
Switzerland, but so great were his powers of organisation 
and persuasion that the Russian Government set a high 


price on his head, and finally succeeded in obtaining his 
extradition from Switzerland, no less than 20,000 francs being 
paid to the Zurich Prefect of Police, Pfenniger, who facili- 
tated the extradition, which, according to all accounts, was 
more like an act of kidnapping. The Municipal Council 
strongly protested, and passed a resolution that even 
common criminals should not be given up to such Govern- 
ments as those of Russia and Turkey. Nechayeff was sen- 
tenced to twenty years' penal servitude in Siberia, but he 
was too important a person to be trusted out of sight, and 
so he was confined in the most secure portion of the fortress 
Peter and Paul. For a time he was kept in chains fastened 
to a metal rod, so that he could neither lie down, stand up, 
nor sit with any approach to ease. But even in prison he 
never lost an opportunity of making converts ; he received 
visits from high officials, nay, the emperor himself " inter- 
viewed " him. Of course all these visits were paid with a 
view of sounding him about the forces and prospects of the 
revolutionary party, but he remained true to them ; and with 
wonderful self-abnegation preferred remaining in prison to 
delaying the killing of the Tsar, which delay would have 
been necessary had his friends undertaken his deliverance. 
In 1882 the friendly guards around him were arrested, and 
nothing more was ever heard of Nechayeff beyond the fact 
that he was cruelly beaten with rods in consequence of a 
dispute with the inspector of the prison, and died shortly 
after. Some suppose that he committed suicide, others that 
he was killed by the effects of the blows. He was keenly 
lamented by all the Nihilists, for all recognised his ability, 
his courage, and utter disregard of self. 

6 1 1. Going among the People. One of the earliest effects 
of the newly-awakened enthusiasm for social and political 
freedom was the eagerness with which young men, and 
women too, went "among the people." The sons and 
daughters, not only of respectable, but of wealthy and 
aristocratic, families renounced the comforts and security of 
home, the love and esteem of their relatives, the advantages 
of rank and position, to associate with the working classes 
and the peasantry, dressing, faring, and working like and 
with them, with the object of instilling into them ideas as 
to the rights of humanity and citizenship ; of expounding to 
them the principles of Socialism and of the revolution. Thus 
in the winter of 1872, in a hovel near St. Petersburg, Prince 
Krapotkine gathered round him a number of working-men ; 
Obuchoff, a rich Cossack, did the same on the banks of the 


river Don; Leonidas Sciseko, an officer, became a hand- 
weaver in one of the St. Petersburg manufactories to carry 
on the propaganda there ; Demetrius Rogaceff, another 
officer, and a friend of his, went into the province of Tver, 
as sawyers, to spread their doctrines among the peasants ; 
Sophia Perovskaia, who, like Krapotkine, belonged to the 
highest aristocracy her father was Governor-General of 
St. Petersburg took to vaccinating village children ; in the 
secret memoir drawn up in 1875 by order of Count Pahlen, 
the then Russian Minister of Justice, we also find the names 
of the daughters of three actual Councillors of State, the 
daughter of a general, Loschern von Herzfeld, as engaged 
in this propaganda ; and from the same document it appears 
that as early as the years 1 870 and 1 87 1 as many as thirty- 
seven revolutionary " circles " were in existence in as many 
provinces, most of which had established schools, factories, 
workshops, depots of forbidden books, and "flying sheets," for 
the propagation of revolutionary ideas. But though the pro- 
pagandists met with some successes among the more educated 
classes, and received great pecuniary assistance from them 
thus Germoloff, a student, sacrificed his whole fortune, 
maintaining several friends at the Agricultural Academy of 
Moscow ; Voinaralski, an ex-Justice of the Peace, gave forty 
thousand roubles to the propaganda yet among the 
peasantry their successes were not equal to their energy 
and zeal. The Russian peasants, too ignorant to understand 
their teachers, or too timid to follow their advice, were not 
to be stirred up to assert the rights belonging to the citizens 
of any State. Moreover, the young men and women, who 
went forth as the apostles of revolution, were lacking in 
experience and caution ; hence they attracted the attention 
of Government, and many were arrested. How many was 
never known. The propaganda was stamped out with every 
circumstance of cruelty, the gaols were filled with prisoners, 
the penal settlements with convicts ; half the students at the 
universities were in durance, and the other half under the 
ban of the law. 

612. Nihilism becomes Aggressive. Nihilism doctrinaire 
having thus proved a failure, it became Nihilism militant. 
The Nihilists who had escaped the gallows, imprisonment, 
or exile, determined that revolutionary agitation was to 
take the place of a peaceful propaganda. They began by 
forming themselves into groups in different districts, whose 
object it was to carry on their agitation among those 
peasants only whom they knew as cautious and prudent 


people. The St. Petersburg group was at first, 1876-78, 
contemptuously called " The Troglodytes," but afterwards, 
after the paper published by them, "Land and Liberty." There 
was also a large "group" at Moscow. Most of its members 
had been students at the Ziirich University ; it included 
several girls, one of whom was Bardina, of whom more in 
the next section. Some of them had entered into sham 
marriages, which they themselves, in their letters, called 
farces, and which were performed without any religious 
ceremony, and were, in most cases, never consummated, 
their object being simply to render the women independent, 
and to enable them to obtain passports, and at many a trial 
it was proved that these women had, in spite of their 
adventurous lives and intimate association with men, pre- 
served their virtue unimpaired. But the groups, though 
they held their ground with varying fortunes for several 
years, remained without results ; the immensity of Russia, 
the vis inertia of the peasantry, and the necessity of acting 
with the utmost circumspection, rendered these local efforts 
futile. The leaders at Moscow wrote despairingly. Thus in 
a letter from Sdanowitch to the members at Ivanovo, a 
village of cotton-spinners, we read : " The news from the 
south are unsatisfactory. . . . We send you books and 
revolvers. . . . Kill, shoot, work, create riots ! " There 
seems to have been no scarcity of books or money: one 
member of the association was found in possession of 
8545 roubles in cash, a note for noo roubles, and 300 
prohibited books, and with another 2450 prohibited books 
were discovered. The central administration at Moscow, 
which became necessary when, after the arrests in March 
1875, the members went to the provinces, provided books, 
money, addresses, and false passports ; carried on corre- 
spondence (in cipher), gave warning of approaching danger 
and notice of the arrest of brethren, and kept up com- 
munication with prisoners. But this Moscow society was 
discovered in August 1875, and totally extinguished. 

613. Sophia Bardind's and other Trials. But Nihilism 
was not to be suppressed. It continued to gather strength, 
even among the peasantry, as was shown by the trial of 
Alexis Ossipoff, who in 1876 was condemned to nine years' 
penal servitude for having distributed prohibited books. 
For the same offence Alexandra Boutovskaia, a young 
girl, was sentenced in the same year to four years' penal 

In March 1877 a new revolutionary society was dis- 


covered at Moscow; of fifty prisoners, whose ages ranged 
from fifteen to twenty-five years, three were condemned 
to ten years' penal servitude, six to nine years (two of them 
were young girls), one to five years ; the rest were shut 
up in prisons, or exiled to distant provinces. Sophia 
Bardina, then aged twenty-three, was one of the prisoners, 
the daughter ot a gentleman ; she had on leaving college 
received a diploma and a gold medal ; but to further the 
Socialistic propaganda, she took a situation as an ordinary 
work- woman in a factory. Accused of having distributed 
Liberal pamphlets among the factory hands, she was im- 
prisoned, and kept in close confinement for two years, 
without being brought to trial ; she was included in the 
trial of the fifty, and sentenced to nine years' penal servi- 
tude in Siberia. On being asked wh^t she had to say why 
sentence should not be passed, she made one of the most 
splendid speeches ever heard in a court of law. In her 
peroration, she said, "I am convinced that our country, now 
asleep, will awake, and its awakening will be terrible. . . . 
It will no longer allow its rights to be trampled under 
foot, and its children to be buried alive in the mines of 
Siberia. . . . Society will shake off its infamous yoke, and 
avenge us. And this revenge will be terrible. . . . Per- 
secute, assassinate us, judges and executioners, as long as 
you command material force, we shall resist you with moral 
force ; . . . for we have with us the ideas of liberty and 
equality, and your bayonets cannot pierce them ! " 

Then came the monster trial of the one hundred and 
ninety-three. The whole number of persons implicated in 
this prosecution originally amounted to seven hundred and 
seventy. Of the one hundred and ninety-three who were 
tried, ninety-four were acquitted ; thirty-six were exiled to 
Siberia, and Myschkin, one of the leaders, sentenced to ten 
years' penal servitude. Seventy prisoners are said to have 
died before they were brought to trial ; the investigations 
in the trial lasted four years. 

At these and other trials which took place in various 
provinces of Russia, the prisoners conducted themselves 
with the utmost courage and resolution. The Russian 
people appreciated their self-sacrificing patriotism. " They 
are saints ! " was the exclamation frequently heard from 
the lips of even such persons as did not approve of the 
objects of the accused. 

614. The Party of Terror. The Nihilists continued to 
put forth manifestoes, in which they distinctly stated their 


demands. Whilst (justly) accusing the highest officials and 
dignitaries of dishonourable conduct, avarice, and barbarous 
brutality, they demanded their removal from the entourage 
of the emperor, to whom they then intended no harm. It 
was the court camarilla they were aiming at, and the sup- 
pression of the emperor's private chancellery, commonly 
called "the Third Division." But the more ardent Nihilists 
were for more drastic measures, and a portion of the party, 
represented by their organ, Land and Liberty, seceded, and 
took the name of the "Party of the People," which section 
was in 1878 divided again, and the seceders called themselves 
the " Party of Terror," and were represented by the Will 
of the People. The party had no definite plans at first ; its 
first overt act was Solovieff's attempt on the life of the 
emperor (617). And the Government seemed to play into 
the hands of the Terrorists. It did everything it could to 
goad the people to desperation : the merest suspicion led to 
arrest; ten, twelve, fifteen years of hard labour were in- 
flicted for two or three speeches made in private to a few 
working-men ; spies were employed by Government to obtain, 
by false pretences, admittance to Nihilistic meetings, in 
order to betray the members. Naturally the Nihilists reta- 
liated by planting their daggers into such traitors as they 
discovered and could reach. Thus Gorenovitch, originally a 
member of the propaganda, who had betrayed his com- 
panions, was, in September 1876, dangerously wounded, 
and his face disfigured for life by sulphuric acid ; in the 
same month and year, Tawlejeff was assassinated at Odessa ; 
and in July 1877, Fisogenoff at St. Petersburg. 

615. Vcra Zassulic. But the signal for the outbreak of 
the terrorism, which distinguished the latter phases of 
Nihilism, was given, unintentionally, by the shot fired by 
the revolver of Vera Zassulic on 24th January 1878. General 
Trepoff, the chief of the St. Petersburg police, had ordered 
a political prisoner, Bogolinboff, to be flogged for a slight 
breach of prison discipline. Vera Zassulic made herself 
the instrument to punish this offence. Her life had been 
an apprenticeship for it. She was then twenty-six, and at 
the age of seventeen she had been arrested and kept in con- 
finement two years, because she had received letters for a 
revolutionist. She had then passed her first examination as 
a teacher, and was working at bookbinding. At the end of 
two years she was released, but in a very few days was seized 
again, and sent from place to place, and finally placed at 
Kharkoff, nearly two years under police supervision. At the 


end of 1875 she returned to St. Petersburg. Her experi- 
ences had prepared her for her deed : she knew what soli- 
tary confinement was, and the resentment of Russian society 
against Trepoff for even persons without revolutionary 
tendencies called him the Bashi-bazouk of St. Petersburg 
became in her mind a conviction that he must be punished, 
though she had no personal acquaintance either with Bogo- 
linboff or Trepoff. She waited on the latter, presented a 
paper to him, and while he was reading it, fired her revolver 
at him, inflicting a dangerous wound, and then allowed her- 
self to be seized, without offering any resistance. Though 
the attempt was not denied at her trial, the jury pronounced 
her " Not guilty," and the verdict was unanimously approved 
as the expression of public opinion in Russia. Men saw in 
the acquittal a condemnation of the whole system of police, 
and especially of its chief, General Trepoff. Vera Zassulic 
was declared to be free ; but in the adjoining street her car- 
riage was stopped by the police ; a riot ensued, for the people 
would not allow her to be seized again, and in the commotion 
Zassulic made her escape, and after a while found refuge in 
Switzerland. The emperor was furious at her acquittal, 
went in person to pay a visit of condolence to his vile tool 
Trepoff whom he made a Councillor of State and then 
ransacked the whole city in search of Zassulic, to put her in 
prison again. 

6 1 6. Officials Killed or Threatened by tJie Nihilists. The 
attempt of Zassulic was followed on the i6th August by the 
more successful one on General Mesentsoff, chief of the 
third section of police, who had become notorious by being 
implicated in a trial about a forged will and false bills of 
exchange. Taking advantage of his irresponsible position, 
he caused all the witnesses who might have appeared against 
him to be assassinated. It was known that he starved the 
prisoners under his charge, subjected them to all kinds of 
cruelty, loaded the sick with chains, " all by express orders 
of the emperor." The Nihilists resolved he must die. On 
1 6th August 1878, just as he was leaving a confectioner's 
shop in St. Michael's Square, two persons fired several shots 
at him with revolvers. He fell, and his assailants, 1 leaping 
into a droschky which was waiting for them, made good 
their escape, and fled in the direction of the Newski 
Prospect. One of them was a literary man, who in 1883 
lived in Germany. His name was frequently mentioned in 

1 Stepniak, after bis death in 1895, was accused by tbe Russian press 
of baring been one of tbem. See section 645. 


connection with German literature. General Mesentsoff 
died the same day at five in the afternoon. In a pamphlet 
entitled Death for Death, which appeared directly after, 
the writer declared political assassination to be both a just 
and efficacious means of fighting the Government, which the 
writer's party would continue to use, unless police persecu- 
tions ceased, political accusations were tried before juries, 
and a full amnesty granted for all previous political offences. 
But the Government showed no intention of granting any 
such reforms. Its severity was increased, and trial by jury, 
in cases of political offences, entirely suspended. Special 
courts were instituted, guaranteed to pass sentences in 
accordance with the Tsar's wishes. In September 1878, the 
St. Petersburg organisation called " Land and Liberty," and 
consisting of about sixty members, was broken up. A great 
many were imprisoned, others made their escape, but by the 
energy of four or five members the society was not only 
re-established, but was enabled to erect a printing-press, on 
which their paper, called after the society, was regularly 
printed. The Tsar having appealed to " Society " to assist 
him in putting down the revolutionary agitators, the attempts 
of " Society " to do so led to numerous riots, and in St. 
Petersburg and Kieff, meetings of students were dispersed 
by policemen and Cossacks, many of the students being 
wounded, and some killed. An association of working-men, 
comprising about two hundred members, whose objects in 
reality were only Socialistic, was betrayed by the Jewish 
spy Reinstein, and about fifty of the working-men were 
imprisoned. Reinstein, however, met his reward by being 
killed soon after by the Nihilists. 

On the Qth February 1879, Prince Alexis Krapotkine, a 
cousin of the famous agitator, Peter Krapotkine, and 
Governor of Kharkoff, was shot on returning home from 
a ball, as a punishment of his inhuman treatment of the 
prisoners under his charge, which had led the latter to 
organise " hunger-mutinies " (638), many of them pre- 
ferring starving themselves to death rather than any 
longer undergoing the cruelties the governor practised 
upon them. Goldenberg, their avenger, made good his 

On March 12, General Drenteln, the Chief of the Secret 
Police, was fired at by a Nihilist called Mirski, who managed 
to escape. The causes of the attempt were : firstly, that 
Drenteln had caused a prisoner to be hanged for trying to 
escape; secondly, his general cruelty, which had provoked 

VOL. II. p 


another "hunger-mutiny"; and lastly, his having sent many 
Nihilists to prison. 

617. First Attempts against the Emperor's Life. Thus we 
see that the persons aimed at by the Nihilists gradually rose 
in rank, and the logical conclusion of aiming at the highest, 
at the Tsar himself, could not be evaded. The idea came to 
several persons simultaneously. As early as the autumn of 
1878 a mine was laid at Nikolaieff, on the Black Sea, to 
blow up the emperor ; but it was discovered by the police, 
the only one they did discover. About the same time 
A. Solovieff, who had been a teacher, but who on becoming 
a Socialist learned the trade of a blacksmith that he might 
thus place himself into closer connection with the labouring 
classes, came to St. Petersburg with the intention of killing 
the emperor. At the same period Goldenberg, still elated 
with his successful attempt on Prince Krapotkine, also 
reached the Russian capital with the same object in view 
the death of the Tsar. Solovieff and Goldenberg entered 
into communication with some of the chiefs of " Land and 
Liberty," and eventually Solovieff undertook the task. On 
the 2nd April 1879, he fired four shots at the emperor as 
the latter was walking up and down in front of the palace. 
Solovieff was seized, tried on the 6th June following, of 
course found guilty, and hanged on the 9th of the same 
month. At the trial he declared himself a foe of the Govern- 
ment and a foe of the emperor, and at his execution he 
preserved his composure to the last. 

6 1 8. Numerous Executions. After Solovieff 's attempt a 
virtual state of siege was established throughout the whole 
Russian empire, and a police order was issued at St. Peters- 
burg requiring each householder to keep a dvornik, or watch- 
man, day and night at the door of the house to see who 
went in and out, and that no placards were affixed. In the 
month of May there were 4700 political prisoners in the 
Fort Petropowlovski, who were removed in one night to 
eastern prisons, to make room for those newly arrested. 
Eight hundred prisoners, under strong escort, were drafted 
off from Odessa to Siberia. In the same month the trial 
took place at Kieff of the persons who, about a year before, 
had resisted the police sent to arrest them for being in 
possession of a secret printing-press. Four of the accused 
were cited as unknown persons, because they refused to give 
their names and were unknown to the police, but during 
the trial the names of two of them oozed out. Ludwig 
Brandtner and one of the unknown, but calling himself 


Antonoff, were sentenced to be shot. The Governor-General 
of Kieff, however, ordered them to be hanged. Three others, 
and Nathalie Arrnfeldt, daughter of a State Councillor, Mary 
Kovalevski, ranked as a noble, and Ekaterine Sarandovitch, 
daughter of a civil servant, were condemned to hard labour 
for fourteen years and ten months. Ekaterine Politzinoy, 
the daughter of a retired staff-captain, for not informing the 
police of what she knew of the doings of the other prisoners, 
was sentenced to four years' hard labour. At another trial, 
held a day after, two other Nihilists, Osinsky and Sophia 
von Herzt'eldt, were condemned to be shot. 

619. The Moscow Attempt against the Emperor. On the 
i /tli to the 2 1 st June the Nihilists held a congress at 
Lipezk (province of Tomboff), at which Scheljaboff, a pro- 
minent leader, maintained, as we learn from his " Life," 
written by Tichomiroff, that since the Government officials, 
such as Todleben at Odessa, and Tschertkov at Kieff, were 
simply the tools of the Tsar, this latter must be personally 
punished, which was agreed to by his colleagues. It was 
decided to blow up the imperial train during the journey 
of the emperor from the Crimea to St. Petersburg. The 
mines under the railway line were laid at three different 
points near Odessa, near Alexandrovsk, and near Moscow. 
Hut owing to a change in the emperor's itinerary, the Odessa 
mine had to be abandoned ; in that at Alexandrovsk, the 
capsule, owing to some defect, did not explode, though the 
battery was closed at the right moment, and the imperial 
train passed uninjured over a precipice, to the bottom of 
which it would have been hurled by the slightest shock ; 
near Moscow alone the terrorists made at least an attempt. 
They had purchased a small house close to the railway, and 
Leo Hartmann, an electrician, Sophia Perovskaia, and others, 
excavated a passage, commencing in the house and ending 
under the rails. The work was nearly all done by hand, and 
owing to the wet weather the passage was always full of 
water, so that the miners had to work drenched in freezing 
water, standing in it up to their knees. The attempt to blow 
up the emperor's carriage was made on the ist December 
1879, but his train, fortunately for him, preceding instead 
of following the baggage-train, the latter only suffered. 
When, after the explosion, the cottage was searched some of 
the apparatus, and even an untouched meal, were found ; but 
the inmates had all disappeared, and were not afterwards 
apprehended, though many hundreds were sent to prison 
on the denunciation of Goldenberg (616), who a few days 


before the Moscow attempt had been seized by the police 
with a quantity of dynamite in his possession, and who, to 
benefit himself, as he hoped, betrayed a great number of his 
fellow-Nihilists. Finding that he did not thereby obtain 
any alleviation of his own fate, he committed suicide. 

620. Various Nihilist Trials. Another great trial of 
Nihilists took place at Odessa in August. Twenty-eight 
prisoners were tried, of whom three were sentenced to be 
hanged. They were Joseph Davidenko, son of a private 
soldier, and Sergay Tchoobaroff and Dmitri Lizogoob, gentle- 
men. The latter, who had sacrificed nearly his whole for- 
tune, a large one, to the " cause," and of whom Stepniak 
gives so moving an account in his "Underground Kussia," 
justly styling him "The Saint of Nihilism," was betrayed 
by his steward, Drigo, the Government having promised to 
give him what still remained of Lizogoob's patrimony, about 
.4000. The other prisoners were sentenced to various 
terms of hard labour in the mines, ranging from fifteen to 
twenty years. 

In December another important trial of Nihilists was 
heard before the Odessa military tribunal. The most pro- 
minent prisoner was Victor Maleenka, a gentleman, who was 
tried for the attempt made three years before to murder 
Nicholas Gorenovitch, for having betrayed some of his 
fellow-Nihilists (614). It appeared that Gorenovitch had 
been enticed to a lonely place in Odessa, where Maleenka 
felled him with blows on the head, while a companion threw 
sulphuric acid over what was supposed to be the corpse of 
Gorenovitch, in order to destroy all traces. But the victim 
survived, and appeared as a witness at the trial. He pre- 
sented a horrible appearance : the acid had destroyed his 
sight and all his features, and even his ears ; consequently 
his head was enveloped in a white cloth, leaving nothing 
but his chin visible. It may, by the way, be mentioned, 
that he was then inflicting his awful presence on poor people 
as a scripture reader, being led about by a devoted sister. 
Maleenka and two of his fellow-prisoners were sentenced 
to be hanged. 

621. Explosion in the Winter Palace. The failure of the 
Moscow attempt did not discourage the Nihilists. They 
now adopted the title of "The Will of the People," and 
though in January 1880 two of their secret printing-presses 
were discovered and seized by the police, and numerous arrests 
were made, they managed to issue on the 26th January a 
programme, in which they declared that unless the Govern- 


ment granted constitutional rights, the emperor must die. 
The emperor replied by ordering greater severity and more 
arrests. Then the Nihilists planned a fresh attempt, more 
daring than any previous one, to blow up the emperor in his 
own palace. Its execution was undertaken by Chalturin, the 
son of a peasant, a very energetic agitator and experienced 
organiser of workmen's unions. Being also a clever cabinet- 
maker he easily, under the assumed name of Batyschkoff, 
obtained a situation in the imperial palace ; he ascertained 
that the emperor's dining-hall was above the cellar in which 
the carpenters were at work, though between it and the latter 
there was the guardroom, used by the sentinels of the palace, 
and his plans were made accordingly. So blind and stupid 
were the Russian police that though towards the end of the 
year 1879 (Chalturin found employment in the palace in the 
month of October) a plan of the Winter Palace, in which 
the dining-hall was marked with a cross, was found on a 
member of the Executive Committee who had been appre- 
hended, in consequence of which the police made a sudden 
irruption into the carpenters' quarters nothing was dis- 
covered, yet Chalturin used a packet of dynamite every night 
for his pillow ! A gendarme, however, was installed in the 
carpenters' cellars, and a stricter surveillance exercised over 
all persons entering or leaving the palace. This rendered the 
introduction of dynamite exceedingly difficult, and greatly 
delayed the execution of the project. 

It may here incidentally be mentioned that what may 
appear to the reader to have been an exceptionally difficult 
undertaking, viz., to introduce dynamite into the imperial 
palace itself, was, after all, very easy. The Winter Palace, till 
then always a change was made after the attempt had been 
a refuge for numberless vagabonds, workmen, friends of ser- 
vants, and others, many without passports, who could not have 
lived anywhere else in the capital with impunity. It appears 
there is an old law which gives right of sanctuary, as far as 
regards the ordinary police, to criminals taking refuge in an 
imperial palace. When General Gourko searched the Winter 
Palace, it was found that no fewer than five thousand persons 
had been living in it, and no one knew the precise duties of 
half of them. Chalturin gave startling accounts of the dis- 
order pervading the palace, and of the robberies committed 
by servants. They gave parties of their own, invited scores 
of friends, who freely went in and out, yea, stayed over- 
night, whilst the grand staircase remained inaccessible to even 
highly-placed officials. The servants were such thieves that 


Chalturin, not to excite their suspicions, was compelled occa- 
sionally to take food and other trifles as " perquisites." True, 
the wages of the upper domestic servants were only fifteen 
roubles a month. 

To resume our narrative. Chalturin suffered terribly from 
headaches, caused by the poisonous exhalation of the nitro- 
glycerine on which his head rested at night. However, he 
continued to work on without exciting any suspicion, yea, the 
gendarme on guard tried to secure the clever workman, who 
at Christmas had received a gratuity of a hundred roubles, 
for his son-in-law. At last fifty kilogrammes of dynamite 
had. been introduced; the Executive Committee urged Chal- 
turin to action ; and on the 5th February 1880 the explosion 
took place, Chalturin having had time to leave the palace 
before it occurred. It pierced the two stone floors, and 
made a gap ten feet long and six feet wide in the dining- 
hall, in which a grand dinner in honour of the Prince of 
Bulgaria was laid. Through an accidental delay the imperial 
family had not yet assembled, and thus escaped total destruc- 
tion. The explosion killed five men of the palace guard, and 
injured thirty-five some accounts say fifty-three. Some of 
the parties implicated in the plot were brought to trial in 
November 1880, but Chalturin was not captured till early 
in 1882 ; he was hanged on the 22nd March of that year, 
and only then recognised as the cabinetmaker of the Winter 
Palace. The Executive Committee, in a proclamation, re- 
gretted the soldiers who had perished, but expressed its 
determination to kill the emperor, unless he granted the 
constitutional reforms asked for. The Tsar, in reply, invested 
Count Loris-Melikoff with unlimited authority as Dictator. 
The attempt on the latter's life, made on 3rd March by Hipo- 
lyte Joseph Kaladetski, for which he suffered death on the 5th, 
was not prompted by the Executive Committee, who, on the 
contrary, expressed their disapproval of it, because Count 
Melikoff had shown some tendency towards Liberal ideas. 

622. Assassination of the Emperor. During the remainder 
of the year 1880, large numbers of suspected persons were 
arrested, tried by a secret tribunal, and many of the prisoners 
condemned to death or transportation to Siberia. In the 
previous year, 11,448 convicts were despatched eastward, 
and in the spring of 1880 there were in the prisons at 
Moscow 2973 prisoners awaiting transportation to Siberia 
and hard labour in the mines or government factories. 
But the Nihilistic movement, instead of being killed, ac- 
quired fresh strength by these wholesale persecutions ; the 


Tsar, in his blind fury, seemed bent on his destruction and 
it was nearer than lie anticipated. The Executive Com- 
mittee determined that now the emperor must die. Forty- 
seven volunteers presented themselves to make the attempt 
on his life. On, the I3th March 1881, the Tsar was assassi- 
nated. Returning from a military review near St. Peters- 
burg, a bomb was thrown by Ryssakoff, which exploded in 
the rear of the carriage, injuring several soldiers. The 
einperor alighted, and a second bomb, thrown with greater 
precision, by Ignatius Grinevizki, exploded and shattered 
both the legs of the emperor below the knees, tore open the 
lower part of his body, and drove one of his eyes out of its 
socket. Within one hour and a half the Tsar was dead. 
Grinevizki was seized, but he was himself so injured that he 
died shortly after his arrest. He was the son of a small 
farmer, who with great difficulty for some time managed to 
keep his family, consisting of eleven persons, but eventually 
fell into difficulties ; his farm was sold, and he became insane. 
Ignatius, in the greatest poverty, attended several schools. 
In 1875 he was sent, as the best scholar of his class, to the 
Technological Institution at St. Petersburg ; there he joined 
the students' unions for Radical purposes, in which, by his 
activity and address, he soon acquired great influence. In 
1879 he would have been satisfied with a moderate constitu- 
tion, but seeing that there was no prospect of even that 
small boon, he joined the Terrorists, working with and for 
them till the great work of his life was assigned to him. The 
Nihilists ascribe to him the fame of a Brutus, of Harmodius, 
and Aristogeiton ! Return we to the other actors in this 
historic tragedy. 

The signal for throwing the bombs had been given by 
Jessy Helfmann and Sophia Perovskaia, who were on the 
watch, waving their handkerchiefs. She and Helfmann were 
arrested, as also some of the other conspirators, Kibalcie, 
Micailoff, and Ryssakoff, and, with the exception of Helf- 
mann, who, being four months pregnant, was reprieved, 
were hanged on the 1 5th April following. All the prisoners 
died like heroes ; Perovskaia even retained the colour in her 
cheeks to the last. But the execution was a " butchery." 
(See Kolnisclie Zeitung and London Times of i6th April 

623. The Mine in Garden Street. On the 25th March the 
revolutionary correspondence found on the prisoners led to 
the discovery of the conspirators' quarters in Telejewskaia 
Street, where Timothy Michailoff was arrested. A copy of 


the proclamation of the new Tsar's ascent to the throne was 
found on him, on the back of which were marked in pencil 
three places of the city, with certain hours and days against 
each. One place thus indicated was a confectioner's shop at 
the corner of Garden Street. Just round the corner from 
this confectioner's in Garden Street was a cheesemonger's 
shop, kept by one Kobizoff and his wife, whose mysterious 
disappearance on the day of the assassination led to the dis- 
covery of a mine under the street. From subsequent dis- 
coveries it became evident that this mine was not intended 
to blow up the emperor, but to stop his carriage, and afford 
others time to assassinate him, after the fashion of the hay- 
cart, which stopped General Prim's carriage at Madrid. 

624. Constitution said to have been Granted by late Emperor. 
It was said that the day before his death the emperor 
had signed a Constitution, and that by their action the 
Nihilists had deprived their country of the benefits it 
would have conferred. But what he had signed was merely 
the appointment of a representative commission to consider 
whether provincial institutions might not be widened, and 
the calling together of the zemskij sobor, or communal 
council, a measure Loris-Melikoff had strongly advised him 
to adopt, as a means of enlisting the people's co-operation in 
putting down Nihilism, the minister taking care to remind 
the emperor that such an assembly would, after all, be only 
deliberative, and that the final decision would always remain 
with the crown. The whole scheme was a mere blind to 
allay public discontent, with no intention on the Tsar's part 
of relinquishing any portion of his absolute prerogatives. 
The emperor's death thus did not deprive the Russian of 
any substantial benefit, but saved them a delusion. 

625. The Nihilist Proclamation. Ten days after the Tsar 
Alexander II. had been put to death, the Executive Com- 
mittee issued their nobly-conceived and expressed proclama- 
tion to his successor, Alexander III, in which, on condition 
of the emperor granting (i) complete freedom of speech, 
(2) complete freedom of the press, (3) complete freedom of 
public meeting, (4) complete freedom of election, and (5) a 
general amnesty for all political offenders, they declare their 
party will submit unconditionally to the National Assembly 
which meets upon the basis of the above conditions. 
Hundreds of Easter eggs containing this proclamation were 
scattered about the streets of Moscow at Easter time. Nay, 
a rumour was then universally current in St. Petersburg, that 
the Nihilists had deputed one of their number to wait on 


the Emperor Alexander and explain to him in unambiguous 
words what they really wanted. The emperor received 
him, and after having heard what he had to say, ordered 
him to be placed in durance in the Fortress Petropowlovski ; 
the police, however, failed to find any clue to his identity. 
So runs the story, and there is nothing improbable in it, 
considering the daring self-sacrifice which characterises all 
the acts of the Nihilists. 

626. The Emperor's Reply thereto. The emperor's reply 
to the Nihilistic proclamation, asking for such constitutional 
rights as are possessed by every civilised nation, was given 
in a manifesto, issued on the 1 1 th May, in which the 
emperor expressed his determination fully to retain and 
maintain his autocratic privileges. Furthermore, fresh exe- 
cutions were ordered, thousands of his subjects were exiled 
to Siberia, greater rigour was exercised against the press 
and every Liberal tendency. Not only did the emperor not 
grant any reforms, but he even retracted concessions already 
made, as, for instance, the reduction of the redemption money, 
whereby nearly four millions of his subjects continued to 
be kept in virtual serfdom. Ignatieff, the newly-appointed 
Minister of the Interior, whilst bravely seconding his master 
in his oppressive measures, tried to open a safety-valve to 
public dissatisfaction and indignation by fomenting anti- 
Jewish riots, the blame of which was laid to the charge of 
the Nihilists, who, however, published a very spirited reply, 
showing that it was not their policy to incite the people 
against the Jews, they being, as was proved at many a trial, 
and especially those of Southern Russia, great supporters of 
the Nihilistic movement. But irrespective of this, it was no 
part of Nihilistic tactics to set one race or religion against 
another in the empire. Nor did the despoiling of private 
individuals, such as distinguished the violence against the 
Jews, enter into their plans. They robbed, they admitted, 
but only in the interest of the " cause " and of the people. 
They warned the emperor against listening to pernicious 
counsel. But the emperor closed his ears to this advice. 
Trembling for his life, he shut himself up at Gatshina, to 
which place he had fled. The day when he was to start, four 
imperial trains were ostentatiously ready at four different 
stations in St. Petersburg, with all the official and military 
attendants, while the emperor fled in a train without attend- 
ance, which had been waiting at a siding. 

When in June 1881 the Court removed to Peterhoff, the 
railway between the two places was strictly guarded by 


troops ; for every half verst about one-third of a mile 
English there was a sentinel with a tent. Besides this, 
the photographs of all the railway officials were lodged in 
the Ministry of Ways and Communications, so that any 
Nihilist, disguised in railway costume, might the more easily 
be detected. 

627. Attempt, against General Tcherevin. On November 
25, a young man presented himself at the Department 
of State Police, which was the old third section or secret 
police under a new name, and asked to see General Tche- 
revin, the chief director of measures for assuring the safety 
of the emperor, stating that he had to disclose some busi- 
ness gravely affecting the State. On being ushered into 
the presence of General Tcherevin, he immediately drew a 
revolver and fired at the general, but missed him, and was 
secured. He declared that he was acting as the instrument 
of others, and for the good of Russia, but named no accom- 
plices. His own name was Sankofsky. As the Russian 
Government suppressed as far as possible all allusions to 
the event and we have no account as to what became of 
Sankofsky he was probably tried with closed doors, and 
what was his punishment remains unknown. 

628. Trials and other Events in 1882. Numerous arrests, 
and trials of persons who had long been in prison, took place 
in 1 882. Of twenty prisoners tried in February, ten, including 
one woman, were sentenced to be hanged. On I2th June 
Count Ignatieff, having rendered himself unpopular to 
the public by his anti- Jewish schemes, and incurred the 
disfavour of his imperial master by intimating to him that, 
without the introduction of the ancient States-General of 
the Tsars, the government of the country could not be satis- 
factorily carried on, under the time-honoured fiction of ill- 
health sent in his resignation. Count Tolstoi, who was 
known to disapprove of the anti-Semitic policy of Count 
Ignatieff, was appointed his successor. 

Five days after, the Nihilists received a terrible blow. In 
a house occupied by them on an island in the Neva, there 
was discovered a great number of bombs and a large quantity 
of dynamite ; but of more importance were the papers found 
on the Nihilists apprehended at the same time, from which 
it appeared that they were kept au courant of the Govern- 
ment correspondence in cipher with foreign countries, as far 
as it referred to themselves, which information they had 
received from Volkoff, one of the higher officials in the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In July a secret printing-press 


of the Nihilists was discovered in the Ministry of Marine ; 
its director committed suicide. Encouraged by the disasters 
which had befallen the Nihilists, the emperor ventured to 
return to St. Petersburg, and on the nth of September 
attended the fete of Alexander Nevsky, the patron-saint of 
the emperor, but slightly guarded, without evil results ; and 
in the exuberance of his feelings he went so far as to extend 
his clemency even to the Nihilists, for on October 4 lid 
graciously commuted the sentence of death, passed by a 
secret tribunal, on two Nihilists for having murdered a 
police spy, to perpetual labour in the mines and yet the 
Nihilists were not conciliated! For when, on the 2ist 
November, the emperor and empress paid a visit to St. 
Petersburg extra precautions were taken on the part of the 
police and military authorities ; all along the route, from the 
railway-station to the palace, police-officers in sledges and 
on foot were met with at every half-dozen yards ; policemen 
were posted at regular intervals in the centre of the street, 
and the bridges over the canals were closely guarded by the 
marine police. But the emperor maintained his serenity. 
As the Official Gazette informed its readers : " Towards the 
end of December the new chief of police, General Grossler, 
had the honour of exhibiting before his Imperial Majesty 
several policemen attired in the latest new and last old 
uniforms of the force. His Majesty carefully examined the 
difference, consisting mainly in alterations of colours and 
buttons." He also began to think of his coronation, which 
was announced to take place at various dates during the 
current year ; but the ceremony was postponed from time to 
time, and did not finally take place until 27th May 1883. 

629. Coronation, and Causes of Nihilistic Inactivity. Great 
surprise was excited by the peaceful nature of the corona- 
tion ; but it appeared by the trial (in April 1883) of seven- 
teen Nihilists at Odessa, five of whom were sentenced to 
death, that the conspirators had made the most extensive 
preparations for killing the emperor at his coronation, as 
proposed in 1881 and 1882; but by the vigilance of the 
police, and the denunciation of spies, their schemes were 
frustrated, and the terrorists found it impracticable to mako 
the attempt in 1883. As they themselves declared after- 
wards, they came to the conclusion that such an attempt 
would damage their interests. They argued that the revolu- 
tionary movement in Russia embraces many persons of mode- 
rate views, whose opinions must be taken into consideration ; 
that the people, who came to the coronation would not 


belong to a class likely to approve of a revolutionary plot. 
But the Nihilists profited in another way by the coronation. 
The whole force of the Government, and its most intelligent 
spies, being concentrated at Moscow, the Nihilists seized this 
occasion to spread their doctrines and to enrol supporters 
at St. Petersburg and other large centres, to which may be 
attributed the great riots which, after the coronation, occurred 
at St. Petersburg, which were intensified by the fact that 
none of the expected constitutional reforms were granted. 
The manifesto issued by the emperor on the coronation day 
consisted simply of a remission of arrears of taxes ; criminals 
condemned without privation of civil rights had one-third 
of their terms remitted; exiles to Siberia for life had their 
sentences commuted to twenty years' penal servitude ; those 
still lying under sentence for the Polish troubles in 1863 
were to be set free ; but confiscated property was not to be 
restored. Much more had been expected, and the Burgo- 
master of Moscow had been bold enough, in his congratula- 
tory address to the emperor, to express those hopes, for 
which ",presumption " he was visited with the emperor's 
displeasure. But the disappointment of the people's expec- 
tation of an amnesty and a constitution greatly favoured the 
spread of Nihilistic doctrines. The Nihilists continued to 
hold secret meetings, issue their papers, flying sheets, and 
manifestoes. In September 1883 a number of officers were 
arrested, and a large depot discovered at Charkoff, contain- 
ing arms of every kind, large quantities of gunpowder, 
dynamite bombs, and new printing apparatus. It was found 
that dynamite was being manufactured in Kolpino, close 
by St. Petersburg. Here 138 naval and 17 artillery officers 
were arrested and conveyed to the St. Peter and Paul for- 
tress. In Simbirsk an artillery colonel was arrested, who 
had gained an enormous influence with the peasants, and 
incited them to revolutionary deeds. 

630. Colonel Sudeikin shot by Nihilists. On the 28th 
December the Nihilists took their revenge by shooting 
Colonel Sudeikin, the Chief of the Secret Police, in a house 
to which he had been enticed by the false information of an 
intended Socialist meeting. They also left a letter stating 
that the next victims would be Count Tolstoi, Minister of 
the Interior, and General Grossler, the Chief of the St. 
Petersburg police. " If ever assassination could be pal- 
liated," says the Evening Standard of the 3ist December 
1 883, " it is in such a case as the present. "When men know 
that sons, or brothers, or wives are being driven to madness 


or death by prolonged and deliberate cruelty, no Englishman 
can blame them very greatly if they take vengeance on their 
tyrants. In a free country, under just laws, assassination of 
officers for a fancied wrong is altogether un justifiable and 
wicked ; but under such a regime as exists in Kussia, it can 
hardly be judged in the same way. Men may shudder, but 
they cannot unreservedly condemn." 

631. Attempt against the Emperor at Gatshina. The 
Nihilists continued to issue journals and proclamations, and 
to extend their influence among the working classes. Of 
course they also continued to meet with checks. Early in 
January 1884 numerous arrests were made among the 
factory hands at Perm, on the Kama, and many revolu- 
tionary documents were found in their possession. Towards 
the end of the month of December of the preceding year 
the emperor had met with what was thought, or at lea^t 
officially represented, to be an accident ; while out hunting, 
his horses took fright, upset the sledge, and the emperor 
sustained a severe injury to his right shoulder. But in the 
following January it was rumoured that the accident was 
really a Nihilist attempt at assassination. It was said that 
about a fortnight before the murder of Colonel Sudeikin, 
Jablonski, alias Degaieff, who had sent Sudeikin the letter 
which led to his death, accompanied by a woman, arrived at 
the house of the imperial gamekeeper at Gatshina, and pro- 
ducing a letter from Colonel Sudeikin, informed him that 
the woman was to be received into his house in order to 
assist the detectives already at Gatshina. The woman re- 
mained, and whenever the Tsar went shooting, she attended, 
disguised as a peasant boy. On the day of the " accident "" 
the woman was not there, but made her appearance next 
day and reported that the Tsar had met with an accident, 
one of the gamekeepers having carelessly discharged his gun 
close to the imperial sledge and frightened the horses. On 
the day after the assassination of Sudeikin, and when it 
was known that Jablonski had played the chief part in the 
tragedy, three detectives arrived at Gatshina and arrested 
the woman. She was said to be a sister of Streiakoff, who 
was hanged for complicity in the murder of Alexander II., 
and there were rumours current afterwards that she had 
secretly been hanged in one of the casemates of the Petro- 
powlovski Fortress for the attempted murder at Gatshina. 

Odessa then became notorious for the frequent murders 
and attempted assassinations of officers of the gendarmerie 
by Nihilists. During the summer, Colonel Strielnikoff and 


Captain Gezhdi were killed; cm the ipth August a deter- 
mined attempt to kill Captain Katansky, the successor of 
Strielnikoff, was made by a second Vera Zassulic. The girl, 
Mary Kaljushnia, who made the attempt, was a merchant's 
daughter, barely nineteen, and her object, to avenge her 
brother, who had been sentenced to penal servitude for life 
in Siberia. She had for some time been under police super- 
vision ; she earned a miserable subsistence by giving lessons, 
maintaining herself on about fourpence a day. Her requests 
to be allowed to go abroad were persistently refused. On 
the date above named, she called on Captain Katansky, 
avowedly with the object of renewing her request, but in 
the course of conversation she suddenly drew a revolver and 
fired straight into the officer's face. But the ball only 
grazed his ear ; she was seized before she could fire again, 
and on the loth September following sentenced to twenty 
years' hard labour. She was tried by the Odessa Military 
Tribunal with closed doors. Several political arrests were 
made about the same time, especially of students and young 
ladies, one of the latter a doctor of medicine. 

632. Trial of the Fourteen. In the month of October a 
trial took place in St. Petersburg of fourteen Nihilists, in- 
cluding six officers and the celebrated female revolutionist 
Figner, alias Vera Filipava, who had offered shelter to the 
regicide Sophia Perovsky, and of another woman, named 
Volkenstein, who had been implicated in the murder of 
Prince Krapotkine at Kharkoff in 1879 (616). The tribunal 
was virtually a court-martial with closed doors, and the 
greatest secrecy was observed throughout the week for 
which the trial lasted. The six officers and the two women, 
Figner and Volkenstein, were condemned to death, and the 
others sentenced to hard labour in the mines. 

633. Reconstruction of the Nihilist Party. After a years' 
silence, the organ published clandestinely in Russia by the 
Nihilists, the Narodnaia Volia (The Will of the People), re- 
appeared, dated 1 2th October 1 884, in large 4to. The losses 
suffered by the party were admitted ; their type and printing- 
machines had fallen into the hands of the police, and some 
of their chief men were in prison. These losses they attri- 
buted to the denunciations of Degaieff, the assassin of 
Colonel Sudeikin, who had been a leading Nihilist, had 
turned traitor, but finding the Government not grateful 
enough, and fearing the vengeance of the Nihilists, had pur- 
chased his safety by acting again for the latter and killing 
Sudeikin. This latter being killed, and Degaieff rendered 


harmless, the Committee was able to reconstitute the party. 
The Will of the People also gave a summary of the principal 
Nihilistic events during the year, comprising some interesting 
details concerning the great development of agrarian Social- 
ism in the south of Russia, facts till then studiously con- 
cealed by the Government. The paper further stated that the 
revolutionary group, which had at one time separated itself 
from the party of the Will of the People, "The Party of the 
People" (614) and the revolutionary party of Poland, had coa- 
lesced with the Russian Nihilists. Among the other subjects 
treated, there was an obituary notice of Professor Neous- 
traieff, who was shot at Irkutsk for striking the governor- 
general of the province. The last pages of the paper were 
filled with a long list of arrests made, and a paragraph 
incidentally mentions that M. Larroff never belonged to the 
Executive Committee, though he is recognised as one of the 
editors of the review Onwards, published by the Nihilists at 
Geneva, and as a warm friend of the party. 

634. Extension of Nihilism. With such a constant hidden 
enemy in their very midst, the Government and people of 
Russia were in a state of chronic alarm. Count Tolstoi, the 
Minister of the Interior, whilst diligently searching for 
Nihilists, was also their especial victim. He daily received 
threatening letters ; he scarcely dared stir out of doors, and 
whenever he did so, the extra precautions that had to be 
taken involved an outlay of five hundred roubles. And whilst 
despotism was more violent and resolute than ever, the trials 
constantly going on showed that Nihilism had extended its 
influence to the army, and that the military Nihilists did 
not belong to the lower ranks. Whilst the emperor shut up 
Nihilists in one fortress, he was a prisoner in another. The 
official press of Russia about this time (end of 1884) was 
very sore on the subject of the comments of the English 
press on Russian affairs, accusing it of basing its opinions 
about Russia upon the prejudiced writings of expatriated 
Nihilists, and further charging the English Government with 
allowing Nihilists to use the very City of London as a place 
whence to send not only criminal proclamations, but explo- 
sive substances, such as dynamite, to Russia. "A family," 
it was said, " making inquiries about their son, accidentally 
came across an entire office of Russian Nihilists within the 
boundaries of the City proper." Of course had the English 
Government been cognisant of these proceedings, it would 
readily have put an end to them. 

635. Decline of Nihilism. But Nihilism apparently began 


to decline. A Nihilist manifesto, published in August 1885, 
lamented : " Truth compels us to own that the fierce struggle 
with the Russian Government, and the spirit of national dis- 
content, which gave strength to our party, which was, in fact, 
its raison d'ttre, has ended in the triumph of absolutism." In 
the following December a trial took place at Warsaw, at which 
six persons belonging to the revolutionary association called 
the Proletariate, including a justice of the police and a captain 
of Engineers, were sentenced to be hanged ; eighteen were 
condemned to sixteen years' hard labour in the mines, two 
to ten years and eight months' penal servitude, and two 
others to transportation to Siberia for life. Early in January 
1886 the police discovered a Nihilist rendezvous opposite 
the Annitchkine Palace, at St. Petersburg. A number of 
explosive bombs and a printing-press were seized, and several 
arrests were made. In April it was reported that a Nihilist 
conspiracy, directed against the life of the emperor, had 
been discovered at a place near Novo Tcherkask, the capital 
of the Don Cossacks, to which the emperor was expected to 
make a visit. Early in December some five hundred students 
attempted to celebrate the anniversary of a certain Bogolin- 
boff, a once popular poet ; but the police interfered, and a 
number of arrests were made, including many lady students, 
eighteen of whom were sent off from St. Petersburg by an 
administrative order, without the least notion whither they 
were to be taken, or what was to become of them. 

Such are the scanty notices we have of Nihilism in 1886. 

636. Nihilistic Proceedings in 1887. In 1887 the Nihilists 
displayed greater activity. In February another conspiracy 
was discovered, but the details were not allowed to transpire. 
All that became known was that a young prince, a cadet 
in one of the military schools, attempted to commit suicide 
by shooting himself, the reason alleged being his complicity 
in some plot which he thought had been discovered. An 
inquiry into the matter in one or two of the military and 
naval schools resulted in the arrest of a large number of 
young men, as well as of two or three naval officers. 

On Sunday, the 13th March, the anniversary of the assas- 
sination of Alexander II., a determined attempt to kill his 
successor was made. The Russian police had previous informa- 
tion that such an attempt would be made, from Berlin, London, 
and Bucharest. On Saturday night a couple of men in a res- 
taurant on the Nevsky attracted the attention of the detectives, 
who followed and watched them all night. Next day the police 
were able to watch the posting of six individuals, including 


three students, at three different parts of the route to be fol- 
lowed by the Tsar. They carried bombs in the shape of books, 
of a bag, an opera-glass, and a roll of music. As soon as they 
had apparently taken their positions they were pounced upon 
by the police and secured. Altogether fifteen persons were 
arrested, twelve men and three women, one of the latter 
being the landlady of the house at Paulovna, on the Finnish 
railway, where the bomb manufactory was discovered a day or 
two after the attempt of the I jth. Nine of the twelve men 
were students, and the other three were two Polish nobles from 
Wilna and an apothecary's assistant. Seven of the accused 
were condemned to be hanged, and the other eight to various 
terms of imprisonment with hard labour, from twenty years 
downwards. It was reported at the time that each prisoner 
was found to have a small bottle containing a most active 
poison suspended round the neck, next to the bare skin. In 
case of failure, or refusal at the last moment to accomplish 
the task, secret agents of the party, who were on the watch 
all the time, were to strike the chest of the faint-hearted 
or unsuccessful conspirator, thus smashing the bottle and 
causing the poison to enter the wound made by the broken 
glass. The Nihilists seem not to have been discouraged by 
the last failure, for on the 6th April next a fresh attempt 
. on the emperor's life appears to have been made, though par- 
ticulars, beyond those of the seizure of several suspected 
persons, were not allowed to transpire. But it was reported 
from Odessa that in the month of the same year (1887) 482 
officers of the army arrived in that town under a strong 
military escort. They were accused of participation in the 
last attempt on the Tsar's life, and were to be transported to 
Eastern Asia. 

In June the trial of twenty-one Nihilists, accused of 
various revolutionary acts in the years 1883 and 1884, took 
place at St. Petersburg. The prisoners included the sons 
of college councillors, priests, superior officers, a Don 
Cossack, tradesmen, peasants, and two women, one of them 
a staff-captain's daughter. Fifteen were condemned to 
death, but on the Court's recommendation, eight death 
sentences were mitigated to from four to fifteen years' hard 
labour, and subsequently the emperor for once reprieved 
the remaining seven, five of whom were to undergo hard 
labour in Siberia for life, and the others from eighteen to 
twenty years each. 

Another blow was sustained by the Nihilists at the end 
of November, when the police discovered laboratories for 



the manufacture of dynamite in the Vassili, Ostrou, and 
Peski quarters of St. Petersburg. No wonder that they 
began to utter cries of despair towards the end of the year 
1887. " Liberalism," they said, in one of their publications, 
" has not eradicated the feeling of loyalty in society. . . . 
Even the ' intelligent Liberals ' have rejected the invitation 
to establish free printing offices, ... or even to serve the 
revolutionary press abroad by sending it articles for publica- 
tion." The Messenger of the Will of the People, which was the 
official exponent of the party during the year, ceased to 
appear "for want of intellectual and material aid from 
Russia." "Little is to be expected," the Nihilists said else- 
where, "from the present generation of Russians. . . . 
Russian society, with its dulness, emptiness, and ignorance, 
is to blame. . . . Most of the so-called cultured classes 
belong to that category of passengers who are made to 
travel in cattle-trucks. . . . Russian society has become a 
flock of sheep, driven by the whip and the shepherds' dogs." 

637. Nihilism in 1888. Little or nothing was heard of 
Nihilism in that year. There was indeed a rumour in 
January that a new Nihilist conspiracy against the life of 
the Tsar had been discovered at St. Petersburg, and that 
many officers and others had been arrested ; but it went 
no further than a rumour. Extensive police precautions 
were adopted at St. Petersburg early in March, in anticipa- 
tion of Nihilist manifestations on March 1 3, the anniversary 
of the death of the late Tsar ; but the day went by without 
disturbances of any kind. The accident which occurred to 
the Tsar's train in November 1888 is very generally sup- 
posed to have been the result of a Nihilist plot. But the 
unchangeable despotic character of the Russian Government 
was again exemplified during the year by its anti-Semitic 
policy at two extremities of European Russia. Some two 
thousand Jews received notice to quit Odessa, and the 
expulsion laws against the persecuted Hebrews were also 
enforced in Finland. The Finnish Diet having refused to 
adopt the Russian view of the case, the Government deter- 
mined upon enforcing the law as it exists in Russia ; all the 
Jews to leave within a year, with the exception of those who 
had served in the army. According to the emperor's own 
statement, this wholesale expulsion of the Jews was due to the 
fact that Jews have been mixed up with all Nihilistic plots. 

In December 1888 the papers reported the discovery by 
the Russian Government of a ramification of secret societies 
among the young and educated Armenians, upon the model 


of the " Young Italy " societies, as they were constituted 
in 1848. The object of the Armenian societies is revolution 
against Russian rule, and the establishment of Armenian 
union and independence. 

638. Slaughter of Siberian Exiles, and Hunger-Strikes. 
Towards the end of the year 1889, the civilised world was 
horrified by the account of the slaughter of a number of 
exiles at Yakutsk, on their way to the extreme east of 
Siberia, near the shore of the Polar Sea. These exiles were 
not criminals, but exiled by " administrative order," that is 
to say, they had not been tried and convicted by any 
tribunal : Government, not the Law, arbitrarily had ordered 
them to Siberia as suspects. Simply for asking to take 
with them sufficient food and clothing for the terrible 
journey still before them, they were declared to have 
resisted the authorities, and a number of them shot down ; 
a woman, Sophie Gourewitch, was ripped open by bayonets ; 
the vice-governor himself twice fired at the exiles. Not 
satisfied with this butchery, the surviving exiles were tried 
by court-martial ; three were sentenced to death, and many 
others to long terms of penal servitude in the mines. Early 
in 1890, still more horrifying details of hunger-strikes among 
the exiles reached Europe, and of the means adopted by the 
Russian Government to repress them. One lady, Madame 
Sihida, was dragged out of bed, where she lay ill, and received 
one hundred blows. She died in two days from the effects. 
Many of her companions in misery took poison ; so did many 
of the male prisoners. This occurred at Kara, in Eastern 
Siberia. In fact, the condition of Russian prisons, espe- 
cially of those where political prisoners are confined, is too 
horrible to be described in these pages ; the moral and 
physical suffering wantonly inflicted on the victims of a 
Tsarish cruelty is without a parallel in the history of absolu- 
tism. The Tsar cannot be absolved from personal responsi- 
bility in the matter: to say that he was not aware of the 
cruelties practised in his name, is saying in as many words 
that his neglect of inquiring into them encouraged them ; 
but he must know them ; they had been frequently com- 
municated to Alexander III., notably in a long letter written 
in March 1890 by Madame Tshebrikova, a lady of posi- 
tion, and not in any way connected with the Nihilists ; but 
for writing it she was arrested, and sent to Penza, in the 
Caucasus, and placed under strict police surveillance. 

639. Occurrences in 1890. The Russian students having 
in recent times shown decidedly Liberal tendencies, Govern- 


Tnent endeavoured to repress them, which led to repeated 
riots and endless arrests, as many as five hundred and fifty 
students, who had protested against the new and oppressive 
statutes promulgated by the authorities, being arrested at 
Moscow in March 1890. In April all the police stations 
and prisons of St. Petersburg were full of arrested students ; 
the ringleaders, mostly young men belonging to good 
families, were eventually sent as private soldiers into the 
disciplinary battalions near Orenburg. 

In May, fourteen Russians were arrested in Paris, which 
has always been a favourite place of residence with Nihilists, 
Colonel Sokoloff, who was expelled from France, Krukoff, 
a printer, and Prince Krapotkine being among their chiefs. 
The prisoners above mentioned were proved to have been in 
possession of bombs, many of which had been manufactured 
in Switzerland. There were two women among the accused ; 
they were acquitted, the men were sentenced to three years' 

In November in the same year the Russian General Seli- 
verskoff was found in his room in a Paris hotel, shot in the 
head ; he died on the following day without having recovered 
consciousness. He had been a Russian spy on the Nihilists. 

In the same month five Nihilists were tried at St. Peters- 
burg, one of them being a woman, Sophie Giinzburg, who 
was arrested in Russia, in possession of bombs and revolu- 
tionary proclamations. Four of the prisoners were con- 
demned to death. Another trial took place about the same 
time, and as in the first-mentioned trial the principal figure 
was a woman, so in this second trial the chief personage was 
a young girl, Olga Ivanovsky, niece of Privy Councillor 
Idinsky, director of a department of the Holy Synod. As 
the names of high ecclesiastical functionaries were concerned 
in the affair, the authorities shrouded it in more than the 
usual secrecy, so that no details have reached the outer 

640. Occurrences from 1891 to Present Date. The Nihi- 
lists appear to have been rather, but not quite, inactive 
during these later years. In May 1891 a secret printing- 
press was discovered and seized at St. Petersburg. In 
November of the same year a far-reaching political con- 
spiracy was discovered at Moscow, and some sixty persons, 
belonging to the nobility, the literary profession, and the 
upper middle class, were arrested. In December a great 
number of arrests were made, some of the accused being 
found to be in possession of plans and details of the imperial 


palaces. In 1892 a number of Nihilists were arrested at 
Moscow, for an alleged conspiracy to kill the Tsar on his 
return journey from the Crimea. An anonymous letter had 
warned the authorities that the attempt was to be mado 
at a small railway station. The line was examined, and a 
bomb discovered under each line of rails. In spite of these 
failures, the Nihilistic agitation was actively carried on. 
The revolutionists endeavoured to stir up the lower classes 
against the Tsar by telling them that, though he pre- 
tended to supply the masses with food during the famine, he 
allowed his subordinates to rob the people. The insinua- 
tion, however, had but little success with the Russian people 
of the lower class, brought up in slavish adoration of the 
emperor, who can do no wrong. In the month of December, 
Major-General Droszgovski was assassinated at Tashkend, in 
Russian Turkestan. He had been acting as president of a 
court-martial for the trial of a number of Nihilists, most of 
whom were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. 
To avenge them their friends killed the president. 

In May 1893 the decapitated body of a Russian student 
was discovered in a forest, near Plussa Station, on the War- 
saw railway. The deceased was supposed to have been a 
member of a secret society, and to have been killed to pre- 
vent his revealing its secrets. Two young men were arrested 
for the crime, and immediately hanged. A widespread 
Nihilistic conspiracy against the life of the Tsar was dis- 
covered (in September 1893) a ^ Moscow, in consequence of 
which eighty-five university students, eight professors, and 
five ladies belonging to the aristocracy, were arrested. 

Early in 1894 the Government Commission appointed to 
inquire into the condition of Siberian prisons issued its 
report, in which instances without number were recorded 
of merciless floggings, lopping off of arms and fingers by 
sabre cuts, of cannibalism under stress of famine. During 
the whole of 1892 there was an almost continuous string of 
convoys of corpses from Onor, the prison on the island of 
Saghalien, to Rykovskaya, the residence of the authorities, 
and most of the bodies were terribly mutilated. In 1893, if 
any one of a band of convicts failed in his work, he was at 
once put on half rations, then on third rations ; and when he 
could work no more, the inspector finished him with a re- 
volver bullet. What wonder, then, that in November 1894 
three secret printing-presses, in full working order, with a 
great quantity of Nihilistic literature, were discovered at 
Kieff, at Kharkoff, and at Nicolaieff respectively? The 


press at Kharkoff was being worked by the students of the 
university in that city. Upwards of eighty persons were 
arrested. In September 1895, it was reported that a wide- 
spread Nihilistic plot against the life of the Tsar and the 
imperial family had been discovered by the Russian police. 
Some of the leaders were quietly arrested, while dynamite 
bombs, arms, and piles of revolutionary pamphlets were 
seized during a number of domiciliary visits at Moscow. In 
March of the year 1896 six officers of the garrison of 
Kieff, including a colonel, were arrested for participating 
in a Nihilist conspiracy. According to the Central News, 
in October 1896 the Russian Custom-house officers con- 
fiscated on the Silesian frontier a quantity of light canes 
destined for sale to the upper classes, and containing in 
their hollow interior thousands of Nihilist proclamations, 
printed on tissue paper. The Nihilists, evidently, are still 
at work. There is a Nihilist club, composed chiefly of Jews, 
in London, who publish a paper, similar in character to 
Most's (512) in Yiddish, and printed with Hebrew 

641. Nihilistic Finances. The number of active Nihilists 
never amounted to more than a few dozen men and women ; 
they may have had twelve or thirteen hundred supporters, 
who assisted the leaders by distributing their books, pamph- 
lets, &c., concealing them when pursued by the police or 
otherwise in danger, assisting them to escape from prison, 
assisting them with money, &c. ; though those who sympa- 
thised with the Nihilists, without, however, taking any active 
part in the propaganda, may be assumed to have been per- 
haps one hundred thousand. Whence did the Nihilists 
obtain the means for executing their schemes ? for creating 
a literature, purchasing materials, travelling, carrying out 
terroristic measures, supporting and delivering prisoners ? 

In 1869 Nechayeff had obtained from Herzen the revolu- 
tionary fund collected in Switzerland, and amounting to 
more than .1000; the members of the society, of course, 
gave their contributions ; Lizogoob sacrificed his fortune of 
about 200,000 roubles to the " cause " ; the Justice of the 
Peace Voinaralski gave 40,000 roubles ; a Dr. Weimar, a 
very active Nihilist, supplied large sums ; rich people, who 
sympathised with Nihilism, but would not compromise them- 
selves, contributed money either anonymously, or ostensibly 
for charitable purposes. Besides these voluntary contribu- 
tions, the Nihilists obtained compulsory ones by threatening 
timorous rich men, or such as were known to have enriched 


themselves at the expense of the State, that unless they 
assisted the Nihilistic cause, they would be condemned to 
death by the Executive Committee. The Nihilists also 
occasionally helped themselves to the Government cash ; in 
1879 they robbed the State bank of Kharkoff by means of a 
subterranean passage, and carried off one million and a half 
of roubles. But their outgoings were considerable; the 
Moscow mine and the other two attempts made at the same 
time, for instance, cost nearly 4000, and consequently the 
Nihilists were often hard pressed for money. The most ex- 
travagant reports were circulated at times as to their finan- 
cial resources ; thus the Cologne Gazette in April 1 879 declared 
the Nihilistic propaganda to count as many as 19,000 mem- 
bers, and to be possessed of a fund amounting to two millions of 
roubles. The Nihilists accomplished their objects with a tenth 
of that amount. In fact, in 1-88 1 they were driven to imitate 
the device of Peter's Pence and the Red Cross. In January 
1882 they founded the association of the Red Cross, and 
made appeals in the Will of the People for contributions. 
This appeal was published by Lavroff in the Paris paper 
L'Intransiyeant, which led to his expulsion from France. 
However, according to the Will of the People and other 
Nihilistic publications, 53,000 roubles were received in 1881. 
But the figures dealing with Nihilistic finances can never 
be anything but approximate. They received contributions 
from French, Swiss, German, English, Italian, and Austrian 
sympathisers, a fact showing the international unity of the 
Revolutionists, and the extensive foreign connections of the 
Russian Nihilists. 

642. The Secret Press. The revolutionary party early felt 
the necessity of propagating their opinions by the press, 
hence in the earliest stages of the movement, as far back as 
the year 1860, secret printing-presses were set up; and all 
the various organisations established afterwards, attempted 
to have their own presses ; but the difficulty of maintaining 
secrecy was too great ; one after the other they were dis- 
covered and seized. At last, in 1 876, Stephanovitch, a lead- 
ing spirit among the Nihilists, succeeded in establishing a 
secret printing-press at Kieff. He lived in one house," and 
had the press at another. A friend of his who lodged with 
him was arrested ; he sent a note to Stephanovitch to warn 
him; but the messenger handed the note to the police, 
which led to the arrest of Stephanovitch. His sole object 
now was to save- the printing apparatus. A woman and her 
husband presented themselves before the landlord of the 


house where the printing office was, and producing the key of 
the rooms, the woman told the landlord that she was Stephano- 
vitch's sister, who had given it her, and given her and her hus- 
band permission to occupy the rooms till his return. The 
landlord had no suspicion, and made no objection. The pair 
secretly removed all the printing apparatus and left the 
house. Soon after the police made their appearance ; they 
had made a house to house visitation at Kieff in search of 
the printing office, and the few types and proofs they found 
here and there left in corners, satisfied them that they had 
come too late. The printing apparatus was carried to 
Odessa, but what became of it there, is not known. 

A clever and enterprising Jew, Aaron Zundelevic, a native 
of Wilna, in 1 877 managed to smuggle into St. Petersburg 
all the necessary apparatus for a printing office, which could 
print works of some size. He learned the compositor's art, 
and taught it to four other persons. For four years the 
police discovered nothing, until treachery and an accident 
came to their aid. Not only the members of the organisa- 
tion "Land and Liberty," which maintained the office, but 
even the editors and contributors of the journal printed there, 
did not know where it was. It was occupied by four per- 
sons. Mary Kriloff, who acted as mistress of the house, was 
a woman of about forty-five. She had been implicated in 
various conspiracies. A pretty, fair girl passed as the servant 
of Madame Kriloff. Intercourse with the outer world was 
maintained by a young man of aristocratic, but silent, man- 
ners. He was the son of a general, and nephew of a senator, 
and was supposed to hold a ministerial appointment, but his 
portfolio contained only MSS. and proofs of the prohibited 
paper. The other compositor, Lubkin, was only known by 
the nickname of the "bird," given to him on account of his 
voice. He was only twenty-three years of age ; consump- 
tion was written on his face ; having no passport, he was 
compelled always to remain indoors. When after four hours' 
desperate resistance the printing office of " Land and Liberty" 
fell into the hands of the military, he shot himself. 

The apparatus, as a rule, was extremely simple ; a few 
cases of various kinds of type, a small cylinder of a kind 
of gelatinous substance, a large cylinder covered with cloth, 
which served as the press, a few jars of printing ink, a 
few brushes and sponges. Everything was so arranged that 
in a quarter of an hour it could be concealed in a large 
cupboard. To allay any suspicion the dvornik could con- 
ceive, they made him enter the rooms under various pre- 


tences, having first removed every vestige of the printing 

We have seen in preceding paragraphs how the capture 
by the police of one printing-press speedily led to the 
setting up of another; and that the number scattered all 
over Russia must have been great is evident from the 
number which were discovered, and from which the multi- 
tude of those undiscovered may be inferred. And their 
publications were scattered all over the country. Hand- 
bills and placards seemed to grow out of the earth. The 
army was deluged with them, the labourer found them in 
his pocket, the emperor on his writing-table. Nihilists 
wandered all over Russia, leaving them in thousands at 
every halting-place. Jessy Helfmann was a travelling post- 
office ; her pockets were always full of proclamations, news- 
papers, handbills, and tickets for concerts and balls for 
the benefit of prisoners, or of the secret press. 

643. Nihilistic Measures of Safely. When Nihilism began 
to assume terroristic features, and the vigilance of the police 
consequently became more strict, and arrests were of daily 
occurrence, the Nihilists had to adopt various means for 
their self-protection. A primary condition was the posses- 
sion of a passport, for in Russia every one above the pea- 
santry must be registered, and have a passport. Many 
young men matriculated as students, not with a view of 
attending university lectures, but to obtain the card of 
legitimation. Non-students at first paid high prices for 
passports, but eventually took to manufacturing them. 
Every society established its own passport office, forging 
seals and signatures. One of these offices, furnished with 
every necessary appliance, was discovered by the police at 
Moscow in 1882. "Illegal" men, that is to say, those 
who lived with a false passport, or one lent by a friend, 
of course did not go by their true names, and their corre- 
spondence was taken care of by friends. The Nihilist had 
to lead a very regular life, not to excite the suspicions 
of the dvornik. Their larger meetings took place in 
"conspiracy-quarters," which were carefully selected. The 
windows must be so placed that signals can easily be dis- 
played or changed. The walls of the room must not be 
too thin, and the doors close accurately, so that sounds may 
not reach the outside. There must be a landing outside, 
to command the staircase, so that in case of a surprise a 
few resolute men can resist a troop of gendarmes, until 
all compromising papers and other objects are removed. 


The conspiracy-quarters generally were regular arsenals ; 
at the storming of the office of the Will of the People, every 
one of the five Nihilists was armed with two revolvers ; the 
dozen gendarmes were afraid to advance, and soldiers had 
to be sent for ; from eighty to a hundred shots were fired 
on that occasion. When to some of the Nihilists all these 
precautions became irksome, and they consequently neglected 
them, Alexander Michailoff, to whom they therefore gave 
the nickname of dvornik, severely censured them ; he would 
follow his associates in the street, to see if they behaved 
with caution, or he would suddenly stop one, and ask him 
to read a signboard, and if he found him shortsighted, 
insist on his wearing glasses. He insisted on their dressing" 
respectably, and would often himself find the means for 
their doing so. He himself lived like the Red Indian 011 
the war-path. He endeavoured to know all the spies, to 
beware of them ; he had a list of about three hundred 
passages through houses and courtyards, and by his in- 
timate knowledge of places of concealment, saved many a 
companion from arrest. The Nihilists frequently change 
their lodgings, and keep them secret. Then they rely also 
for their safety on the Ukrivaheli, or Concealers, who forma 
large class in every position, beginning with the aristocracy 
and the upper middle class, and reaching even down to the 
police, who, sharing the revolutionary ideas, make use of 
their social or official position to shelter the combatants by 
concealing, whenever necessary, both objects and men. 
Strange causes sometimes led to the most unlikely people 
becoming "Concealers." Thus a Madame Horn, a Danish 
lady, seventy years of age, became one. She had married 
a Russian, who held some small appointment in the police. 
When the Princess Dagmar became the wife of the heredi- 
tary Prince of Russia, Madame Horn wished the Danish 
ambassador to obtain for her husband some appointment in 
the establishment of the new archduchess. The ambassador 
was rude enough to laugh at her. This turned her in favour 
of the Nihilists, who she hoped would punish the ambas- 
sador. She began by taking care of the Nihilists' forbidden 
books, attended to their correspondence, and eventually con- 
cealing the conspirators themselves. Thanks to her age, her 
prudence, presence of mind, she escaped all suspicion. Her 
husband, whom she ruled absolutely, had to furnish her with 
all the police intelligence he could gather. 

644. The Nihilists in Prison. In spite of all their precau- 
tionary measures, many of the Nihilists, as we have seen, fell 


into the hands of the police. The historian, unfortunately, 
has no impartial reports to rely on as to their treatment in 
prison ; only once, during the ministry of Count Loris-Meli- 
koff, Russian papers were allowed to partly reveal the secrets 
of Russian imprisonment and Siberian exile, which virtually 
confirmed all the "underground" literature had asserted, 
and these revelations are horrifying. They show up the 
imperfection and cruelty of Russian state institutions, the 
brutality and irresponsible arbitrariness of Russian officials. 
We find that the accused are kept in prison and what prisons! 
for two or three years before being brought to trial, and 
for what crime ? simply for having given away a Socialistic 
pamphlet. We find women in large numbers undressed in 
the presence of, or even by, the gendarmes themselves, and 
searched by them, to the accompaniment of coarse jokes. We 
are told how prisoners were tortured, how nervous prisoners 
were disturbed in their sleep, to entice them in their state of 
excitement to make confessions. Condemned prisoners were 
treated with the same refined cruelty. There is a large 
prison at Novobfelgorod, near Kharkoff, whence the pri- 
soners addressed in 1878 that is, before the attempts on 
the emperor's life an appeal to Russian society, from which 
we will quote a few facts. In a dark cell, whose window 
is partly smeared over with dark paint, lay Plotnikoff, on 
boards only thinly covered with felt, without covering or 
pillow, terribly weakened by years of solitary confinement. 
One day he rose from his boards and began reciting the 
words of a favourite poet. Suddenly his gaoler rushed in. 
"How dare you speak loud here!" he cried; "perfect sil- 
ence must reign here. I shall have you put in irons." The 
prisoner vainly pleaded that his legal term for being in irons 
had expired, and that he was ill. The irons were again fas- 
tened on him. 

Alexandroff, another prisoner, heard some peasants singing 
in the distance ; their song found an echo in his heart, and 
he sang the melody. He had ceased for some time when 
the guard entered his cell. " Who has allowed you to sing ? " 
he said ; " I will give you a reminder," and with his fist 
struck him in the face. Even common criminals are better 
treated. They are allowed to sit together, two or three in 
one cell. Serakoff was put into the career for not saluting 
a gaoler standing a little way off. The career is a cage 
totally dark, and so small, that a prisoner has to remain in it 
in a stooping position. It is behind the privy, whence the 
soil is but seldom removed. 


The prisoners in the fortress Petropaulovski are no better 
off. Their cells are dark, cold, and damp ; the windows 
being darkened with paint, lights have to be burnt nearly 
all day. Their food consists of watery soup and porridge 
for dinner, and a piece of bread morning and evening. The 
stoves are heated only once every three days, hence the walls 
are wet, and the floors literally full of puddles. The prisoners 
are allowed to take exercise every other day, but for a 
quarter of an hour only. They have no other distraction. 
When Subkoffski once made cubes of bread to study stereo- 
metry, they were taken away from him. " Prisoners are not 
allowed amusements," he was told. No wonder that disease,in- 
sanity, attempts at suicide, and deaths are of daily occurrence. 
Hunger-mutinies were another consequence of this treat- 
ment. A very serious one occurred at Odessa in December 
1882. It arose in this way. A prisoner asked for invalid's 
food, but the prison doctor replied, " You are a workman ; 
invalid's food costs seventy kopecks ; you will do without it." 
Another prisoner, a student, asked for some medicine for a 
diseased bone in his hand. The same doctor replied, " Suck 
your hand, you have plenty of time." When this prisoner 
shortly after wanted to consult another surgeon, the prison 
doctor replied, " You want no doctor, but a hangman." The 
final circumstance which brought about the mutiny was the 
order of the gaoler to confine a prisoner who was con- 
sumptive, and had asked for a hammock, in the career. 
Then the prisoners sent for the head of the police, but he 
only abused them. Then the hunger-mutiny broke out. 
The prisoners refused to take their food, but the governor 
of the prison ordered those who could not be persuaded to 
eat to be kept alive by means of injections. 

The horrors of transportation to Siberia have often been 
described. We need not repeat the fearful tale. But we 
may state that these horrors are intensified for political 
prisoners, whilst common criminals are allowed to soften 
them if they have means. Thus Yokhankeff, the well- 
known forger, who was tried at St. Petersburg in 18/9 for 
embezzling thousands, instead of having to make his way 
partly on foot and partly by rail, was allowed to travel with 
every comfort, accompanied by a female, and to put up at 
the best hotels en route. 

The Russian Government, even under Alexander II., 
became ashamed, it seems, of the many trials, and resorted, 
to avoid this public scandal, to removing suspected persons 
by what is called the administrative process, an extra- 


judicial procedure under which hundreds of persons were 
dragged away from their homes and families without trial 
of any kind, no one knowing what became of them. We 
may, however, surmise that many were sent to Siberia, since 
in 1880 further prison accommodation had to be constructed 
in Eastern Siberia in consequence of the great influx of 
political prisoners. 

What I have stated as to the treatment of prisoners is but 
what is based on authentic documents. Had I quoted from 
the " underground " press, I should be accused of exaggera- 
tion; but taking the above statements only, does such 
conduct become a civilised government? 

645. Nihilist Emigrants. It is difficult to estimate their 
number. Many of them conceal themselves to escape the 
Russian spies scattered all over the Continent, and not to 
involve the countries affording them an asylum in diplomatic 
difficulties. There may be about one hundred exiles in 
Switzerland ; there are said to be about seventy in Paris, 
and perhaps fifty in London ; but these numbers can only be 
approximate, and from the nature of circumstances, must 
always be changing. Some of these fugitives date from the 
earliest stages of the revolutionary movement before 1863, 
as, for instance, M. Elpidin, the bookseller, at Geneva. Others, 
like Lavroff, were involved in the conspiracies of 1866 and 
1869. Others belong to the Socialistic propaganda, like 
Prince Krapotkine. Others, again, were members of the 
" Land and Liberty " or " Bla<jk Division " parties. After 
1878 there was a large addition to the emigration. 

But few of these exiles have been able to save any portion 
of their property. Before engaging in the movement some 
sold their estates, others leased them to their relations, and 
allowed them to be burdened with debts, so that in the 
end but little remains to be confiscated by the Government. 
Most, even those who receive assistance from home, are 
compelled to rely on their own exertions. Some give lessons 
in music, in Russian, in science ; others write for Russian 
and foreign newspapers. Others, again (about twenty), are 
employed in the three Russian printing-offices at Geneva ; 
and perhaps the same number practise the trades of lock- 
smiths, carpenters, and shoemakers, which they once learned 
for the purposes of the propaganda. Many, unable to work, 
their mental and physical powers having been broken by long 
incarceration, are supported by the contributions of the party. 

To suppose, as it often has been supposed, that the 
Nihilistic movement in Russia is directed by these emigrants, 


is a mistake. The telegraph cannot be employed by them, 
and correspondence is too slow and unsafe. Whatever has 
to be done in Russia, must be decided on and carried out by 
the members residing there. The exile ceases to take any- 
active part in the revolution at home, though he may in- 
directly influence it by his literary efforts, as, for instance, 
Krapotkine and Stepniak have done to a large extent. The 
death of this latter, so well known by his brilliant and 
authoritative work, La, Russia Sotterranea, caused great 
sorrow to all true lovers of Russia. He was accidentally 
killed on the 23rd December 1895, when crossing the 
railway near Chiswick, by being caught by the engine of 
a train, knocked down, and fearfully mutilated. 

Stepniak's real name was Serge Michaelovitch Krav- 
chinsky. After his death the St. Petersburg press asserted 
that it was he who assassinated Adjutant-General Mesent- 
soff (6 1 6), the chief of the political police, by stabbing him 
with a dagger. But this was never proved. 

According to Dalziel, six officers of the garrison of Kieff, 
including a colonel, were arrested in March 1896 for par- 
ticipation in a Nihilist plot; whence it would appear that 
Nihilism is not dead yet, nor is it likely to die until it has 
attained its aim ; and the present emperor does not seem 
likely to voluntarily satisfy it. 

646. Nihilistic Literature. The bibliography of Nihilism 
is already an extensive one. Among the most important 
newspapers and periodicals we have : 

1. The Bell (Kolokol), edited by Herzen and Bakunin, from 
ist July 1857 to 1869. London and Geneva. After Herzen's 
death it was revived for a short time in 1 870 ; six numbers 
in 4to appeared. 

2. Flying Sheets. Heidelberg, 1862. 78 pp. 8vo. 

3. Free Word. Berlin, 1862. 590 pp. 8vo. 

4. Liberty. 1863. Two numbers, the organ of the party 
" Land and Liberty." 

5. The Underground Word, by M. Elpidin. Geneva, 1866. 
Two pamphlets. 

6. Cause of the People, by Bakunin and Elpidin. 1868 and 
1 869. Nine pamphlets. 

7. Onwards, a review in nine volumes. 1873-77. Two 
thousand copies. 

8. Onwards, a fortnightly publication of three thousand 
copies in large 4to. 1875 and 1876. Published in London. 

9. The Tocsin. Monthly. 1875 to 1881. 

10. General Cause. Monthly. Geneva. 



11. The, Commune, nine numbers of which appeared at 
Geneva in 1 878. 

12. Land and Liberty. 1878 and 1879. 

13. Will of the People, the organ of the Terroristic Execu- 
tive Committee. 1879. 

14. Black Division. 1 880-81. 

15. Free Word. 

Of books we have : 

1. The Filled and the Hungry, published by the Anar- 
chists at Geneva. 

2. The Terroristic Struggle, N. Morosoff. London, 1880. 

3. Terrorism and Routine, W. Tarnoffski. London, 1880. 

4. Biographies of Perofskaia, Scheljabow, and others. 
Geneva, 1882. 

5. Le Nihilisme en Russie, S. Podolinski. Paris, 1879. 

6. La Russia Sotterranea, by Stepuiak. Milan, 1882. An 
English translation appeared in London, 1883. 

7. Buried Alive ; Report concerning the Prisoners in the 
Peter and Paul Citadel at St. Petersburg. 1878. 

8. Almanack of the Will of the People. Geneva, 1883. 

I have given the more important periodical publications 
and books only ; besides these, there are published by 
Nihilists numerous flying sheets, proclamations, addresses, 
reports of trials, &c. 

647. Trials of Nihilists. The following list is taken from 
the " Almanack of the Will of the People " : 















1 'sl 




a> g 

























i i 

















. . * 











6 "i 







29 67 








5 7 







1 66 


66 ! 19 











I 1 








10 10 

6 i 













Subsequent Trials Collected from other Sources. 


Number of Trials. 

Number of Accused. 




















The above sentences are those pronounced by the tribunals ; 
but many of the accused were, in reality, punished more 
severely than is apparent. Those who were acquitted were, 
as a rule, placed under police supervision, imprisoned, or 
banished to no one could tell where. The table, moreover, 
does not show those who were never tried, but dealt with 
administratively, as it is mildly termed : they died in prison, 
or were hanged without trial. This has frequently been the 
case since 1883, whence it is impossible to give the num- 
bers with the same fulness as before that date. How many 
victims were so quickly "removed," it will probably be im- 
possible ever to ascertain. 


648. The Moscl Chib. In 1737 there was a carpenter 
named Vogt, living at Weimar, who, being a native of Trau- 
bach, on the Mosel, was, according to the custom of crafts- 
men, called "the Moseler." He established a tavern, which 
was largely patronised by students, who, in time, formed a 
club, which called itself the Mosel Club, and in 1762 became a 
secret political club, whose object was to raise Prussia to the 
ruling power of Germany, to effect which the members even 
pledged themselves to send Frederick II., who was a Free- 
mason, armed assistance. In 1771 a more secret league was 
formed within the Mosel Club, consisting chiefly of Alsatians 
and Badois, and calling itself the "Order of Friendship." 
None was received into it who was not a member of the 
Mosel Club. The sign was a peculiar pressure of the hand, 
and touching the face. The members wore a cross attached 
to a yellow ribbon. After the year 1783 the candidate had 
to swear fidelity to the Order over four swords, laid cross- 
wise on a table, on which four candles were burning. The 
words were : " If I become unfaithful to my oath, my 
brethren shall be justified to use these swords against me." 
Lodges were established at Jena, Giessen, Erfurt, Gottingen, 
Marburg, and Erlangen. The students defied the statutes 
of the universities, which in 1779 led to a judicial inquiry 
and the abolition of the Order, which, however, was quickly 
re-formed under the new name of the "Black Order"; at 
Halle it assumed that of the "Unionists." But in the 
course of a few years the Order became extinct. Still Ger- 
many continued till the middle of this century to be a hotbed 
of secret societies, in which the students of its many univer- 
sities were the chief actors. Between the years 1819 and 
1842 such associations were especially numerous; legal 
investigations on the part of the different governments 
proved in the latter year the existence of thirty-two of 
them. How much the members of such societies loved 

VOL. II. 2 " K 


the rulers " restored " to them, appears from the fact that 
"Young Germany" amused itself on the king's (of Prussia) 
birthday with shooting at his portrait. Their statutes were 
very severe against treason, or even mere indiscretion. A 
Dr. Breidenstein wrote to Mazzini in June 1834 that one 
Strohmayer, a member of the society, had been sentenced to 
death, not that he was a traitor, but his indiscretion was to 
be feared. Sixteen months after, on the morning of 4th 
November 1835, a milkman found the body of the student 
Louis Lessing, pierced with forty-nine dagger wounds, in 
the lonely Sihl valley, near Ziirich. Though the legal in- 
vestigation did not positively prove it, yet it was the general 
opinion that Lessing had acted as spy on the " German 
Youth " society, and been sentenced to death by them. 

Still, what those obscure students aimed at is now an 
accomplished fact ; and the prediction of Carl Julius Weber 
in his " Democritos " (published in 1832), that Prussia, united 
with the smaller German states, would be the dictator of 
Europe, a reality. But a sad reality for Europe, since it has 

" Thrust back this age of sound industriousness 
To that of military savageness ! " 

Yes, Germany seems to be retrograding to the days of 
Hildebrand ; for has not Bismarck gone to Canossa, in spite 
of his assertion he would not do so? and has not the 
mighty emperor-king knelt to the Pope ? 

649. German Feeling against Napoleon. Napoleon, whilst 
he could in Germany form a court composed of kings and 
princes obedient to his slightest nod, also found implacable 
and incorruptible individualities, who swore undying hatred 
to him who ruled half the world. Still, those who opposed 
the French emperor had no determined plan, and were misled 
by fallacious hopes ; and the leaders, always clever in taking 
advantage of the popular forces, threw the more daring ones 
in front like a vanguard, whose destruction is predetermined, 
in order to fill up the chasm that separates the main body 
from victory. 

650. Formation and Scope of Tugendbund. Two of the 
men who were the first, or amongst the first, to meditate the 
downfall of the conqueror before whom all German govern- 
ments had fallen prostrate, were Count Stadion, the soul of 
Austrian politics, and Baron Stein, 1 a native of Nassau, who 

1 The original MS. of the great reorganisation projects for the Prussian 
State, 1807, wan found in 1881, in the gartenhaus of the Stein family, at Gross- 
Kochberg, Saalfeld, in Thuringia. 


possessed great influence at the Prussian Court. The latter, 
devoted to monarchical institutions, but also to the inde- 
pendence of his country, groaned when he saw the Prussian 
Government degraded in the eyes of Europe, and undertook 
to avenge its humiliation by founding in 1812 the secret 
society of the " Union of Virtue " (Tut/endbund), whose first 
domiciles were at Kb'nigsberg and Breslau. Napoleon's 
police discovered the plot ; and Prussia, to satisfy France, had 
to banish Stein and two other noblemen, the Prince de Witt- 
genstein and Count Hardenberg, who had joined him in it. 
But the Union was not dissolved ; it only concealed itself 
more strictly than before in the masonic brotherhood. During 
Stein's banishment, also, the cause was taken up by Jahn, 
Professor at the Berlin College, who, knowing the beneficial 
influence of bodily exercise, in 1811 founded a gymnasium, 
the first of the kind in Germany, which was frequented by 
the flower of the youth of Berlin, and the members of which 
were known as Turner, an appellation which is now familiar 
even to Englishmen. These Turner seemed naturally called 
upon to enter into the Union of Virtue ; and Jahn thought 
the moment fast approaching when the rising against the 
oppressor was to take place. Among his coadjutors were 
the poet Arndt; the enthusiastic Schill, who with 400 hussars 
expected in 1 809 to rouse Westphalia and overthrow Jerome 
Bonaparte ; Doremberg, the La Rochejaquelein of Germany, 
and several others. Stein, in the meanwhile, continued at 
the court of St. Petersburg the work on account of which 
he had been exiled. The Russian Court made much of Stein, 
as a man who might be useful on certain occasions. He was 
especially protected by the mother of the emperor, in whom 
he had enkindled the same hatred he himself entertained 
against France. He kept up his friendship with the Berlin 
patricians, and had his agents in the court of Prussia, who 
procured him and Jahn adherents of note, such as General 
Bllicher. Still there was at the Prussian Court a party 
opposed to the Tugendbund, whose chiefs were General Bulow 
and Schuckmann, who preferred peace to the dignity of their 
country, and possibly to royal and serene drill-sergeants 
who, though no friends to Napoleon, were indifferent to the 
public welfare. A party quite favourable to the Union of 
Virtue was that headed by Baron Nostitz, who formed the 
society of the " Knights of the Queen of Prussia," to defend 
and avenge that princess, who considered herself to have 
been calumniated by Napoleon. This party was anxious to 
wipe away the disgrace of the battle of Jena, so injurious to 


the fate, and still more to the honour, of Prussia ; and there- 
fore it naturally made common cause with the Tugendbund, 
which aimed at the same object, the expulsion of the French. 

651. Divisions among Members of Tugendbund. The bases 
of the organisation of the Tugendbund had been laid in 1807 
at the assembly at Konigsberg, where some of the most noted 
patriots were present Stein, Stadion, Bliicher, Jahn. The 
association deliberated on the means of reviving the energy 
and courage of the people, arranging the insurrectionary 
scheme, and succouring the citizens injured by foreign occu- 
pation. Still there was not sufficient unanimity in the 
counsels of the association, and an Austrian party began 
to be formed, which proposed the re-establishment of the 
German Empire, with the Archduke Charles at its head ; 
but the opposition to this scheme came from the side from 
which it was least to be expected, from the Archduke him- 
self. Some proposed a northern and a southern state ; but 
the many small courts and provincial interests strongly 
opposed this proposal. Others wanted a republic, which, 
however, met with very little favour. 

652. Activity of the Tugendbund. One of the first acts of 
the Union of Virtue was to send auxiliary corps to assist the 
Russians in the campaign of 1813. Prussia having, by the 
course of events, been compelled to abandon its temporising 
policy, Greisenau, Scharnhorst, and Grollmann embraced 
the military plan of the Tugendbund. A levy en masse was 
ordered. The conduct of these patriots is matter of history. 
But, like other nations, they fought against Napoleon to 
impose on their country a more tyrannical government than 
that of the foreigner had ever been. They fought as men 
only fight for a great cause, and those who died fancied they 
saw the dawn of German freedom. But those who survived 
saw how much they were deceived. The Tugendbund, be- 
trayed in its expectations, was dissolved ; but its members 
increased the ranks of other societies already existing, or 
about to be formed. The " Black Knights," founded in 1815, 
and so called because they wore black clothes, said to be the 
old German costume, headed by Jahn, continued to exist 
after the war, as did " The Knights of the Queen of Prussia." 
Dr. Lang placed himself at the head of the " Concordists," a 
sect founded in imitation of similar societies already existing 
in the German universities. A more important association 
was that of the " German Union " (Deutsclwr Bund), founded in 
1810, whose object was the promotion of representative insti- 
tutions in the various German states, which Union comprised 


within itself the more secret one of the " Unconditionals " 
(Die Uribedingteri), whose object was the promotion of Liberal 
ideas, even without the concurrence of the nation. The 
Westphalian Government was the first to discover the exist- 
ence of this society. Its seal was a lion reposing beside the 
tree of liberty, surmounted by the Phrygian cap. All these 
societies were in correspondence with each other, and peace- 
fully divided the territory among themselves; whilst the 
German Union, true to its name, knew no other limits than 
those of the German confederation. Dr. Jahn was active in 
Prussia, Dr. Lang in the north, and Baron Nostitz in the 
south. This latter, by means of a famous actress of Prague, 
Madame Erode, won over a Hessian prince, who did not 
disdain the office of grand master. 

653. Hostility of Governments against Tugendbund. After 
the downfall of Napoleon the German Government, though 
not venturing openly to attack the Tugendbund, yet sought 
to suppress it. They assailed it in pamphlets written by 
men secretly in the pay of Prussia. One of these, Councillor 
Schmalz, so libelled it as to draw forth indignant replies 
from Niebuhr and Schleiermacher. What the Germans could 
least forgive was the scurrilous manner in which Schmalz 
had calumniated Arndt, the " holy." Schmalz had to fight 
several duels, and even the favour of the Court of Prussia 
could not protect him from personal outrages. The king 
then thought it fit to interfere. He published an ordinance, 
in which he commanded the dispute to cease ; admitted that he 
had favoured the "literary" society known as the Tugend- 
bund during the days when the country had need of its 
assistance, but declared that in times of peace secret societies 
could not be beneficial, but might do a great deal of harm, 
and therefore forbade their continuance. The action of the 
Government, however, did not suppress the secret societies, 
though it compelled them to change their names. The Tug- 
endbuud was revived, in 1818, in the Burschenschaft, or asso- 
ciations of students of the universities, where they introduced 
gymnastics and martial exercises. These associations had 
been projected as early as the year 1810, as appears from 
Jahn's papers. Their central committee was in Prussia ; 
and sub-committees existed at Halle, Leipzig, Jena, Got- 
tingen, Erlangen, Wiirzburg, Heidelberg, Tubingen, and 
Freiburg. Germany was divided into ten circles, and there 
were two kinds of assemblies, preparatory and secret. This 
secret section was that of the Black Knights, mentioned in 
the preceding paragraph. The liberation and independence 


of Germany so, Waterloo had not effected these objects ?- 
was the subject discussed in the latter; and Russia being 
considered as the greatest opponent of their patriotic aspira- 
tions, the members directed their operations especially against 
Russian influences. It was the hatred against Russia that 
put the dagger into the hand of Charles Louis Sand, the 
student of Jena, who stabbed Kotzebue (pth March 1819), 
who had written against the German societies, of which there 
was a considerable number. This murder led to a stricter 
surveillance of the universities on the part of governments, 
and secret societies were rigorously prohibited under stern 
penalties ; the Prussian Government, especially, being most 
severe, and prosecuting some of the most distinguished pro- 
fessors for their political opinions. The Burschenschaft was 
broken up, and its objects frustrated, to be revived in 
1830; the insurrectionary attempt made by some of the 
students at Frankfort on the 3rd April 1833, the object of 
which was the overthrow of the despotic, in order to establish a 
constitutional, government, led to the prosecution of many 
members of the Burschenschaft, and to the suppression at 
least nominally and apparently of all their secret societies. 



654. Bab, the Founder. His name for Bab is a title was 
All Mohammed, and he is said to have been a Seyyid, or 
descendant of the family of the Prophet. He was born in 
1819 at Shiraz, where his father was a merchant. Ali at 
first engaged in trade himself, but in 1840 he began to 
preach his new doctrine, declaring himself to be the Bab, 1 
i.e. Door of Truth, the Mahdi. In 1843 he made the 
pilgrimage to Mecca, but on his return was arrested by 
order of the Shah, and from 1844 to 1849 kept in semi- 
captivity at Ispahan and Tauris, at which latter place he was 
sentenced to be shot. He was suspended by cords from the 
walls of the citadel, and a dozen soldiers were ordered to 
fire at him. When the smoke from their discharges was 
dispelled the Bab had disappeared a cleverly-managed 
manoeuvre to establish a miracle. But he was soon after 
reapprehended, and again condemned to death. The details 
of his execution are not known ; it is reported that he was 
shot. His long captivity and mysterious death were favour- 
able to the spreading of his doctrine, as also the fact that 
during his life he was subject to occasional fits of frenzy, 
and in the East and sometimes in the West a madman is 
considered to be inspired. And the Bab, like all prophets, 
did not disdain availing himself of mundane means to pro- 
pagate his new doctrines ; he was greatly assisted therein by 
the eloquence, combined with marvellous personal beauty, of 
Kurratu'l Ayn, a young lady of good family, who early em- 
braced Babism, and suffered martyrdom for it (655). The 
Bab was examined as to his teaching in 1848 by Nasreddin, 
then Crown Prince of Persia, afterwards Shah, and a number 
of Mullahs, the result of which inquiry was that he was 
sentenced to the bastinado, in consequence of which it is 

1 Bab in Arabic and Chaldean means door, gate, or court ; hence we have 
Babylon, the court of Bel ; Babel-Mandeb, the gate of sorrow, probably so 
called on account of its dangerous navigation and rocky environs. 



said he recanted and revoked all his claims ; but as we have 
none but^ Mussulman historians his enemies to rely on, as 
the examination was held with closed doors, we may doubt 
this statement. 

655. Progress of Babism. The Bab's teaching had not only 
theological, but also political aims. Persian rulers have 
always been conservative, but Babism was reformatory, and 
the common people readily embraced it, as it seemed favour- 
able to the breaking down of the despotic powers exercised 
by provincial governors, by whom the country was fearfully 
oppressed. When, therefore, the Babis considered them- 
selves strong enough they seized Mazanderan, about fourteen 
miles south-east of Barfurush ; but the Shah's troops having 
cut off all supplies, they had to surrender, and were all slain. 
This was in 1847. In 1848, on the accession of the late 
Shah a thousand Babis rose against him ; they, however, 
were defeated by Mehdi Kouli Mirza, uncle of the new Shah, 
and the three hundred survivors who surrendered cruelly 
slaughtered, though they had been promised their lives. 
Moulla Mohammed Ali, a Bab leader, in 1849 converted 
seven thousand of the twelve thousand inhabitants of Zanjau, 
seized the town, and drove the governor from the citadel ; 
eighteen thousand royal soldiers were sent against him, and 
more than eight thousand of the combatants killed, and the 
surviving Babis had to surrender, and were put to death 
with horrible tortures. In 1850 a follower of Bab, ambitious 
rather than fanatical, Sayid Yahya Darabi, preached Babism 
at Niriz, and gathered round him two thousand followers, 
with whose help he hoped to hold the town. But the Shah's 
troops attacked him ; he was assassinated by being strangled 
with his own girdle ; the starved-out Babis had to yield, and 
were all cruelly butchered. In 1852 some Babis attempted 
to murder the Shah ; the inquiry following thereon proved 
that at Ispahan and in all the great towns of Persia there 
was a vast association of Babis and Loutis, whose object was 
the overthrow of the reigning dynasty. All convicted of 
Babism were seized, and executed openly or in secret ; terrible 
scenes were enacted by the Shah's orders in many towns of 
Persia during a reign of terror, which lasted nearly two 
years. The Shah's anger at the attempt, but especially his 
alarm, was so great, that to test the loyalty of his subjects 
he devised the " devilish scheme," as one writer calls it, of 
making all classes of society share in the revenge he took 
on the Babis. Thus the man who had fired the shot which 
wounded the king was killed by the farrashes literally, the 


carpet-spreaders, but officially, the lictors of Eastern rulers. 
They first tortured him by the insertion of lighted candles 
in incisions made in his body. When the candles were 
burnt down to the flesh, the fire was for some time fed by 
that. In the end he was sawn in two. The Master of the 
Horse and the attendants of the royal stables showed their 
loyalty by nailing red-hot horse-shoes to the feet of the 
victim handed over to them, and finally " broke up his head 
and body with clubs and nails." Another Babi had his eyes 
plucked out by the artillerymen, and was then blown from a 
gun. Another Babi was killed by the merchants and shop- 
keepers of Teheran, every one of whom inflicted a wound 
on him until he died. Vambery, in his "Wanderings and 
Experiences in Persia," mentions one Kasim of Niriz, who 
was shod with red-hot horse-shoes, had burning candles 
inserted in his body, all his teeth torn out, and was eventu- 
ally killed by having his skull smashed in with a club. These 
are but a few specimens of the cruelties inflicted by order of 
the amiable gentleman who, on his visits to this country, was 
so loudly cheered by the assembled crowds. Among the 
victims of that persecution was Kurratu'l 'Ayn (the Consola- 
tion of Eyes), a beautiful and accomplished woman, who pro- 
fessed and preached Babism. The manner of her death is 
uncertain ; some say she was burnt, others that she was 
strangled. Dr. Polak, who actually witnessed her execution, 
in his " Persia, the Land and Its Inhabitants," simply says, 
" I was a witness to the execution of Kurratn'l 'Ayn, which 
was performed by the Minister of War and his adjutants ; 
the beautiful woman underwent her slow death with super- 
human fortitude." He gives no details as to the manner of 
it. In spite of this persecution, or rather, in consequence 
of it, Babisrn spread with astonishing rapidity throughout 
Persia, even penetrating into India. Not only the lower 
classes, but persons of education and wealth have joined the 
sect. The only portion of the Persian population not 
affected by its doctrines appear to be the Nuseiriyeh and 
the Christians. 

656. Babi Doctrine. It is contained in the Biyyan, the 
" Expositor," attributed to the Bab himself, and consisting 
of three parts written at different periods. It is to a great 
extent rhapsodical, frequently unintelligible. It abounds 
with mysticism, degenerate Platonism, beliefs borrowed 
from the Guebres, vestiges of Magism, and in many places 
displays the influence of a transformed Christianity and 
French philosophy of the last century, propagated as far 


as Persia through masonic lodges, though they were never 
tolerated in Persia. We shall see further on how one 
recently established came to grief. The Babi Koran in- 
culcates, among other superstitions, the wearing of amulets, 
men in the form of a star, women in that of a circle ; the 
cornelian is particularly recommended to be put on the 
lingers of the dead, all which implies a return to Aramean 
Paganism. The book maintains the divinity of the Bab; 
he and his disciples are incarnations of superior powers ; 
forty days after death they reappear in other forms. 
" God," says the Biyyan, "created the world by His Will ; 
the Will was expressed in words, but words are composed 
of letters ; letters, therefore, possess divine properties." In 
giving their numerical value to the letters forming the words 
expressing God, they always produce the same total, viz. 
1 9. Hence the ecclesiastical system of the Babis ; their 
colleges are always composed of 19 priests; the year is 
divided into 19 months, of 19 days each; the fast of the 
Ramadan lasts 19 instead of 30 days. During his life AH 
Mohammed chose eighteen disciples, called " Letters of the 
Living," who, together with himself, the " Point " (the Point 
of Revelation, or " First Point," from which all are created, 
and unto which all return), constituted the sacred hierarchy 
of nineteen, called the " First Unity." Now, Mirza Yahya 
held the fourth place in this hierarchy, and on the death of 
the "Point," which occurred, as already stated, in 1849, and 
the first two " Letters," rose to be chief of the sect ; but 
Beha, whose proper name is Mirza Huseyn Ali of Nur, was 
also included in this unity, and he asserted that he was the 
one by whom God shall, as Bab had prophesied, make His 
final revelation ; for, be it observed, the Babi Koran, which at 
present consists of eleven parts only, shall, when complete, 
contain nineteen, and when that revelation is made, Babism 
will be finished, and with it will come the end of this pre- 
sent world ; for, according to the belief of his followers, the 
Bab was the forerunner of Saheb-ez-Zeman, the Lord of 
Ages, who resides in the air, and will not be seen till the 
day of resurrection. 1 In consequence of the claim of Beha 
the sect was split up into two divisions, the Behais and the 
followers of Mirza Yahya Subh-i-Ezel (the Morning of Eter- 
nity), and after him called Ezelis. The majority of the sect 
are Behais, and the exiled chief Yahya lives at Famagusta, 

1 I find this mentioned by one writer only, Professor de Filippi, in his 
" Viagpio in Persia nel 1862," published in the Italian periodical Politecnico, 
vol. xxii. p. 252, where there is a lengthy account of the Babis. 


in Cyprus, where Mr. Browne, the translator of the work 
"A Traveller's Narrative," visited him in 1890, as he also 
visited Beha, at Acre, shortly after. The Babis are so far in 
advance of their Eastern brethren that they wish to raise 
the status of woman, maintaining that she is entitled to the 
same civil rights as man ; and one of their first endeavours 
to attain that end is that of abolishing the veil. Various 
charges, as against all new sects, are made against them ; 
they are accused of being communists, of allowing nine 
husbands to a woman, of drinking wine, and of other un- 
lawful practices; but proofs are wanting. It is said that 
they have special modes of salutation, and wear a ring of 
peculiar form, by which they recognise one another. They 
arrange their hair in a characteristic manner, and, as a rule, 
are clothed in white, all which practices, on the part of 
people who have to conceal their opinions, appears very 
strange to outsiders. The Bab forbade the use of tobacco, 
but the prohibition was withdrawn by Beha. Though only 
half a century old, the sect already possesses a mass of con- 
troversial writings on points of faith for in all ages men 
have disputed most on what they understood least. The 
Babis may yet become a great power in the East ; in the 
meantime they afford us an excellent opportunity of watch- 
ing within our own day the genesis and development of a 
new religious creed, in which vast power and authority is 
conferred on the priests, greatly overshadowing that of the 
king himself, unless he is a member of the sect, which, in 
fact, if the creed becomes paramount, he must be to pre- 
serve his dignity ; for, according to the teaching of the 
founder, he who is not a Babi has no right to any posses- 
sion, has no civil status. To enhance the influence of the 
priests, divine service is to be performed with the utmost 
pomp ; the temples are to be adorned with the costliest 
productions of nature and art. 

But it is certain the doctrines of the Babis suit neither 
the Sunnites nor the Shiites, 1 the latter of whom are the 
dominant religious party in Persia, and who particularly 
objected to the Bab's claim of being the promised Mahdi, 
whose advent was to be ushered in by prodigious signs, 
which, however, were not witnessed in the Bab's case. The 
latter also was opposed by the new Sheykhi school. Early 

1 According to the doctrine of the Sunnites, the Imamate, or vice- 
regency of the prophet, is a matter to be determined by the choice and 
election of his followers ; according to the Shiites, it is a matter altogether 
spiritual, having nothing to do with popular choice or approval. 


in this century Sheykh Ahmad of Ahsa preached a new doc- 
trine, considered heterodox by true believers ; still he found 
many adherents, and on his death, about the year 1827, was 
succeeded by his disciple Haji Seyyid Kazim of Resht. He 
died in 1844, prophesying the coming of one greater than 
himself. Then Mirza Ali Mahammad, who came in contact 
with some disciples of the deceased Seyyid Kazim, saw his 
opportunity, and proclaimed himself the Bab ; the old Sheykhi 
party strongly supported him. But some of the followers of 
Seyyid Kazim did not accept the new prophet, and became, 
as the new Sheykhi party, his most violent persecutors. The 
Bab consequently called the leader $f the latter party the 
" Quintessence of Hell-fire," whilst he, in his turn, wrote a 
treatise against the Bab, entitled, "The Crushing of False- 
hood." From such mutual courtesies the transition to mutual 
recrimination and accusation of objectionable teaching and 
practice is easy, and consequently quite usual, and therefore 
not to be too readily believed. 

657. Recent History of Bdbism. The fearful reprisals the 
late Shah in 1852 took on the sect of the Babis, whatever 
may be thought of their moral aspect, appear to have had 
the desired political effect. From that day till the recent 
assassination of the Shah, the outcome of old grievances, 
and of an uncalled-for renewal of a fierce persecution, they 
have committed no overt act of hostility against the Persian 
Government or people, though their number and strength 
are now double what they were in 1852. But this has not 
softened the feeling of the Shah or of the Mullahs against 
them. This was clearly shown in 1863. In that year a 
Persian who had travelled in Europe suggested to the Shah 
the establishment of a masonic lodge, with himself as the 
grand master, whereby he would have a moral guarantee of 
the fidelity of his subjects, since all persons of importance 
and influence would no doubt become members, and masonic 
oaths cannot be broken. The Shah granted permission, 
without, however, being initiated himself; a lodge, called 
the Feramoush-Khanek, the " House of Oblivion " since on 
leaving the lodge the member was supposed to forget all 
he had seen in it was speedily opened, and the Shah urged 
all his courtiers to join it. He then questioned them as to 
what they had seen in it, but their answers were unsatisfac- 
tory ; they had listened to some moral discourse, drunk tea, 
and smoked. The Shah could not understand that the terrible 
mysteries of Freemasonry, of which he had heard so much, 
could amount to DO more than this; he therefore surmised 


that a great deal was withheld from him, and became dis- 
satisfied. This dissatisfaction was taken advantage of by 
some of his friends who disliked the innovation, and they 
suggested to him that the lodge was probably the home of 
the grossest debauchery, and, finally, that it was a meeting- 
place of Babis. Debauchery the Shah might have winked 
at, but Babism could not be tolerated. The lodge was imme- 
diately ordered to be closed, and the author of its establish- 
ment banished from Persia. In quite recent times the Babis 
have undergone grievous persecutions. In 1888 Seyyid 
Hasan and Seyyid Huseyn were put to death by order of 
the then Shah's eldest son, Prince Zillu's Sultan, for refusing 
to abjure Babism. When dead their bodies were dragged 
by the feet through the street and bazaars of Ispahan, and 
cast out of the gate beyond the city walls. In the mouth of 
October of the same year Aga Mirza Ashraf of Abade was 
murdered for his religion, and the Mullas mutilated the poor 
body in the most savage manner. In 1890 the Babi inhabi- 
tants of a district called Seh-deh were attacked by a mob, 
and seven or eight of them killed, and their bodies burnt 
with oil. But it appears that on various occasions the Shah 
restrained the fanaticism of would-be persecutors of the 
Babis; it did not, however, save him from the vengeance 
sworn against him by the sect for former persecutions. On 
the ist May 1896 Nasreddin Shah, the Defender of the 
Faith, was shot in the mosque of Shah Abdul Azim, near 
Teheran, and died immediately after he was brought back to 
the city. The assassin, who was at once arrested, was Mirza 
Mahomed Reza of Kirman, a follower of Jemal-ed-din, who 
was exiled for an attempt at dethroning the Shah in 1891. 
After Jemal's departure Mahomed Reza was imprisoned; 
after some time he was set free, but continuing to speak 
against the Persian Government, he was again imprisoned, 
but some time after obtained his release, and even a pension 
from the Shah. He confessed that he was chosen to kill the 
Shah, and that he bought a revolver for the purpose, but had 
to wait two months for a favourable opportunity. His execu- 
tion, some months after the deed has it inspired the Babis 
with sufficient dread to deter them from similar attempts in 
the future ? 


658. The White-Boys. Ireland, helpless against misery 
and superstition, misled by hatred against her conquerors, 
the rulers of England, formed sects to fight not so much the 
evil, as the supposed authors of the evil. The first secret 
society of Ireland, recorded in public documents, dates from 
1761, in which year the situation of the peasants, always 
bad, had become unbearable. They were deprived of the 
right of free pasture, and the proprietors, in seven cases out 
of nine not Irish landlords, but Englishmen by blood and 
sympathy, began to enclose the commons. Fiscal oppression 
also became very great. Reduced to despair, the conspira- 
tors had recourse to reprisals, and to make these with more 
security, formed the secret society of the " White-Boys," so 
called, because in the hope of disguising themselves, they 
wore over their clothes a white shirt, like the Camisards of 
the Cevennes. They also called themselves " Levellers," 
because their object was to level to the ground the fences 
of the detested enclosures. In November 1761 they spread 
through Munster, committing all kinds of excesses during 
the next four-and-twenty years. 

659. Right-Boys and Oak-Boys. In 1787 the above society 
disappeared to make room for the "Right-Boys," who by 
legal means aimed at obtaining the reduction of imposts, 
higher wages, the abolition of degrading personal services, 
and the erection of a Roman Catholic church for every Pro- 
testant church in the island. Though the society was guilty 
of some reprehensible acts against Protestant pastors, it 
yet, as a rule, remained within the limits of legal opposition. 
The vicious administration introduced into Ireland after the 
rising of 1788, the burden of which was chiefly felt by the 
Roman Catholics, could not but prove injurious to the Pro- 
testants also. The inhabitants, whether Catholic or Protes- 
tant, were subject to objectionable personal service hence 

petitions rejected by the haughty rulers, tumults quenched 



in blood, whole populations conquered by fear, but not sub- 
dued, and ready to break forth into insurrection when it 
was least expected. Therefore the Protestants also formed 
societies for their security, taking for their emblem the oak- 
leaf, whence they were known as the "Oak-Boys." Their 
chief object was to lessen the power and imposts of the 
clergy. Established in 1764, the society made rapid pro- 
gress, especially in the province of Ulster, where it had 
been founded. Unable to obtain legally what it aimed at, 
it had recourse to arms, but was defeated by the royal troops 
of England, and dissolved. 

660. Hear ts-of- Steel, Tliresliers, Breal:-of-Day-Boys, De- 
fenders, United Irishmen, Ribbonmen. Many tenants of the 
Marquis of Donegal having about eight years after been 
ejected from their farms, because the marquis, wanting to raise 
,100,000, let their holdings to Belfast merchants, they, the 
tenants, formed themselves into a society called "Hearts-of- 
Steel," thereby to indicate the perseverance with which they 
intended to pursue their revenge against those who had suc- 
ceeded them on the land, by murdering them, burning their 
farms, and destroying their harvests. They were not sup- 
pressed till 1773, when thousands of the affiliated fled to 
America, where they entered the ranks of the revolted 
colonists. The legislative union of Ireland with England in 
1800 did not at first benefit the former country much. New 
secret societies were formed, the most important of which 
was that of the "Threshers," whose primary object was the 
reduction of the exorbitant dues claimed by the clergy of 
both persuasions, and sometimes their conduct showed both 
generous impulses and grim humour. Thus a priest in the 
county of Longford had charged a poor woman double fees 
for a christening, on account of there being twins. The 
Threshers soon paid him a visit, and compelled him to pay a 
sum of money, with which a cow was purchased, and sent 
home to the cabin of the poor woman. This was in 1807. 

Government called out the whole yeomanry force to 
oppose these societies, but without much success. Political 
and religious animosities were further sources of conspiracy. 
Two societies of almost the same nature were formed about 
1785. The first was composed of Protestants, the " Break - 
of-Day-Boys," who at dawn committed all sorts of excesses 
against the wretched Roman Catholics, burning their huts, 
and destroying their agricultural implements and produce. 
The Roman Catholics in return formed themselves into a 
society of "Defenders," and from defence, as was natural, 


proceeded to aggression. During the revolt of 1798 the 
Defenders combined with the " United Irishmen," who had 
initiated the movement. The United Irish were defeated, 
and their leader, Lord Edward Fitzgerald, having been be- 
trayed by Francis Higgins, originally a pot-boy, and after- 
wards proprietor of the Freeman's Journal, was taken and 
condemned to death ; but he died of his wounds before the 
time fixed for his execution. The society of the United 
Irish, however, was not dispersed. Its members still con- 
tinued to hold secret meetings, and to reappear in the poli- 
tical arena under the denomination of " Ribbonmen," so 
named because they recognised each other by certain 
ribbons. The Ribbonman's oath, which only became known 
in 1895, was as follows: "In the presence of Almighty 
God and this my brother, I do swear that I will suffer my 
right hand to be cut off my body and laid at the gaol door 
before I will waylay or betray a brother. That I will per- 
severe, and will not spare from the cradle to the crutch or 
the crutch to the cradle, that I will not pity the groans or 
moans of infancy or old age, but that I will wade knee-deep 
in Orangemen's blood, and do as King James did." 

66 1. St. Patrick Boys. These seem to have issued from 
the ranks of the Ribbonmen. Their statutes were discovered 
and published in 1833. Their oath was: "I swear to have 
my right hand cut off, or to be nailed to the door of the 
prison at Armagh, rather than deceive or betray a brother ; 
to persevere in the cause to which I deliberately devote 
myself; to pardon neither sex nor age, should it be in 
the way of my vengeance against the Orangemen." The 
brethren recognised each other by dialogues. " Here is a 
fine day! " "A finer one is to come." "The road is very 
bad." "It shall be repaired." " What with?" "With 
the bones of Protestants." "What is your profession of 
faith?" "The discomfiture of the Philistines." " How 
long is your stick ? " " Long enough to reach my enemies." 
"To what trunk does the wood belong? " "To a French 
trunk that blooms in America, and whose leaves shall shelter 
the sons of Erin." Their aim was chiefly the redress of 
agrarian and social grievances. 

662. The Orangemen. This society, against which the St. 
Patrick Boys swore such terrible vengeance, was a Protestant 
society. Many farms, taken from Roman Catholics, having 
fallen into the hands of Protestants, these latter were, as we 
have seen (660), exposed to the attacks of the former. The 
Protestants in self-defence formed themselves into a society, 


taking the name of " Orangemen," to indicate their Protes- 
tant character and principles. Their first regular meeting 
was held on the 2ist September 1795, at the obscure village 
of Loughgall, which was attended by deputies of the Break- 
of-Day-Boys (660), and constituted into a grand lodge, 
authorised to found minor lodges. At first the society had 
only one degree: Orangeman. Afterwards, in 1796, the 
Purple degree was added; after that, the Mark Man's 
degree and the Heroine of Jericho (see 701) were added, 
but eventually discarded. The oath varied but little from 
that of the entered Apprentice Mason, for Thomas Wilson, 
the founder of the Order, was a Freemason. The password 
was Migdol (the name of the place where the Israelites 
encamped before they passed through the Red Sea Exod. 
xiv. 2) ; the main password was Shibboleth. The pass sign 
was made by lifting the hat with the right hand, three fingers 
on the brim, then putting the three fingers on the crown, 
and pressing the hat down ; then darting off the hand to 
the front, with the thumb and little finger together. This 
sign having been discovered, it was changed to exhibiting 
the right hand with three fingers on the thigh or knee, or 
marking the figure three with the finger on the knee. This 
was the half sign ; the full sign was by placing the first 
three fingers of each hand upon the crown of the hat, raising 
the elbows as high as possible, and then dropping the 
hand perpendicularly by the side. This sign was said to be 
emblematical of the lintels and side-posts of the doors, on 
which the blood of the passover lamb was sprinkled. The 
distress word of a brother Orangeman was, "Who is on 
my side? who? " (2 Kings ix. 32). The grand hailing sign 
was made by standing with both hands resting on the hips. 
In the Purple degree the member was asked, " What is your 
number? " " Two and a half." The grand main word was, 
"Red Walls" (the Red Sea). The password was Gideon, 
given in syllables. The society spread over the whole island, 
and also into England, and especially into the manufactur- 
ing districts. A grand lodge was established at Manchester, 
which was afterwards transferred to London, and its grand 
master was no less a person than the Duke of York. At the 
death of that prince, which occurred in 1821, the Duke of 
Cumberland, afterwards King of Hanover, succeeded him 
both of them men to have the interests of religion confided 
to them! In 1835 the Irish statutes, having been revised, 
were made public. The society bound its members over to 
defend the royal family, so long as it remained faithful to 
VOL. II. s 


Protestant principles. In the former statutes there were 
obligations also to abjure the supremacy of the Court of 
Rome and the dogma of transubstantiation ; and although 
in the modern statutes these were omitted, others of the 
same tendency were substituted, the society declaring that 
its object was the preservation of the religion established 
by law, the Protestant succession of the crown, and the 
protection of the lives and property of the affiliated. To 
concede something to the spirit of the age, it proclaimed 
itself theoretically the friend of religious toleration ; but 
facts have shown this, as in most similar cases, to be a mere 
illusion. From England the sect spread into Scotland, the 
Colonies, Upper and Lower Canada, where it reckoned 1 2,000 
members ; and into the army, with some fifty lodges. In 
the United States the society has latterly been showing its 
toleration ! Its political action is well known ; it endeavours 
to influence parliamentary elections, supporting the Whigs. 
The efforts of the British House of Commons to suppress 
it have hitherto been ineffectual. 

That the custom of indulging in disgraceful mummeries 
at the ceremony of initiation into this Order has not gone 
out of fashion, is proved by an action brought in January 
1897, in the Middlesex (Massachusetts) Superior Court by 
one Frank Preble against the officers of a lodge, he having at 
his initiation been repeatedly struck, when blindfolded, with 
a rattan, hoisted on a step-ladder, and thrown into a sheet, 
from which he was several times tossed into the air. After- 
wards a red-hot iron was brought to his breast, and he was 
severely burnt. The jury disagreed, but the outside world 
will not disagree as to the character of such proceedings. 

Other Irish societies, having for their chief object the 
redress of agrarian and religious grievances, were the 
"Corders," in East and West Meath ; the " Shanavests " 
and " Caravats " in Tipperary, Kilkenny, Cork, and Limerick ; 
the Whitefeet and Blackfeet, and others, which need not be 
more fully particularised. 

663. Molly Maguires. This Irish sect was the successor 
of the White-Boys, the Hearts of Oak, and other societies, 
and carried on its operations chiefly in the West of Ireland. 
It afterwards spread to America, where it committed great 
outrages, especially in the Far West. Thus in 1870 the 
Molly Maguires became very formidable in Utah, where no 
Englishman was safe from their murderous attacks, and the 
officers of the law were unable, or unwilling, to bring the 
criminals to justice. This led to the formation of a counter- 


society, consisting of Englishmen, who united themselves 
into the Order of the Sons of St. George, who were so 
successful as to cause many of the murderers to be appre- 
hended and executed, and ultimately the Molly Maguires 
were totally suppressed. The Order of St. George, however, 
continued to exist, and still exists, as a flourishing benefit 
society; it has lodges in Salt Lake City, Ogden, and other 
towns in Utah. The name of Molly Maguires was after- 
wards adopted by a secret society of miners in the Penn- 
sylvanian anthracite districts ; with the name of their Irish 
prototypes they assumed their habits, the consequence of 
which was that in 1 890 ten or twelve members of the society 
were hanged, and the society was entirely broken up. 

664. Ancient Order of Hibernians. This Order is widely 
diffused throughout the United States, where it numbers 
about 6000 lodges. It is divided into two degrees, in the first 
of which, counting most members, no oath is exacted, and no 
secrets are communicated. But the second consists of the 
initiated, bound together by terrible oaths, and who receive 
their passwords from a central committee, called the Board 
of Erin, who meet either in England, Scotland, or Ireland, 
and every three months send emissaries to New York with 
a new password. Their avowed object is the protection of 
Irishmen in America they receive only Roman Catholics 
into the society but they are accused of having given great 
encouragement and assistance to the Molly Maguires, above 
spoken of, and also of having greatly swelled the ranks of 
the Fenians. The bulk, however, of the Hibernians ignore 
the criminal objects of their chiefs; hence the toleration 
they enjoy in the States, a toleration they undoubtedly 
deserve, for they have recently (November 1896) nobly 
distinguished themselves by providing ; 10,000 for the 
endowment of a chair of Celtic in the Roman Catholic 
University of New York. 

665. Origin and Organisation of Fenianism. The founders 
of Fenianism were two of the Irish exiles of 1848, Colonel 
John O'Mahoney and Michael Doheny, the latter one of the 
most talented and dangerous members of the Young Ireland 
party, and a fervent admirer of John Mitchel. O'Mahoney 
belonged to one of the oldest families in Munster, but be- 
coming implicated in Smith O'Brien's machinations and 
failure, he made his escape to France, and thence to America, 
where, in conjunction with Doheny and General Corcoran, he 
set the Fenian Brotherhood afloat. It was at first a semi- 
secret association ; its meetings were secret, and though its 


chief officers were publicly known as such, the operations 
of the Brotherhood were hidden from the public view. It 
rapidly increased in numbers, spreading through every State 
of the American Union, through Canada, and the British 
provinces. But in November 1863 the Fenian organisation 
assumed a new character. A grand national convention of 
delegates met at Chicago, and avowed the object of the 
Brotherhood, namely, the separation of Ireland from Eng- 
land, and the establishment of an Irish republic, the same 
changes being first to be effected in Canada. Another grand 
convention was held in 1864 a ^ Cincinnati, the delegates at 
which represented some 250,000 members, each of which 
members was called upon for a contribution of five dollars, 
and this call, it is said, was promptly responded to. Indeed, 
the reader will presently see that the leaders of the move- 
ment were never short of money, whatever the dupes were. 
One of the resolutions passed at Cincinnati was that " the 
next convention should be held on Irish soil." About the 
same time a Fenian Sisterhood was established, and the 
ladies were not inactive ; for in two months from their 
associating they returned upwards of .200,000 sterling to 
the Fenian exchequer for the purpose of purchasing arms 
and other war material. At that period the Fenians confi- 
dently relied on the assistance of the American Government. 
The New York press rather favoured this notion. In Ireland 
the Brotherhood never attained to the dimensions it reached 
in the United States, and without the assistance of the latter 
could do nothing. Still the Irish, as well as the American 
Fenian, association had its chiefs, officers, both civil and mili- 
tary, its common fund and financial agencies, its secret oaths, 
passwords, and emblems, its laws and penalties, its concealed 
stores of arms, its nightly drills, its correspondents and 
agents, its journals, and even its popular songs and ballads. 
But traitors soon set to work to destroy the organisation 
from within. Thus the Head Centre O'Mahoney, who was 
in receipt of an official salary of 2000 dollars, is thus spoken 
of in the Official Report of the Investigating Committee of 
the Fenian Brotherhood of America (1866): 

" After a careful examination of the affairs of the Brother- 
hood, your Committee finds in almost every instance the 
cause of Ireland made subservient to individual gain ; men 
who were lauded as patriots sought every opportunity to 
plunder the treasury of the Brotherhood, but legalised their 
attacks by securing the endorsement of John O'Mahoney. 
... In John O'Mahoney's integrity the confidence of the 


Brotherhood was boundless, and the betrayal of that confi- 
dence, whether through incapacity or premeditation, is not 
a question for us to determine. . . . Sufficient that he has 
proved recreant to the trust. . . . Never in the history of 
the Irish people did they repose so much confidence in their 
leaders ; never before were they so basely deceived and 
treacherously dealt with. In fact, the Moffat mansion (the 
headquarters of the American Fenians) was not only an 
almshouse for pauper officials and hungry adventurers, but 
a general telegraph office for the Canadian authorities and 
Sir Frederick Bruce, the British Minister at Washington. 
These paid patriots and professional martyrs, not satisfied 
with emptying our treasury, connived at posting the English 
authorities in advance of our movements." 

From this report it further appears that in 1866 there 
was in the Fenian treasury in the States a sum of 185,000 
dollars ? that the expenses of the Moffat mansion and the 
parasites who flocked thither in three months amounted to 
104,000 dollars; and that Stephens, the Irish Head Centre, 
in the same space of time received from America, in money 
sent to Paris, the sum of upwards of 106,000 dollars, though 
John O'Mahoney in many of his letters expressed the greatest 
mistrust of Stephens. He no doubt looked upon the latter as 
the more clever and daring rogue, who materially diminished 
his own share of the spoil. Stephens's career in Ireland is 
sufficiently well known, and there is scarcely any doubt that 
whilst he was leading his miserable associates to their ruin, 
he acted as spy upon them, and that there existed some 
understanding between him and the English authorities. 
How else can we explain his living for nearly two months in 
the neighbourhood of Dublin, in a house magnificently fur- 
nished, whilst he took no precautions to conceal himself, and 
yet escaped the vigilance of the police for so long a time ? 
His conduct when at last apprehended, his bravado in the 
police court and final escape from prison, his traversing the 
streets of Dublin, sailing for Scotland, travelling through 
London to France without once being molested all point to 
the same conclusion. The only other person of note among 
the Fenians was John Mitchel, who had been implicated in 
the troubles of 1848, was transported, escaped, and made his 
way to the United States. During the civil war which raged 
in that country he was a supporter of the Southern cause, 
was taken prisoner by the North, but liberated by the Pre- 
sident at the request of the Fenians in America. 

The Fenian agitation also spread into England. Meetings 


were held in various towns, especially at Liverpool, where 
men of considerable means were found to support the Fenian 
objects and organisations ; and on one occasion as much as 
,200 was collected in a few minutes in the room where a 
meeting was held. But disputes about the money thus col- 
lected were ever arising. The man who acted as treasurer 
to the Liverpool Centre, when accused of plundering his 
brethren, snapped his fingers at them, and declared that if 
they bothered him about the money he would give evidence 
against them and have the whole lot hanged. The Fenians, 
to raise money, issued bonds to be redeemed by the future 
Irish Republic, of one of which the following is a facsimile : 

Harp. 1 

Goddess of Liberty. 



Ninety days after the establishment of 

Redeemable by ) Board of 



666. Origin of Name. Irish tradition says that the Fenians 
were an ancient militia employed on home service for protect- 
ing the coasts from invasion. Each of the four provinces had 
its band, that of Leinster, to which Fionn and his family 
belonged, being at the head of the others. This Fionn is 
the Fingal of MacPherson, and the leaders of the movement 
no doubt saw an advantage in connecting their party with 
the historical and traditionary glories of Ireland. But the 
Fenians were not confined to Erin. The name was invented 
for the society by O'Mahoney, but the Irish never adopted it ; 
they called their association the Irish Republican Brotherhood, 
or briefly, the I. R. B. Fenianism was officially restricted to 
the American branch of the movement. 

667. Fenian Litanif. From the Patriotic Litany of Saint 
Lawrence O'Toole, published for the use of the Fenian 
Brotherhood, the following extract may suffice : 

" Call to thine aid, most liberty-loving O'Toole, those 
Christian auxiliaries of power and glory the soul -in spiring 
cannon, the meek and faithful musket, the pious rifle, and the 
conscience-examining pike, which, tempered by a martyr's 
faith, a Fenian's hope, and a rebel's charity, will triumph 



" O'Toole, deliver us! 

over the devil, and restore to us our own in our own land for 
ever. Amen. 

O'Toole, hear us. 
From English civilisation, 
From British law and order, 
From Anglo-Saxon cant and freedom, 
From the hest of the English Queen, 
From Rule Britannia, 
From the cloven hoof, 
From the necessity of annual rebellion, 
From billeted soldiery, 
From a pious church establishment, 

Fenianism to be stamped out like the cattle plague ! 

We will prove them false prophets, O'Toole. 

Ireland reduced to obedience, 

Ireland loyal to the crown, It is a 

Ireland pacified with concessions, falsehood, 

Ireland to recruit the British army, O'Toole. 

Ireland not united in effort, 

Ireland never again to be dragged at the tail of any other 
nation ! 

Proclaim it on high, O'Toole. 

668. Events from 1865 to 1871. In speaking of Stephens, 
it was mentioned that he was a spy on the Fenians, but he 
was not the only informer that betrayed his confederates 
to the English Government ; which latter, in consequence of 
"information thus received," made its first descent on the 
Brotherhood in 1865, at the office of the Irish People, and 
captured some of the leading Fenians. Shortly after, it 
seized Stephens, who, however, was allowed to make his 
escape from Richmond Prison, where he had been confined, 
in the night of November 24 of the above year. Further 
arrests took place in other parts of Ireland, and also at 
Liverpool, Manchester, and other English towns. The 
prisoners were indicted for treason-felony, and sentenced to 
various degrees of punishment. Various raids into Canada, 
and the attempt on Chester Castle, all ending in failure, 
next showed that Fenianism was still alive. But it was 
more prominently again brought before the public by the 
attack at Manchester, in September 1 867, on the police van 
conveying two leaders of the Fenian conspiracy, Kelly and 
Deasey, to the city prison, who were enabled to make their 


escape, whilst Sergeant Brett was shot dead by William 
O'Meara Allen, who was hanged for the deed. A still more 
atrocious and fatal Fenian attempt was that made on the 
Clerkenwell House of Detention, with a view of liberating 
two Fenian prisoners, Burke and Casey, when a great 
length of the outer wall of the prison was blown up by 
gunpowder, which also destroyed a whole row of houses 
opposite, killed several persons, and wounded and maimed 
a great number. On that occasion again Government had 
received information of the intended attempt by traitors in 
the camp, but strangely enough failed to take proper precau- 
tionary measures. On December 24, 1867, the Fenians 
made an attack on the Martello Tower at Fota, near Queens- 
town, Co. Cork, and carried off a quantity of arms and 
ammunition; and their latest exploit, in 1871, was another 
Canadian raid, when they crossed the border at Pembina, 
and seized the Canadian Custom-House and Hudson's Bay 
post. They were, however, attacked and dispersed by 
American troops, and General O'Neil was made prisoner. 
This raid, the object of which was to secure a base of action, 
and also to receive from the American Government a recog- 
nition of belligerency, was carried out totally independently 
of the new Irish Fenian confederation, of which O'Donovan 
Rossa was the moving spirit ; and the Irish papers therefore 
pooh-poohed the account of this fiasco altogether, or merely 
gave the telegrams, denying that the enterprise had any 
connection with Fenianism. About this time it seemed as 
if the Fenian Brotherhood was breaking up ; O'Donovan 
Rossa retired from the "Directory" of the confederation, 
and went into the wine trade. The Fenians themselves 
denounced the notorious Stephens, who reappeared in 
America, as a "traitor" and government informer; and 
though the acquittal of Kelly for the murder of head-con- 
stable Talbot seemed to point to a strong sympathy surviv- 
ing amongst the Irish people with Fenianism, the jury perhaps 
could give no other verdict than the one they arrived at, 
the prosecution having been altogether mismanaged by the 

669. The Soi-disant General Cluseret. Another personage 
had in the meantime become connected with the Fenians, a 
soi-disant General Cluseret, who had been a captain in the 
French army, but had been compelled to quit it in con- 
sequence of some irregularity in the regimental funds, of 
which Cluseret had kept the books and the cash. He after- 
wards served with Garibaldi in Sicily, and Fremont in the 


United States, after which he bestowed on himself the rank 
of General. He came to Europe with the mission of report- 
ing to the Fenians of New York on English arsenals, maga- 
zines, and ports of entry. In an article published by him 
in Fraser in 1872, entitled, " My Connection with Fenianism," 
he tells the world that he offered to command the Fenians 
if 10,000 men could be raised, but the money to do so was 
not forthcoming. He asserted that he had communica- 
tions with the Keform League, whose members favoured hia 
designs ; but he failed, as he says, because he had a knot 
of self-seekers and ignorant intriguers to deal with ; " and 
traitors," he might have added, for it is certain that the 
intended attack on Chester Castle failed because the English 
Government had had early notice of the plot. A rising 
Cluseret attempted to head in Ireland came to grief, and the 
general speedily made his escape to France, where he became 
mixed up with the Commune (507). 

670. Phcenix Park Murders, and Consequences. Fenianism 
for a time was quiescent, but about 1880 the Land League 
was established, and byits agents, the " Moonlighters," entered 
on a course of outrages, chiefly against farmers for paying 
rent, which has not yet ceased, though their leader, D. 
Connell, and a number of his followers were apprehended 
early in 1882. This year was farther distinguished in the 
annals of crime by the murder of Lord F. Cavendish, the 
Chief Secretary for Ireland, and Mr. Thomas Burke, the 
Under- Secretary, in Phoenix Park, Dublin ; but the assassins 
were not apprehended until January 1883, one of the guilty 
parties, James Carey, having turned informer. He received 
a pardon, and was sent out of the country, but shortly after 
shot by O'Donnell, who was executed for this murder. The 
law, of course, cannot sanction the slaying of an informer, 
but public sentiment says, " Served him right," especially in 
this case, as Carey was as deeply implicated in the Phoenix 
Park murders as any of the other criminals. The trial of 
these led to the disclosure of an organisation known as the 
"Irish Invincibles," whose chief was P. J. Tynan, who 
passed under the sobriquet of Number One, and which 
organisation was the instigator and executor of the Phoenix 
Park and of many other murders, including, for instance, the 
massacre of the Maamtrasna family. 

671. Dynamite Outrages. In this year (1882) the Fenians 
began the use of dynamite ; a large quantity of this material 
was discovered, together with a quantity of arms, con- 
cealed in a vault in the town of Cork ; later on the Fenians 


attempted the storing tip of dynamite and arms in London 
and other English towns ; a considerable number of rifles 
and large quantities of ammunition were seized in a house 
at Islington in July 1882 ; dynamite was sent to this 
country from America, but its introduction being difficult, 
the Fenians attempted to manufacture it here; a labora- 
tory, stocked with large quantities of the raw and finished 
material, was discovered at Ladywood, near Birmingham, in 
April 1883. Still, the explosive and infernal machines 
continued to be smuggled into this country, and attempts 
were made to blow up public buildings in London and 
elsewhere, the attempts, however, doing, fortunately in most 
cases, but little harm. One of the most serious was the 
one made at Glasgow early in 1883. In a manifesto issued 
in April 1884 by the Fenian brotherhood, signed by Patrick 
Joyce, secretary, the Fenians call this " inaugurating scien- 
tific warfare," and declare their intention to persevere until 
they have attained their object, the freedom of Ireland. 
In December 1884 an attempt to blow up London Bridge 
with dynamite had no other result but to blow up the 
two men who made the attempt ; the chief instigators of all 
these attempts were two American organisations ; the first 
was that of O'Donovan Rossa, the second that of the 
association called the Clan-na-GaeL Rossa had agents in 
Cork, London, and Glasgow ; but two of the most important, 
Fetherstone (whose real name is Kennedy) and Dalton, 
were apprehended, and sentenced to penal servitude for life. 
Since then the party of Rossa has been powerless. An 
unsuccessful attempt on O'Donovan Rossa's life was made 
early in 1885 by an English lady, a Mrs. Dudley. Within a 
fortnight after an advertisement appeared in O'Donovan's 
paper, offering a reward of ten thousand dollars for the 
body of the Prince of Wales, dead or alive. And yet, but 
a few months ago (1896), this would-be assassin, or in- 
stigator of assassination, was permitted to walk about in 
England, in perfect freedom, and even to enter the Houses 
of Parliament ! The Clan-na-Gael is a more serious affair ; 
originally it was a purely patriotic scheme for the removal 
of British power over Ireland ; it did not advocate the 
slaughter of innocent people by the indiscriminate use of 
dynamite. But eventually a certain violent faction obtained 
control, and gained possession of the large funds of the Clan, 
the bulk of which they absorbed for their own enrichment. 
Dr. Cronin, who could have proved this, was murdered. 
The branches of the Clan-na-Gael extend over the whole 


of the United States. Its heads are three in number: 
Alexander Sullivan, of Chicago ; General Michael Kerwin, 
of New York ; and Colonel Michael Boland, of the same 
city. Sullivan was a great friend of Patrick Egan, the 
treasurer of the Land League. One of the agents of the 
Clan-na-Gael was John Daly, who intended to blow up 
the House of Commons by throwing a dynamite bomb on 
the table of the House from the Strangers' Gallery. He 
was arrested at Chester in April 1884, and sentenced to 
penal servitude for life. The attempts on the House of 
Commons, and the explosions at the Tower and Victoria 
Railway Station, were also the work of the Clan-na-Gael, 
twenty-five members of which have been condemned to 
penal servitude, two-thirds of them for life. John S. 
Walsh, residing in Paris, and the Ford family in America, 
are also known as dangerous agents of the association. 
The dynamiters were not quite so active after the capture 
and conviction of so many of their party, but confined 
themselves to occasional and comparatively insignificant 
attempts, but murder was rife in Ireland. These events, 
however, are now, thanks to the Report of the Judges of 
the Parnell Commission, so easily accessible to every reader, 
that they need not be specified here. 

672. The National League. This is scarcely an association, 
though generally considered such. It is not an Irish pro- 
duction, but created in a foreign land, and directed by 
foreign agents, whose designs are unknown. The people 
have given their allegiance to it because of the large bribes 
it offered to their cupidity, and the fear it inspired. The 
secret societies give the League their assistance, without 
which it would be powerless. But the real heads who 
direct the operations of the rank and file keep carefully 
out of the way ; but whilst the rank and file know they 
have nothing to fear from the people, who will not give 
them up, they know that any one of their own body may 
at any time betray them by turning informer. The Invin- 
cibles held their own for a long time, but once the police 
got hold of them, informers appeared in every direction. 
This shows, according to Ross of Bladensburg, in 
Murray's Magazine, December 1887, from which I quote, 
that the Irish have no real faith in their own cause; that 
they are not, like the Nihilists, honest patriots, prepared 
to suffer in a cause they consider just, but a people led 
astray by a band of selfish agitators, whose machinations 
are pleasantly exposed in the following passages, with which 


I will endeavour to give an enlivening finish to this neces- 
sarily dry account of the Fenian movement up to 1888. 

673. Comic Aspects of Fenianism. In "The New Gospel 
of Peace according to St. Benjamin," an American publica- 
tion of the year 1867, the author says: "About those 
days there arose certain men, Padhees, calling themselves 
Phainyans, who conspired together to wrest the isle of 
Ouldairin from the queen of the land of Jonbool. Now it 
was from the isle of Ouldairin that the Padhees came 
into the land of Unculpsalm. . . . Although the Padhees 
never had established government or administered laws in 
Ouldairiu, they diligently sought instead thereof to have 
shyndees therein, first with the men who sought to establish 
a government for them ; but if not with them, then with 
each other. . . . Now the Padhees in the land of Unculpsalm 
said one to another, Are we not in the land of Unculpsalm, 
where the power of Jonbool cannot touch us, and we are 
many and receive money ; let us therefore conspire to make 
a great shyndee in the isle of Ouldairin. . . . And they 
took a large upper room and they placed men at the 
outside of the outer door, clad in raiment of green and 
gold, and having drawn swords in their hands. For they 
said, How shall men know that we are conspiring secretly, 
unless we set a guard over ourselves? And they chose a 
chief man to rule them, and they called him the Hid-Sinter, 
which, being interpreted, is the top-middle; for, in the 
tongue of the Padhees, hid is top, and sinter is middle. . . . 
And it came to pass that after many days the Hid-Sinter 
sent out tax-gatherers, and they went among the Padhees, 
and chiefly among the Bidhees throughout the city of Go- 
tham, and the other cities in the land of Unculpsalm, and 
they gathered tribute, . . . and the sum thereof was great, 
even hundreds of thousands of pieces of silver. Then the 
Hid-Sinter and his chief officers took unto themselves a great 
house and spacious in the city of Gotham, . . . and fared 
sumptuously therein, and poured out drink-offerings night 
and day unto the isle of Ouldairin. And they set up a 
government therein, which they called the government of 
Ouldairin, and chose unto themselves certain lawgivers, which 
they called the Sinnit. . . . Now it came to pass when cer- 
tain of the Padhees, Phainyans, saw that the Hid-Sinter and 
his chief officers . . . fared sumptuously every day, . . . and 
lived as if all their kinsfolk were dying day by day, and there 
was a ouaic without end, that their souls were moved witli 
envy, and they said each within his own heart, Why should 


I not live in a great house and fare sumptuously ? But unto 
each other and unto the world they said : Behold, the Hid- 
Sinter and his officers do not govern Ouldairn righteously, 
and they waste the substance of the people. Let us there- 
fore declare their government to be at an end, and let us set 
up a new government, with a new Hid-Sinter, and a new 
Sinnit, even ourselves. And they did so. And they de- 
clared that the first Hid-Sinter was no longer Hid-Sinter, 
but that their Hid-Sinter was the real Hid-Sinter, . . . and 
moreover they especially declared that tribute-money should 
no more be paid to the first Hid-Sinter, but unto theirs. 
But the first Hid-Sinter and his officers would not be set at 
nought, . . . and so it came to pass that there were three 
governments for the isle of Ouldairn ; one in the land of 
Jonbool, and two in the city of Gotham in the land of Un- 
culpsalm. But when the Phanyans gathered unto them- 
selves men, Padhees, in the island of Ouldairin, who went 
about there in the night-time, with swords and with spears 
and with staves, the governors sent there by the queen of 
Jonbool took those men and cast some of them into prison, 
and banished others into a far country," &c. 

674. Events from 1888 to 1896. The revelations made in 
1888 and 1890 before the "Special Commission," have ren- 
dered the history of the Fenian conspiracy quite familiar up 
to that date. Of subsequent events the following are note- 
worthy. On the 22d October 1890 the Convention of the 
Fenian brotherhood in America was held at New Jersey, 
when it was resolved to make it an open association de 
facto, it was already so after the disclosures before the Com- 
mission the council only being bound by oath, and that the 
object should be to form naval and military volunteer forces 
to aid the United States in the event of war with any foreign 
State. At a convention held at New York in July 1891, it 
was again argued that the only organisation now advisable 
was one with a military basis. The Clan-na-Gael continued 
to hold abortive meetings ; outrages of every kind, including 
murder, were rife in Ireland up to 1 892, since which time Ire- 
land is supposed to be pacified, though the frequently repeated 
dynamite outrages in England, and the revival of Fenianism 
in America, would lead to a very different conclusion. As 
to this revival, the Irish Convention, commonly called "the 
physical force convention," met in September 1895 at Chi- 
cago, and resolved on the formation of a permanent organi- 
sation for the recovery, by arms, of Irish independence. 
Among the delegates there were more than one thousand 


present were O'Donovan Eossa and Tynan (No. i), and the 
chairman, Mr. John Finerty, ex-member of Congress. 

In August 1896 a Belfast paper stated that, owing to 
the discovery of a secret society of Ribbonmen in Armagh, 
special detective duty had been ordered by the constabulary 
authorities at Dublin Castle. 

And yet, in spite of all this, Government has recently 
released some of the most atrocious dynamiters, originally 
and justly sentenced to lifelong penal servitude ! 

In September 1896, the notorious Patrick Tynan, known 
under the name of No. I, and who was implicated in the 
Phoenix Park murders, was arrested at Boulogne ; but the 
demand of the British Government for his extradition was 
refused by that of France, on the grounds that sufficient 
evidence identifying him with No. I had not been produced ; 
that even if such identification were established, there was 
not sufficient proof to identify Tynan as one of the men who 
participated in the murder of Mr. Burke ; and, lastly, that 
his case was covered by " prescription," which in France is 
acquired after ten years, an extension to twenty years being 
allowed only after a trial at which the accused had been 
present. But Tynan had effected his escape after the mur- 
ders. And so he was set at liberty by the French Govern- 
ment, though it was shown that he had been in frequent 
communication whilst at Boulogne with English dynamiters, 
plotting against England at that very time. Of course the 
French acted on the strict letter of the Code Napoleon and 
of the Extradition Treaty between the two countries ; but 
when the law and the treaty afford such loopholes to the 
vilest of criminals, it is high time both were revised. On 
his release from the French prison, Tynan wrote a long letter 
to his wife why should it be published ? in which he ex- 
presses his admiration of Russian civilisation (!), and thanks 
God for tempering the wind to the shorn lamb (!). Beware 
of a murderer who gives vent to such language ; he is more 
dangerous than the one who is violent and brutal in his 

675. Most Recent Revelations. One of the dynamiters 
whom Tynan had been in close and recent communication 
with was Edward J. Ivory, alias Bell, an American, who had 
been apprehended on British territory, and was charged at 
the Bow Street Police Court, on the I3th November 1896, 
with conspiring with others to cause dynamite explosions 
within the United Kingdom. He was committed for trial, 
but when that took place at the Old Bailey, in January 1 897, 


the prosecution, in spite of the fact that the prisoner's move- 
ments gave room for very grave suspicions, suddenly collapsed 
on a purely technical point, and Ivory was, by the judge's 
direction, pronounced "Not guilty" by the jury, and of 
course immediately discharged. Were it necessary to vindi- 
cate the impartiality of English justice, and its tender regard 
for the interests and claims of a person accused, the issue of 
this trial would afford a very striking and honourable in- 
stance of both. How far the interests of justice, the main- 
tenance of law, and the dignity of the country are served by 
such verdicts, is altogether a different question, the answer to 
which cannot be satisfactory. 





676. ABC Friends, The. A society whose avowed scope 
was the education of children, its real object the liberty of 
man. They called themselves members of the ABC, letters 
which in French are pronounced abaissd; but the abased that 
were to be raised were the people. The members were few, 
but select. They had two lodges in Paris during the Res- 
toration. Victor Hugo has introduced the society in Les 
Hisdrables, part iii. book iv. 

677. Abelites. A Christian sect, existing in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hippo, in North Africa, in the fourth century. 
The members married, but abstained from conjugal inter- 
course, because, as they maintained, Abel had lived thus, 
since no children of his are mentioned. To maintain the 
sect, they adopted children, male and female. 

A sect having the same name existed in the middle of the 
last century, who professed to imitate Abel in all his virtues. 
They had secret signs, symbols, passwords, and rites of initia- 
tion. Their principal meetings were held at Greifswald, near 
Stralsund, at which they amused themselves with moral and 
literary debating. 

678. Academy of the Ancients. It was founded at Warsaw 
by Colonel Toux de Salverte, in imitation of a similar society, 
and with the same name, founded in Rome towards the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century. The object of its secret 
meetings was the cultivation of the occult sciences. 

679. Almusseri. This is an association similar to that of 
" Belly Paaro," found among the negroes of Senegambia and 
other parts of the African continent. The rites of initiation 
bear some resemblance to the Orphic and Cabiric rituals. In 
the heart of an extensive forest there rises a temple, access 
to which is forbidden to the profane. The receptions take 
place once a year. The candidate feigns to die. At the ap- 
pointed hour the initiated surround the aspirant and chant 
funereal songs ; whereupon he is carried to the temple, 
placed on a moderately hot plate of copper, and anointed 
with the oil of the palm a tree which the Egyptians dedi- 
cated to the sun, as they ascribed to it three hundred and 



sixty-five properties. In this position he remains forty days 
this number, too, constantly recurs in antiquity his rela- 
tions visiting him to renew the anointing, after which period 
he is greeted with joyful songs and conducted home. He is 
supposed to have received a new soul, and enjoys great con- 
sideration and authority among his tribe. 

680. Anonymous Society. This society, which existed for 
some time in Germany, with a grand master resident in 
Spain, occupied itself with alchymy. 

68 1. Anti-Masonic Party. In 1826 a journalist, William 
Morgan, who had been admitted to the highest masonic 
degrees, published at New York a book revealing all their 
secrets. The Freemasons carried him off in a boat, and he 
was never afterwards seen again. His friends accused the 
Masons of having assassinated him. The latter asserted that 
he had drowned himself in Lake Ontario, and produced a 
corpse, which, however, was proved to be that of one Monroe. 
Judiciary inquiries led to no result. Most of the officers, it 
is said, were themselves Masons. The indignation caused by 
the crime and its non-punishment led to the formation, in 
the State of New York, of an Anti-Masonic party, whose 
object was to exclude from the public service all members 
of the masonic fraternity. But the society soon degenerated 
into an electioneering engine. About fifty years after the 
occurrence, Thurlow Weed published, from personal know- 
ledge, precise information as to Morgan's assassination by 
the Freemasons. His grave was discovered in 1881 at Pem- 
broke, in the county of Batavia, State of New York, and in 
the grave also was found a paper, bearing on it the name of 
a Freemason called John Brown, whom, at the time, public 
rumour made one of the assassins of Morgan. To this latter 
a statue was erected at Batavia in 1882. Certain American 
travellers, indeed, asserted having, years after, met Morgan 
at Smyrna, where he taught English ; but their assertions 
were supported by no proofs. 

682. Anti-Masons. This was a society founded in Ireland, 
in County Down, in 181 1, and composed of Roman Catholics, 
whose object was the expulsion of all Freemasons, of what- 
ever creed they might be. 

683. Apocalypse, Knights of the. This secret society was 
formed in Italy in 1693, to defend the Church against the 
expected Antichrist. Augustine Gabrino, the son of a 
merchant of Brescia, was its founder. On Palm-Sunday, 
when the choir in St. Peter's was intoning the words, 
Quis est iste Rex Gloricc f Gabrino, carrying a sword in his 


hand, rushed among the choristers, exclaiming, Ego sum Rex 
Gloria. He did the same in the church of San Salvatore, 
whereupon he was shut up in a madhouse. The society, 
however, continued to flourish until a wood-carver, who had 
been initiated, denounced it to the Inquisition, which im- 
prisoned the knights. Most of them, though only traders 
and operatives, always carried a sword, even when at work, 
and wore on the breast a star with seven rays and an appen- 
dage, symbolising the sword seen by St. John in the Apo- 
calypse. The society was accused of having political aims. 
It is a fact that the founder called himself Monarch of the 
Holy Trinity, which is not extraordinary in a madman, and 
wanted to introduce polygamy, for which he ought to be a 
favourite with the Mormons. 

684. Areoiti. This is a society of Tahitian origin, and 
has members throughout that archipelago. They have their 
own genealogy, hierarchy, and traditions. They call them- 
selves the descendants of the god Oro-Tetifa, and are divided 
into seven (some say into twelve) degrees, distinguished by 
the modes of tattooing allowed to them. The society forms 
an institution similar to that of the Egyptian priests ; but 
laymen also may be admitted. The chiefs at once attain to 
the highest degrees, but the common people must obtain 
their initiation through many trials. Members enjoy great 
consideration and many privileges. They are considered as 
the depositaries of knowledge, and as mediators between 
God and man, and are feared as the ministers of the taboo, 
a kind of excommunication they can pronounce, like the 
ancient hierophaiits of Greece or the court of Rome. Though 
the ceremonies are disgusting and immoral, there is a founda- 
tion of noble ideas concealed under them ; so that we may 
assume the present rites to be corruptions of a formerly 
purer ceremonial. The meaning that underlies the dogmas 
of the initiation is the generative power of nature. The 
legend of the solar god also here plays an important part, 
and regulates the festivals; and a funereal ceremony, re- 
minding us of that of the mysteries of antiquity, is per- 
formed at the winter solstice. Throughout Polynesia, 
moreover, there exists a belief in a supreme deity, Taaroa, 
Tongola, or Tangaroa, of whom a cosmogonic hymn, known to 
the initiated, says: " He was; he was called Taaroa; he called, 
but no one answered ; he, the only ens, transformed himself 
into the universe ; he is the light, the germ, the foundation ; 
he, the incorruptible ; he is great, who created the universe, 
the great universe." 


685. Avengers, or Vendicatori. A secret society formed 
about 1 1 86 in Sicily, to avenge public wrongs, on the prin- 
ciples of the Vehm and Beati Paoli. At length Adiorolphus 
of Ponte Corvo, grand master of the sect, was hanged by 
order of King William II. the Norman, and many of the 
sectaries were branded with a hot iron. 

686. Belly Paaro. Among the negroes of Guinea there 
are mysteries called "Belly Paaro," which are celebrated 
several times in the course of a century. The aspirant, 
having laid aside all clothing, and every precious metal, is 
led into a large wood, where the old men that preside at the 
initiation give him a new name, whilst he recites verses in 
honour of the god Belly, joins in lively dances, and receives 
much theological and mystical instruction. The neophyte 
passes five years in absolute isolation, and woe to any woman 
that dares to approach the sacred wood ! After this novitiate 
the aspirant has a cabin assigned to him, and is initiated into 
the most secret doctrines of the sect. Issuing thence, he 
dresses differently from the others, his body being adorned 
with feathers, and his neck showing the scars of the initiatory 

687. Califomian Society. Several Northern Californian 
tribes have secret societies, which meet in a lodge set apart, 
or in a sweat-house, and engage in mummeries of various 
kinds, all to frighten their women. The men pretend to con- 
verse with the devil, and make their meeting-place shake 
and ring again with yells and whoops. In some instances 
one of their number, disguised as the master-fiend himself, 
issues from the lodge, and rushes like a madman through 
the village, doing his best to frighten contumacious women 
and children out of their senses. This has been the custom 
from time immemorial, and the women are still gulled by it. 

688. Cambridge Secret Society. In 1886 a number of 
young men formed the " Companions of St. John " secret 
society, under the leadership of the Rev. Ernest John Heriz- 
Smith, M.A., Fellow of Pembroke College. In 1896 it was 
supposed to number upwards of one thousand members. 
The primary and avowed object was to inculcate High Church 
principles and confession ; its real object to be a member of 
a secret society. They took an oath ; the candidate had his 
hands tied, knelt at a table, had his eyes bandaged, and took 
a vow to obey the head of the society in all things, and 
never to mention anything relating to the society except to 
a member. If he disobeyed he was sent to his room, and 
tied to a table leg. They wore for some time a badge with 


the letters L and D (Love and Duty) ; afterwards they 
wore it concealed under their clothes, whence the members 
were named "Belly-banders." Whether this society still 
exists, or whether ridicule has killed it, we cannot say. 

689. Charlottenburg, Order of. This was one of the 
numerous branches grafted on the trunk of the Union of 

690. Church Masons. This is a masonic rite, founded in 
this country during this century, with the scarcely credible 
object of re-establishing the ancient masonic trade-unions. 

691. Cougourde, The. An association of Liberals at the 
time of the restoration of the Bourbons in France. It arose 
at Aix, in Provence, and thence spread to various parts of 
France. Its existence was ephemeral. Cougourde is French 
for the calabash gourd. 

692. Druids, Modern. This society, the members of which 
pretend to be the successors of the ancient Druids, was 
founded in London in 1781. They adopted masonic rites, 
and spread to America and Australia. Their lodges are 
called groves; in the United States they have thirteen 
grand groves, and ninety-two groves, twenty-four of which 
are English, and the remainder German. The number of 
degrees are three, but there are also grand arch chapters. 
The transactions of the German groves are printed, but those 
of the English kept strictly secret. In 1872 the Order was 
introduced from America into Germany. The Order is simply 
a benefit society. 

693. Duk-Duk. A secret association on the islands of 
New Pomerania, originally New Britain, whose hideously 
masked or chalk-painted members execute justice, and collect 
fines. In carrying out punishment they are allowed to set 
houses on fire or kill people. They recognise one another 
by secret signs, and at their festivals the presence of an 
uninitiated person entails his death. Similar societies exist 
in Western Africa (see 723). 

694. Egbo Society. An association said to exist among 
some of the tribes inhabiting the regions of the Congo. 
Egbo, or Ekpe", is supposed to be a mysterious person, who 
lives in the jungle, from which he has to be brought, and 
whither he must be taken back by the initiates alone after 
any great state ceremonial. Egbo is the evil genius, or 
Satan. His worship is termed Obeeyahism, the worship of 
Obi, or the Devil. Ob, or Obi, is the old Egyptian name 
for the spirit of evil, and devil-worship is practised by many 
barbarous tribes, as, for instance, by the Coroados and the 


Tupayas, in the impenetrable forests between the rivers 
Prado and Doce in Brazil, the Abipones of Paraguay, the 
Bachapins, a Caffre tribe, the negroes on the Gold Coast, and 
firmly believed in by the negroes of the West Indies, they 
being descended from the slaves formerly imported from 

In the ju-ju houses of the Egbo society are wooden statues, 
to which great veneration is paid, since by their means the 
society practise divination. Certain festivals are held during 
the year, when the members wear black wooden masks with 
horns, which it is death for any woman to see. There are 
three degrees in the Egbo society; the highest is said to 
confer such influence that from ^1000 to ,1500 are paid 
for attaining it. 

695. Fraticelli. A sect who were said to have practised 
the custom of self-restraint under the most trying circum- 
stances of disciplinary carnal temptation. They were found 
chiefly in Lombardy ; and Pope Clement V. preached a 
crusade against them, and had them extirpated by fire and 
sword, hunger and cold. But they were guilty of a much 
higher crime than the one for which they were ostensibly 
persecuted ; they had denounced the tyranny of the popes, 
and the abuses of priestly power and wealth, which of 
course deserved nothing less than extermination by fire and 
sword ! 

696. Goats, The. About the year 1770 the territory of 
Limburg was the theatre of strange proceedings. Churches 
were sacked, castles burnt down, and robberies were com- 
mitted everywhere. The country people were trying to 
shake off the yoke feudalism had imposed on them. During 
the night, and in the solitude of the landes, the most daring 
assembled and marched forth to perpetrate these devasta- 
tions. Then terror spread everywhere, and the cry was 
heard, " The Goats are coming ! " They were thus called, 
because they wore masks in imitation of goats' faces over 
their own. On such nights the slave became the master, 
and abandoned himself with fierce delight to avenging the 
wrongs he had suffered during the day. In the morning all 
disappeared, returning to their daily labour, whilst the castles 
and mansions set on fire in the night were sending their 
lurid flames up to the sky. The greater the number of 
malcontents, the greater the number of Goats, who at last 
became so numerous that they would undertake simul- 
taneous expeditions in different directions in one night. 
They were said to be in league with the devil, who, in the 


form of a goat, was believed to transport them from one 
place to another. The initiation into this sect was per- 
formed in the following manner : In a small chapel situate 
in a dense wood, a lamp was lighted during a dark and 
stormy night. The candidate was introduced into the chapel 
by two godfathers, and had to run round the interior of the 
building three times on all-fours. After having plentifully 
drunk of a strong fermented liquor, he was put astride on 
a wooden goat hung on pivots. The goat was then swung 
round, faster and faster, so that the man, by the strong 
drink and the motion, soon became giddy, and sometimes 
almost raving mad ; when at last he was taken down, he 
was easily induced to believe that he had been riding through 
space on the devil's crupper. From that moment he was 
sold, body and soul, to the society of Goats, which, for 
nearly twenty years, filled Limburg with terror. In vain 
the authorities arrested a number of suspected persons ; in 
vain, in all the communes, in all the villages, gibbet and 
cord were in constant request. From 1772 to 1774 alone the 
tribunal of Foquemont had condemned four hundred Goats 
to be hanged or quartered. The society was not exter- 
minated till about the year 1780. 

697. Grand Army of the Republic. A secret society 
founded after the Civil War in the Northern States of 
America, to afford assistance to indigent veterans and their 
families. The Order is a purely military one ; its chief is 
called the Commandant-General, the central authority the 
National Camp, and subordinate sections are styled Posts. 
In 1887 the society counted 370,000 members. 

698. Green Island. A society formed at Vienna in 1855. 
The language used at their meetings was a parody on the 
knightly style as it was supposed to have been ; its object 
was merely amusement. The society reckoned many literary 
men of note among its members. Whence it took its name 
is not clear, but it appears to have been a revival of the 
Order of Knights founded in 1771. See infra, under 
" Knights, Order of." 

699. Harnyari. A secret society, dating from 1848, 
among Germans in North America. They pretended to 
be descended from an ancient German order of knight- 
hood, and possess about two hundred lodges, with 16,000 
members. The diffusion of the German language is one of 
their chief objects. But why surround themselves with the 
mist of secrecy but from a childish love for mystery- 
mongering ? 


700. Hemp-smokers, African. At Kashia-Calemba, the 
capital of the natives of Bashilange-Baluba, in Africa (lat. 
3 6', long. 21 24'), a sacred fire is always kept up in the 
central square by old people, appointed for the purpose, 
who also have to cultivate and prepare for smoking the 
chiamba (Cannabis indica) ; it is known in Zanzibar as 
Changi or Chang. It is smoked privately, and also cere- 
monially as a token of friendship, and is also administered 
to accused persons as a species of ordeal. As the symbol 
of friendship, it is considered as a religious rite, known 
as "Lubuku," practised by an organisation, of which the 
king is ex ojficio the head ; a social organisation only in- 
directly of political importance. Its rules, signs, and 
working are secret ; its aims and objects unknown to 
outsiders; its initiatory rites have never been witnessed 
by an uninitiated person, much less by any European. 
Certain external evidences of its inward nature are how- 
ever sufficiently obvious to all who care to investigate the 
subject. Chiamba-smoking has a most disastrous effect 
on both the health and wealth of its devotees. A dark 
inference of its true nature may be drawn from the lax, 
and indeed promiscuous, intercourse between the sexes. 
Another indication of its licentiousness is afforded by the 
customs observed at the marriages of its male members, and 
repeated for three successive nights, in which all decency 
is outraged in the most revolting and most public way 

imaginable. The initiatory rites are performed generally 
by the king, or by Meta Sankolla, the present king's sister, 
on an islet in the Lulua, an affluent of the Sankoro River, 
a short distance above Luluaburg, a European station on 
the top of a hill 400 feet above the river. The public 
smoking is begun by the chief or senior man present placing 
the prepared weed in the " Kinsu dhiamba," or pipe, and after 
smoking a little himself, passing it on to the man next to 
him. The pipe consists of a small clay bowl, inserted in 
the larger end of a hollow gourd, the smaller end of which 
has a large aperture, against which the smoker places his 
mouth and inhales the smoke in great gulps, till his brain 
is affected, and he becomes for a time a raving madman. 

701. Heroine of Jericho. This degree is conferred, in 
America, exclusively on Royal Arch Masons, their wives 
and widows. Its ritual is founded on the story of Rahab, 
in the second chapter of the Book of Joshua. The first 
sign is in imitation of the scarlet line which Rahab let 
down from the window to assist the spies to make their 


escape. It is made by holding a handkerchief between the 
lips and allowing it to hang down. The grand hailing sign 
of distress is given by raising the right hand and arm, 
holding the handkerchief between the thumb and fore- 
finger, so that it falls perpendicularly. The word is given 
by the male heroine (not the candidate's husband) placing 
his hand on her shoulder and saying, "My Life," to which 
the candidate replies, "For yours." The male then says, 
"If ye utter not," to which the candidate answers, "This 
our business." The word Rahab is then whispered in the 
lady's ear. The latter swears never to reveal this grand 
secret. She is told that llahab was the founder of the 
Order, but it was most probably invented by those who 
were concerned in the murder of William Morgan (68 1), 
who, by swearing their female relatives to conceal whatever 
criminal act perpetrated by Masons might come to their 
knowledge, hoped to protect themselves. 

702. Human Leopards. A black secret society in the 
country near Sierra Leone, who indulge in cannibalism, 
buying young boys, feeding them up, and then killing, 
baking, and eating them. They also attack travellers, 
and, if possible, kill them for the same purpose. Three 
members of the society were hanged in the Imperi country, 
a British colony, on the 5th August 1895, for this crime. 
Dressed in leopard skins, they used to secrete themselves 
in the bush near a village and kill a passer-by, to be 
eaten at a cannibal feast. One of those three men had 
been a Sunday-school teacher at Sierra Leone. His con- 
version to Christianity had evidently not been very pro- 
found. Cannibalism is as prevalent on the east coast of 
Africa as on the west, but in the former, where the natives 
eat father and mother and any other relations as soon as 
they grow old, it has a sort of sacramental meaning, the 
fundamental idea being that the eater imbibes the pro- 
perties of the person eaten. At the meeting of the British 
Association in September 1896, Mr. Scott Elliott read a paper 
on the Human Leopards. 

703. Hunters, The. In 1837, after the first Canadian 
insurrection, a society under the above title was formed, 
whose object was to bring about a second insurrection. The 
United States supported them. MacLeod, one of the 
insurgents of Upper Canada, came to St. Albans, the 
centre of the society's operations, and was initiated into 
all the degrees, which he afterwards promulgated through 
Upper Canada. There were four degrees the Hunter, 


the Racket, the Beaver, and the Eagle. This last was 
the title of the chief, corresponding with our rank of 
colonel ; the Beaver was a captain, commanding six Rackets, 
every Racket consisting of nine men ; the company of the 
Beaver consisted of seventy affiliates or Hunters. Every 
aspirant had to be introduced by three Hunters to a Beaver, 
and his admission was preceded by fear- inspiring trials and 
terrible oaths. Though the society lasted two years only, 
it distinguished itself by brave actions in the field ; many 
of its members died on the scaffold. 

704. Hustanawer. The natives of Virginia gave this 
name to the initiation they conferred on their own priests, 
and to the novitiate those not belonging to the priesthood 
had to pass through. The candidate's body was anointed 
with fat, and he was led before the assembly of priests, who 
held in their hands green twigs. Sacred dances and funereal 
shouts alternated. Five youths led the aspirant through a 
double file of men armed with canes to the foot of a certain 
tree, covering his person with their bodies, and receiving in 
his stead the blows aimed at him. In the meantime the 
mother prepared a funeral pyre for the simulated sacrifice, 
and wept her son as dead. Then the tree was cut down, 
and its boughs lopped off and formed into a crown for the 
brows of the candidate, who during a protracted retirement, 
and by means of a powerful narcotic called visocean, was 
thrown into a state of somnambulism. Thence he issued 
among his tribe again and was looked upon as a new man, 
possessing higher powers and higher knowledge than the 

705. Indian (North American) Societies. Nearly all the 
Indian tribes who once roamed over the vast plains of North 
America had their secret societies and sacred mysteries, but 
as the different tribes borrowed from one another religious 
ceremonies and symbols, there was great similarity between 
them all, though here and there characteristic signs or tokens 
distinguished the separate tribes. Dancing with all of 
them was a form of worship from the aborigines of Hispa- 
niola to those of Alaska, as, in fact, it was with all savage 
nations, whether African, American, or Polynesian. The 
Red Indian tribes all had their medicine-huts and men, their 
kivas, council-rooms, or whatever name they gave to what 
were really their religious houses. Most tribes kept up ;i 
sacred fire, which was extinguished once a year, and then 
relighted. The sacred dogmas and rites of the Indians of 
the Gulf States bore so close a resemblance to those of the 


ancient Jews, that it was long seriously contended by ethno- 
logists and historians that they were the Lost Tribes ! The 
Cherokees, Delawares, and Chippewas kept records on sticks, 
six inches in length, and tied up in bundles, which were 
covered with devices and symbols, which were called Kep- 
newin when in common use, and Keknowin when connected 
with the mysteries of worship. The most remarkable record 
was that contained in the Walum-Olum, or red score ; it 
contains the creation myth and the story of the migrations 
of the tribes, represented in pictorial language. Such picto- 
graphs are owned by every tribe. The Ojibwas have pro- 
duced some very elaborate ones, showing the inside of the 
medicine-lodge filled with the presence of the Great Spirit, 
a candidate for admission standing therein, crowned with 
feathers, and holding in his hand an otter-skin pouch ; the 
tree with the root that supplies the medicine ; the goods 
offered as a fee for admission ; an Indian walking in the 
sky, a drum, raven, crow, and so on. The Iroquois mys- 
teries were elaborate, but are not well known ; but it appears 
they were instituted to console Manabozko for the disap- 
pearance of Chibiabos, who afterwards was made ruler of the 
dead the parallel in this case to Persephone is as curious as 
is the similarity of the instrument used in the Kurnai initia- 
tion to the Greek poyti/So? (72). The Iroquois were originally 
made up of five different tribes, which afterwards were in- 
creased to seven, and their national organisation was based, 
not on affinity, but on an artificial and arbitrary brotherhood, 
having signs and countersigns resembling those of modern 
secret societies. The secret associations of the Dakotas 
were more numerous and more marked than those of the 
Iroquois, but some of them were mere social societies, while 
others were simply religious. Miss Alice Fletcher, who has 
lived among them, and the Rev. J. 0. Dorsey, testify to the 
number of societies among them, but to their secrets they 
were not admitted. Mr. Frank Gushing was, in 1883, 
initiated into the secret societies of the Zunis ; Dr. Wash- 
ington Matthews has given us descriptions of the sacred 
ceremonies of the Navajos, and Captain R. G. Bourke of the 
snake-dance of the Moquis. Dr. Franz Boos has described 
the customs of the Alaskans, and shown that there are 
many societies among them, some of which require that a 
person should be born into them to be a member. In 1890 
the Sioux ghost-dance attracted much attention. But what 
of all these Indian mysteries which in recent years have been 
endowed with a factitious interest and importance ? They 


may have a special attraction for the comparative ethno- 
logist ; to the general reader they merely convey the con- 
viction that from China to Peru, and from the Arctic to the 
Antarctic Pole, man is everywhere ruled by the same in- 
stincts, fears, and aspirations, which reveal themselves in 
the same customs, beliefs, and religious rites. 

706. Invisibles, The. We know not how much or how 
little of truth there is in the accounts, very meagre indeed, 
of this society, supposed to have existed in Italy in the last 
century, and to have advocated, in nocturnal assemblies, 
atheism and suicide. 

707. Jehu, Society of. This society was formed in France 
during the Revolution, to avenge its excesses by still greater 
violence. It was first established at Lyons. It took its 
name from that king who was consecrated by Elisha to 
punish the sins of the house of Ahab, and to slay all the 
priests of Baal ; that is to say, the relations, friends, and 
agents of the Terrorists. Ignorant people called them the 
Society of Jesus, though this name scarcely suited them, 
since they spread terror and bloodshed throughout France. 
The society disappeared under the Consulate and the Empire, 
but reappeared in 1814-15 under the new name of " Knights 
of Maria Theresa," or " of the Sun," and by them Bordeaux 
was betrayed into the hands of the English, and the assassins 
of the Mayor of Toulouse at Bordeaux, of General Ramel at 
Toulouse, and of Marshal Brune at Avignon, were members 
of this society. 

708. Karpokratians. A religious society founded by Kar- 
pokrates, who lived in the time of the Emperor Adrian at 
Alexandria. He taught that the soul must rise above the 
superstition of popular creeds and the laws of society, by 
which inferior spirits enchain man, and by contemplation 
unite with the Monas or highest deity. To his son Epi- 
phanes a temple was erected after his death on the island 
of Cephalonia. The sect, in spite of its moral worthless- 
ness, continued to exist to the sixth century ; the members 
recognised each other by gently tickling the palm of the 
hand they shook with the points of their fingers. 

709. Klobbergoll. Associations on the Micronesian Islands, 
living together in houses apart, and bound to accompany 
their chiefs on their war expeditions, and perform certain 
services for them. There are on these islands also female 
clubs, the members of which attend at festivities given to 
foreign guests, and render them various services. 

710. Knights, the Order of. A satirical order to ridicule 


mediaeval knighthood, founded curiously enough by Frede- 
rick von Gone 1 , a Knight of the Strict Observance, who 
himself believed in the descent of the Freemasons from the 
Knights Templars. It was instituted at Wetzlar in 1771. 
The members assumed knightly names ; thus Gothe, who 
belonged to it, was Gotz von Berlichingen. They held the 
" Four Children of Haimon " to be symbolical, and Gothe 
wrote a commentary thereon. The Order was divided into 
four degrees in sarcastic derision of the higher degrees 
of spurious masonry, called, (i) Transition, (2) Transition's 
Transition, (3) Transition's Transition to Transition, (4) 
Transition's Transition to Transition of Transition. The 
initiated only could fathom the deep meaning of these 
designations ! 

711. Know- Nothings. This was an anti-foreign and no- 
popery party, formed in 1852 in the United States of 
America, and acting chiefly through secret societies, in order 
to decide the Presidential election. In 1856 it had almost 
become extinct, but came to life again in 1888, having re- 
established secret lodges throughout the country, but being 
especially strong in New York and California. It then 
held large meetings for the purpose of renominating for the 
presidential post Major Hewitt, who maintained that all 
immigrants ought to live in the States twenty- one years 
before they could vote. They were, however, defeated, 
General Harrison being elected. 

712. Ku-Klux-Klan. A secret organisation under this 
name spread with amazing rapidity over the Southern States 
of the American Union soon after the close of the war. 
The white people of the South were alarmed, not so much 
by the threatened confiscation of their property by the 
Federal Government, as by the nearer and more present 
dangers to life and property, virtue and honour, arising 
from the social anarchy around them. The negroes, after 
the Confederate surrender, were disorderly. Many of them 
would not settle down to labour on any terms, but roamed 
about with arms in their hands and hunger in their bellies, 
whilst the governing power was only thinking of every 
device of suffrage and reconstruction by which the freed- 
men might be strengthened, and made, under Northern 
dictation, the ruling power in the country. Agitators came 
down among the towns and plantations ; and organising a 
Union league, held midnight meetings with the negroes in 
the woods, and went about uttering sentiments which were 
anti-social and destructive. Crimes and outrages increased ; 


the law was all but powerless, and the new governments in 
the South, supposing them to have been most willing, were 
certainly unable to repress disorder. A real terror reigned 
for a time among the white people ; and under these circum- 
stances the Ku-Klux started into existence, and executed 
the Lynch-law, which alone seems effective in disordered 
states of society. The members wore a dress made of black 
calico, and called a " shroud." The stuff was sent round to 
private houses, with a request that it should be made into 
a garment ; and fair fingers sewed it up, and had it ready 
for the secret messenger when he returned and gave his 
preconcerted tap at the door. The women and young girls 
had faith in the honour of the " Klan," and on its will and 
ability to protect them. The Ku-Klux, when out on their 
missions, also wore a high tapering hat, with a black veil 
over the face. The secret of the membership was kept with 
remarkable fidelity ; and in no instance, it is said, has a 
member of the Ku-Klux been successfully arraigned and 
punished, though the Federal Government passed a special 
Act against the society, and two proclamations were issued 
under this Act by President Grant as late as October 1 87 1 , 
and the habeas corpus Act suspended in nine counties of 
South Carolina. When the members had a long ride at 
night, they made requisitions at farmhouses for horses, 
which were generally returned on a night following without 
injury. If a company of Federal soldiers, stationed in a 
small town, talked loudly as to what they would do with the 
Ku-Klux, the men in shrouds paraded in the evening before 
the guard-house in numbers so overwhelming as at once 
reduced the little garrison to silence. The overt acts of the 
Ku-Klux consisted for the most part in disarming dangerous 
negroes, inflicting Lynch-law on notorious offenders, and 
above all, in creating one feeling of terror as a counterpoise 
to another. The thefts by the negroes were a subject of 
prevailing complaint in many parts of the South. A band 
of men in the Ku-Klux costume one night came to the door 
of Allan Creich, a grocer of Williamson's Creek, seized and 
dragged him some distance, when they despatched and 
threw him into the Creek, where his body was found. The 
assassins then proceeded to the house of Allan's brother, but 
not finding him at home, they elicited from his little child 
where he was staying. Hereupon they immediately pro- 
ceeded to the house named ; and having encountered the 
man they sought, they dealt with him as they had dealt with 
his brother Allan. It appears that Allan had long been 


blamed for buying goods and produce stolen by the negroes, 
and had often been warned to desist, but without avail. 
The institution, like all of a similar nature, though the 
necessity for its existence has ceased to a great extent, yet 
survives in a more degenerate form, having passed into the 
hands of utter scoundrels, with no good motive, and with 
foul passions of revenge or plunder, or lust of dread and 
mysterious power alone in their hearts. Thus in November 
1883 seven members of the society, the ringleaders being 
men of considerable property, were found guilty at the 
United States Court, Atalanta, Georgia, of having cruelly 
beaten and fired on some negroes for having voted in favour 
of an opposition candidate of the Yarborough party in the 
Congressional election. They were sentenced to various 
terms of imprisonment. 

713. Kurnai Initiation. The Kurnai, an Australian tribe, 
performed rites of initiation into manhood, somewhat similar 
to those of the 0-Kee-Pa (725), as did also all the Tasmanian 
tribes. But details are not known ; the nature of the rites 
is only inferred from the fact that all young men examined 
by Europeans were found to be deeply scarified on the 
shoulders, thighs, and muscles of the breast. The Kurnai 
mysteries are chiefly referred to here because of the curious 
parallel they offer in the use of an instrument resembling 
the po/i/So?, which was one of the sacred objects in the 
Eleusinian mysteries (72). The Kurnai call the instrument 
the turndun ; it is a flat piece of wood, fastened by one end 
to a thong, for whirling it round, and producing a roaring 
noise, to warn off the women. For a woman to see it, or 
a man to show it her, was, by native law, death to both. 
It is not unknown in England ; we call it a whizzer or bull- 
roarer. A similar instrument is used by the Kafirs of South 
Africa, where it is used for just its two principal Australian 
purposes, namely, for rain-making, and in connection with 
the rites of initiation to warn the women off. The bull- 
roarer was also in use in New Zealand. In Australia it is 
known by the names of witarna and muyumkar. 

714. Liberty, Knights of. A sect formed in 1820 in France 
against the government of the Bourbons. Its independent 
existence was brief, as it was soon merged in that of the 

715. Lion, Knights of the. This was one of the trans- 
formations assumed in Germany in the last century by 
Masonic Templars. 

716. Lion, The Sleeping. This was a society formed in 



Paris in 1816, with the object of restoring Napoleon to the 
throne of France. The existing government suppressed it. 

717. Ludlam's Cave. A comic society, formed at Vienna 
in 1818, and so named after a somewhat unsuccessful play 
of Oehlenschlager. The members were called bodies ; candi- 
dates, shadows. The latter underwent a farcical examination, 
and if found very ignorant, were accepted. Many literary men 
belonged to it ; but though their professed object was only 
amusement, the society was in 1826 suppressed by the police 
of Vienna. 

718. Mad Councillors. This comical order was founded 
in 1809 by a Doctor Ehrmann of Frankfort-on-the-Main. 
Diplomas, conceived in a ludicrous style, written in Latin, 
and bearing a large seal, were granted to the members. Jean 
Paul, Arndt, Goethe, Iffland, had such diplomas ; ladies also 
received them. On the granting of the hundredth, in 1820, 
the joke was dropped. 

719. Magi, Order of the. Is supposed to have existed 
in Italy in the last century, as a modification of the Rosi- 
crucians. Its members are said to have worn the costume 
of Inquisitors. 

720. Mahdrdjas. This is an Indian sect of priests. It 
appears abundantly from the works of recognised authority 
written by Maharajas, and from existing popular belief in 
the Vallabhacharya sect, that Vallabhacharya is believed to 
have been an incarnation of the god Krishna, and that the 
Maharajas, as descendants of Vallabhacharya, have claimed 
and received from their followers the like character of incar- 
nations of that god by hereditary succession. The cere- 
monies of the worship paid to Krishna through these priests 
are all of the most licentious character. The love and sub- 
serviency due to a Supreme Being are here materialised and 
transferred to those who claim to be the living incarnations 
of the god. Hence the priests exercise an unlimited influence 
over their female votaries, who consider it a great honour to 
acquire the temporary regard of the voluptuous Maharajas, 
the belief in whose pretensions is allowed to interfere, almost 
vitally, with the domestic relations of husband and wife. 
The Maharaja libel case, tried in 1862 in the Supreme Court 
of Bombay, proved that the wealthiest and largest of the 
Hindoo mercantile communities of Central and Western 
India worshipped as a god a depraved priest, compared with 
whom an ancient satyr was an angel. Indeed, on becoming 
followers of that god, they make to his priest the offering of 
tan, man, and dhan, or body, mind, and property ; and so far 


does their folly extend, that they will greedily drink the 
water in which he has bathed. There are about seventy or 
eighty of the Maharajas in different parts of India. They 
have a mark on the forehead, consisting of two red perpen- 
dicular lines, meeting in a semicircle at the root of the 
nose, and having a round spot of red between them. Though 
not a secret society, strictly speaking, still, as their doings 
were to some extent kept secret, and their worst features, 
though proved by legal evidence, denied by the persons im- 
plicated, I have thought it right to give it a place here. 

721. Mano Negra. This association, the Black Hand, in 
the south of Spain, is agrarian and Socialistic, and its origin 
dates back to the year 1835. It was formed in consequence 
of the agricultural labourers having been deprived of their 
communal rights, the lands on which they had formerly had 
the privilege to cut timber and pasture their cattle having 
been sold, in most instances, far below their value, to the 
sharp village lawyers, nicknamed caciques, who resemble in 
their practices the gombeen men of Cork, though these 
latter do not possess the political influence of the former. 
The caciques, though they bought the land, in many in- 
stances had not capital enough to cultivate it, hence the 
agricultural labourer was left to starve, a condition which 
led to many agrarian disturbances. The members of the 
society were bound by oath to punish their oppressors by 
steel, fire, or poison ; incendiarism was rife. The association 
was strictly secret; to reveal its doings by treachery or im- 
prudence meant death to the offender. The society had a 
complete organisation, with its chiefs, its centres, its funds, 
its secret tribunals, inflicting death and other penalties on 
their own members, and on landlords and usurers, such as 
the caciques. The members, to escape detection, often 
changed their names ; they corresponded by cipher, and had 
a code of precautions, in which every contingency was pro- 
vided against. From 1880 to 1883 the society was particu- 
larly active, especially in Andalusia, which induced the 
Spanish Government to take the most severe repressive 
measures against it. Many trials of members took place in 
1883. The rising was a purely Spanish one ; it was absolute 
hunger which drove the Spanish peasant into the hands of 
native agitators. Foreign anarchists endeavoured to utilise 
the movement, but had little influence on it. 

722. Melanesian Societies. The groups of islands stretch- 
ing in a semicircle from off the eastern coast of Australia 
to New Caledonia, including New Guinea, the Solomon 


Islands, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, and also the 
Fiji Islands, all abound with secret societies, which, however, 
have nothing formidable in them, since all their secrets are 
known ; the people join, but laugh at them ; their lodges 
are their clubs, chiefly devoted to feasting; strangers are 
admitted to them as to inns ; they exclude women, though 
on the Fiji Islands there are societies which admit them. 
Young men are expected to be initiated ; those who are not, 
do not take a position of full social equality with those who 
are members. When the ceremonies and doctrines were as 
yet mysteries, outsiders thought that the initiated entered 
into association with the ghosts of the dead, a delusion 
strengthened by the strange and unearthly noises heard at 
times in and around the lodges, and the hideously-disguised 
figures, supposed to be ghosts, which appeared to the "dogs 
outside." Now it is known that the ghosts are merely 
members, wearing strangely-decorated hats made of bark 
and painted, which hats cover the whole head and rest on 
the shoulders, while the mummers are dressed in long cloaks, 
made of leaves, and shaped in fantastic designs. It is also 
known that the noises which used to frighten the natives 
are produced by a flat smooth stone, on which the butt-end 
of a fan of palm is rubbed, the vibration of which produces 
the extraordinary sound. At the ceremony of initiation the 
usual pretence of imparting secret knowledge is gone through 
on a par with that imparted in some societies nearer home, 
and, as with the latter, it is all a question of fees, though in 
some societies there is also some rougher ceremony to be 
submitted to ; thus in that called welu, the neophyte has to 
lie down on his face in a hole in the ground, cut exactly to 
his shape, and lighted cocoanut fronds are cast upon his back. 
He cannot move, and dare not cry ; the scars remain on his 
back as marks of membership. The neophyte, when initiated, 
remains goto, that is, secluded for a number of days in some 
societies for one hundred days during which time he has 
to attend to the oven and do the dirty work of the lodge. 
Learning the dances, which the initiated on certain festi- 
vals perform in public, as particularly pleasing to their 
gods, seems to be the principal item of the instruction re- 
ceived in the sanctuary. The number of societies, as already 
stated, is very large, and they are known by various names. 
The New Britain Society is called Duk-Duk (693) ; that of 
Florida, Matambala ; that of the Banks Islands, Tamate ; 
that of the Northern New Hebrides, Qatu ; that of Fiji, 
Nanga. The ghosts supposed to be present are called duka ; 


in Florida the consultation of the ghosts is known as palu- 
duka. The lodge is called Salagoro ; it is usually situate in 
some retreat near the village, in the midst of lofty trees, and 
must not be approached by women ; masked figures guard 
the path to it, which is marked by bright orange-coloured 
fruits stuck on reeds, and the customary soloi taboo marks, 
forbidding entrance. The members of different societies 
are distinguished by particular badges, consisting of leaves 
or flowers, and to wear such a badge without membership is 
a punishable offence. 

723. Mumbo-Jurribo. We have seen (687) that there is a 
Calif ornian society, whose object it is to keep their women 
in due subjection. Among the Mundingoes, a tribe above the 
sources of the river Gambia, a somewhat similar association 
exists. Whenever the men have any dispute with the women, 
an image, eight or nine feet high, made of the bark of trees, 
dressed in a long coat, crowned with a wisp of straw, and 
called a Mumbo- Jumbo, or Mamma Jambah, is sent for. A 
member of the society conceals himself under the coat and 
acts as judge. Of course his decisions are almost always in 
favour of the men. When the women hear him coming they 
run away and hide themselves, but he sends for them, makes 
them sit down, and afterwards either sing or dance, as he 
pleases. Those who refuse to come are brought by force, 
and he whips them. Whoso is admitted into the society has 
to swear in the most solemn manner never to divulge the 
secret to any woman, nor to any one not initiated. To pre- 
serve the secret inviolable, no boys under sixteen years of age 
are admitted. About 1727 the King of Jagra, having a very 
inquisitive wife, disclosed to her the secret of his member- 
ship, and the secrets connected therewith. She, being a 
gossip, talked about it ; the result was, that she and the king 
were killed by the members of the association. 

Obeah, see Egbo Society. 

724. Odd Fellows. This Order was founded in England 
about the middle of the last century. The initiatory rites 
then were of the usual terrifying character we have seen 
practised in the ancient mysteries, accompanied by all the 
theatrical display intended to overawe the candidate, who 
had to take the oath of secrecy. The Order has its signs, 
grips, words, and passwords ; one word was Fides, which was 
uttered letter by letter ; one sign was made by placing the 
right hand on the left breast, and at the same time pro- 
nouncing the words, " Upon my honour." Another sign 
was made by taking hold of the lower part of the left ear 


with the thumb and forefinger of the right hand. What the 
signs, grips, and passwords now are, it is impossible to tell, 
since these, as the only secrets of the Order, are kept strictly 
secret. Every half-year a new password is communicated 
to the lodges. In 1819 the Order was introduced into the 
United States. There] are three degrees : the White, Blue, 
and Scarlet ; there is also a female degree, called Rebecca, 
and High Degrees are conferred in "Camps." The Odd 
Fellows in the lodges wear white aprons, edged with the 
colours of their degree ; in the camps they wear black aprons 
similarly trimmed. Since the American prosecutions of the 
Freemasons, which also affected the Odd Fellows, the oath 
of secrecy is no longer demanded (see 741). 

725. 0-Kee-Pa, A religious rite, commemorative of the 
Flood, which was practised, by the Mandans, a now extinct 
tribe of Red Indians. The celebration was annual, and its 
object threefold, viz. : (i) to keep in remembrance the sub- 
siding of the waters ; (2) to dance the bull-dance, to insure 
a plentiful supply of buffaloes (though the reader will see in 
it an allusion to the bull of the zodiac, the vernal equinox) ; 
and (3) to test the courage and power of endurance of the 
young men who, during the past year, had arrived at the age 
of manhood, by great bodily privations and tortures. Part 
of the latter were inflicted in the secrecy of the " Medicine- 
hut," outside of which stood the Big Canoe, or Mandan Ark, 
which only the "Mystery-Men" were allowed to touch or 
look into. The tortures, as witnessed by Catlin, consisted in 
forcing sticks of wood under the dorsal or pectoral muscles 
of the victim, and then suspending him by these sticks from 
the top of the hut, and turning him round until he fainted, 
when he was taken down and allowed to recover conscious- 
ness ; whereupon he was driven forth among the multitude 
assembled without, who chased him round the village, tread- 
ing on the cords attached to the bits of wood sticking in his 
flesh, until these latter fell out by tearing the flesh to pieces. 
Like the ancient mysteries, the 0-Kee-Pa ended with drunken 
and vicious orgies. The Sioux at Rosebud Agency, in Dakota, 
still practise the same barbarous rites, but in a milder form. 

726. Pantheists. An association, existing in the last cen- 
tury in this country and in Germany ; Bolingbroke, Hume, 
and other celebrities belonged to it. Its object was the dis- 
cussion of the maxims contained in Toland's " Pantheisticon." 
John Toland was born in Ireland about 1670, and was a 
Deistical writer, who anticipated, two centuries ago, the 
"higher criticism" of the present day in his "Christianity 


not Mysterious." His writings attracted much attention 
here and in Germany, which country he repeatedly visited. 
As his teaching was considered atheistical, its followers had 
to study it secretly. The members of the association met at 
the periods of the solstices and of the equinoxes, and the pro- 
fane, and even the servants, were rigorously excluded from 
the meetings. 

727. Patriotic Order Sons of America. This Order was 
organised in Philadelphia in 1847. I* suspended operations 
during the Civil War, but at its conclusion it was reorganised, 
and now counts over 200,000 members. The aims and 
objects of the Order are the teaching of American prin- 
ciples ; born Americans only are admitted. Its lodges are 
called camps. It is a benefit society, and, like all similar 
associations, has no secrets, but simply endeavours, by cer- 
tain symbols and signs of recognition, to impress on their 
members their principles and brotherhood. 

Pednosopkers, see Tobaccological Society. 

728. Phi-Beta-Kappa. The Bavarian Illuminati, accord- 
ing to some accounts, spread to America. Students of uni- 
versities only are admitted to the Order. The password is 
$i\o(To<j>ia Biov Kv/3epv?)Tr,<;, philosophy is the guide or rule 
of life. The three letters forming the initials of the Greek 
sentence were chosen as the name of the society, whose 
object is to make philosophy, and not religion, the guiding 
principle of man's actions. The Order was introduced into 
the United States about the' year 1776. It had its secret 
signs and grips, which, however, were all made public, when 
about the year 1830 the society ceased from being a secret 
one: the sign was given by placing the two forefingers of 
the right hand so as to cover the left corner of the mouth, 
and then drawing it across the chin. The grip was like the 
common shaking of hands, only not interlocking the thumbs, 
and at the same time gently pressing the wrists. The jewel 
or medal, always of silver or gold, and provided at the candi- 
date's expense, is suspended by a pink or blue ribbon. On 
it are the letters Ph, B, and K, six stars, and a hand. The 
stars denote the number of colleges where the institution 
exists. On the reverse is S. P. for Societas Philosophise, 
and the date December 5, 1776, which indicates the time of 
the introduction of the Order into the States. 

729. Pilgrims. A society whose existence was discovered 
at Lyons in 1825, through the arrest of one of the brethren, 
a Prussian shoemaker, on whom was found th printed cate- 
chism of the society. Though the Pilgrims am, ^d above all 


at religious reform, yet their catechism was modelled on that 
of the Freemasons. 

730. Police, Secret. Whilst revolutionaries and disaffected 
subjects formed secret associations for the overthrow of their 
rulers, the latter had recourse to counter-associations, or the 
Secret Police. In France it was very active in the early part 
of the last century, but chiefly as the pander to the debau- 
cheries of the Court. For political purposes women of loose 
morals were employed by preference. Thus a- famous pro- 
curess, whose boudoirs were haunted by diplomatists, a 
Madam Fillon, discovered and frustrated the conspiracy of 
Cellamare, the Spanish ambassador in 1718 at the court of 
the Eegent (Philippe d'Orle'ans, who governed France during 
the minority of Louis XV.), which was directed against the 
reigning family, in favour of the Duke of Maine. The am- 
bassador was obliged to leave France. From the chronique 
scandaleiise of those times it is evident that the police were 
always closely connected with the ladies of easy virtue, whom 
they employed as their agents. Towards the end of the 
eighteenth century the police were secretly employed in pre- 
venting the propagation of philosophical works, called bad 
books. The Revolution abolished this secret police as im- 
moral and illegal ; but it was, as a political engine, re-estab- 
lished under the Directory, to which the expelled royal 
family opposed a counter-police, which, however, was dis- 
covered in the month of May 1800. Napoleon, to protect 
himself against the various conspiracies hatched against him, 
relied greatly on the secret police he had established ; but 
there is no doubt that the mad proceedings of Savary, Duke 
of Rovigo, Napoleon's last chief of police, hastened the downfall 
of the Empire. Under Louis Philippe again the secret police 
had plenty of work to do, in consequence of the many secret 
societies, whose machinations we have already described (597). 

In Prussia also the secret police was very active from 
1848 to the Franco-Prussian war, during which its chief 
duty was to protect the King of Prussia, his allied princes, 
and Bismarck against the attempts at assassination which 
were then so rife. How the secret police had plenty of 
occupation in Russia, where it was known as the "Third 
Division," we have seen in the account of the Nihilists. 
In this country a secret police has never been tolerated ; 
it is opposed to the sentiment of the people, who always 
connect it with agents provocateurs. 

We have seen (693) that a kind of secret police exists 
in New Pomerania and Western Africa. 


731. Portuguese Societies. During the early part of this 
century various secret societies with political objects were 
formed in Portugal, but as they never attained to any 
importance or permanence, it will be sufficient to mention 
the names of three of them : the Septembrists, Chartists, 
and Miguellists, the latter founded in favour of Don Miguel, 
who for a time occupied the throne of Portugal. 

732. Purrah, The. Between the river of Sierra Leone 
and Cape Monte, there exist five nations of Foulahs-Sousous, 
who form among themselves a kind of federative republic. 
Each colony has its particular magistrates and local govern- 
ment ; but they are subject to an institution which they call 
Purrah. It is an association of warriors, which from its 
effects is very similar to the secret tribunal formerly exist- 
ing in Germany, and known by the name of the Holy Vehm 
(206) ; and on account of its rites and mysteries closely 
resembles the ancient initiations. Each of the five colonies 
has its own peculiar Purrah, consisting of twenty-five 
members ; and from each of these particular tribunals are 
taken five persons, who form the Grand Purrah or 
supreme tribunal. 

To be admitted to a district Purrah the candidate must 
be at least thirty years of age ; to be a member of the 
Grand Purrah, he must be fifty years old. All his rela- 
tions belonging to the Purrah become security for the 
candidate's conduct, and bind themselves by oath to sac- 
rifice him, if he flinch during the ceremony, or if, after 
having been admitted, he betray the mysteries and tenets 
of the association. 

In each district comprised in the institution of the Purrah 
there is a sacred wood whither the candidate is conducted, 
and where he is confined for several months in a solitary 
and contracted habitation, and neither speaks nor quits 
the dwelling assigned to him. If he attempt to penetrate 
into the forest which surrounds him, he is instantly slain. 
After several months' preparation the candidate is admitted 
to the trial, the last proofs of which are said to be terrible. 
All the elements are employed to ascertain his resolution 
and courage ; lions and leopards, in some degree chained, 
are made use of; during the time of the proof the sacred 
woods resound with dreadful bowlings ; conflagrations appear 
in the night, seeming to indicate general destruction ; while 
at other times fire is seen to pervade these mysterious woods 
in all directions. Every one whose curiosity excites him 
to profane these sacred parts is sacrificed without mercy. 


When the candidate has undergone all the degrees of pro- 
bation, he is permitted to be initiated, an oath being pre- 
viously exacted from him that he will keep all the secrets, 
and execute without demur all the decrees of the Purrah 
of his tribe, or of the Grand and Sovereign Purrah. 

Any member turning traitor or rebel is devoted to death, 
and sometimes assassinated in the midst of his family. At 
a moment when a guilty person least expects it, a warrior 
appears before him, masked and armed, who says : " The 
Sovereign Purrah decrees thy death." On these words 
every person present shrinks back, no one makes the least 
resistance, and the victim is killed. The common Purrah 
of a tribe takes cognisance of the crimes committed within 
its jurisdiction, tries the criminals, and executes their sen- 
tences ; and also appeases the quarrels that arise among 
powerful families. 

It is only on extraordinary occasions that the Grand 
Purrah assembles for the trial of those who betray the 
mysteries and secrets of the Order, or rebel against its 
dictates; and it is this assembly which generally puts an 
end to the wars that sometimes break out between two or 
more tribes. From the moment when the Grand Purrah 
has assembled for the purpose of terminating a war, till it 
has decided on the subject, every warrior of the belligerent 
parties is forbidden to shed a drop of blood under pain of 
death. The deliberations of the Purrah generally last a 
month, after which the guilty tribe is condemned to be 
pillaged during four days. The warriors who execute the 
sentence are taken from the neutral cantons ; and they 
disguise themselves with frightful masks, are armed with 
poniards, and carry lighted torches. They arrive at the 
doomed villages before break of day, kill all the inhabitants 
that cannot make their escape, and carry off whatever pro- 
perty of value they can find. The plunder is divided into 
two parts ; one part being allotted to the tribe against which 
the aggression has been committed, whilst the other part 
goes to the Grand Purrah, which distributes it among the 
warriors who executed the sentence. 

When the family of the tribes under the command of the 
I'urrah becomes too powerful and excites alarm, the Grand 
Purrah assembles to deliberate on the subject, and almost 
always condemns it to sudden and unexpected pillage ; which 
is executed by night, and always by warriors masked and 

The terror and alarm which this confederation excites 


amongst the inhabitants of the countries where it is estab- 
lished, and even in the neighbouring territories, are very 
great. The negroes of the bay of Sierra Leone never speak 
of it without reserve and apprehension ; for they believe that 
all the members of the confederation are sorcerers, and 
that they have communication with the devil. The Purrah 
has an interest in propagating these prejudices, by means 
of which it exercises an authority that no person dares to 
dispute. The number of members is supposed to be about 
6000, and they recognise each other by certain words and 

733. Pythias, Knights of. This Order was instituted shortly 
after the American Civil War in 1 864 at Washington, whence 
it soon spread through the United States. Its professed 
object was the inculcation of lessons of friendship, based on 
the ancient story of Damon and Pythias. It calls itself a 
secret organisation, but in reality is only an ordinary benefit 
society, though it may have a secret object, since it has 
within itself a "uniform rank," which in its character is 
essentially military. The drill has been so revised as to 
bring it into perfect harmony with the tactics of the United 
States army ; the judges at the competitive drills of the 
order are officers of the United States army. This " uniform 
rank " counts upwards of 30,000 members. 

734. Rebeccaites. A society formed in Wales about 1843, 
for the abolition of toll-bars. Like the Irish White-Boys the 
members dressed in white, and went about at night pulling 
down the toll-gates. Government suppressed them. The 
supposed chief of the society was called Rebecca, a name 
derived from the rather clever application of the passage in 
Genesis xxiv. 60, "And they blessed Eebekah, and said unto 
her . . . Let thy seed possess the gate of those which hate 

735. Redemption, Order of. A secret and chivalrous 
society, which in its organisation copied the order of the 
Knights of Malta. Its scope is scarcely known, and it 
never went beyond the walls of Marseilles, where it was 
founded by a Sicilian exile. 

736. Red Men. In 1812, during the war between Eng- 
land and the United States, some patriotic Americans 
founded a society with the above title. They took its sym- 
bolism from Indian life : the lodges were called tribes ; the 
meeting-places, wigwams ; the meetings, council fires, and so 
on. On festive occasions the members appeared in Indian 
costume. A great many Germans, settled in America, joined 


the society, but being looked down upon by the thorough- 
bred Yankees, the Germans seceded and founded an order 
of their own, and called it the " Independent Order of Red 
Men." In both societies there are three degrees the Eng- 
lish has its Hunters, Soldiers, and Captains ; the German 
is divided into the Blacks, Blues, and Greens. There are 
higher degrees conferred in " camps." The two societies 
count about forty thousand members. After the cessation 
of the war with England (1814) the societies lost their poli- 
tical character, and became mere benefit societies, which 
they now are. 

737. Regeneration, Society of Universal. It was composed 
of the patriots of various countries who had taken refuge 
in Switzerland between 1815 and 1820. But though their 
aims were very comprehensive, they ended in talk, of which 
professed patriots always have a liberal supply on hand. 

738. Saltpetrers. The county of Hauenstein,in the Duchy 
of Baden, forms a triangle, the base of which is the Rhine 
from Sackingen to Waldshut. In the last century the abbot 
of the rich monastery of St. Blasius, which may be said to 
form the apex of the triangle, exacted bond-service against 
the Hauensteiners. This they resented ; a secret league was 
the result. From its leader, Fridolin Albiez, a dealer in salt- 
petre, it took the name of Saltpetrers. The abbot, supported 
by Austria in 1755, finally compelled them to submit, though 
the sect was revived at the beginning of this century to 
oppose reformatory tendencies in church and school. Mutual 
concessions in 1840 put an end to the strife and to the 
society. In Tirol the Manharters, so called after their 
leader, Manhart, had the same object in view resistance to 
Reformation principles and were successful in attaining 
them, they being warmly supported by the Pope. 

739. Sikh Fanatics. The Sikhs Sikh means a disciple, 
or devoted follower first came into notice in 1510 as a 
religious sect. Their prophet was Nanuk. Two centuries 
afterwards Guru Govindu developed a more military spirit ; 
he added the sword to their holy book, the " Granth." From 
1798 to 1839 the Sikhs were at the zenith of their power. 
Their distinguishing marks were a blue dress, because Bala 
Ram, the brother of Krishna, is always represented as wear- 
ing a blue dress, with long hair and beard ; every man had 
to carry steel on his person in some form. The ordinary 
Sikh now dresses in pure white. All the sect were bound 
in a holy brotherhood called the Khalsa (meaning the saved 
or liberated), wherein all social distinctions were abolished. 


The fierce fanatical Akalis were soldier-priests, a sombre 
brotherhood of military devotees, chiefly employed about 
their great temple at Amritsar (meaning the fountain of 
immortality). They initiate converts, which is done by 
ordering the neophyte to wear blue clothes, by being pre- 
sented with five weapons a sword, a firelock, a bow and 
arrow, and a pike. He is further enjoined to abstain from 
intercourse with certain schismatic sects, and to practise 
certain virtues. As, according to tradition, Govindu, when 
at the point of death, exclaimed, " Wherever five Sikhs are 
assembled, there I shall be present," five Sikhs are neces- 
sary to perform the rite of initiation. The Sikhs may eat 
flesh, except that of the cow, which is a sacred animal to 
them as well as to the Hindus. 

The phase of Sikh fanaticism which revealed its existence 
in 1872 by the Kooka murders may be traced to the following 
sources : The movement was started a good many years since 
by one Earn Singh, a Sikh, whose headquarters were fixed at 
the village of Bainee, in the Loodhiana district. His teach- 
ing is said to have aimed at reforming the ritual rather than 
the creed of his countrymen. His followers, moreover, seem 
to have borrowed a hint or two from the dancing dervishes 
of Islam. At their meetings they worked themselves into 
a sort of religious frenzy, which relieved itself by unearthly 
bowlings ; and hence they were generally known as the 
" Shouters." Men and women of the new sect joined to- 
gether in a sort of wild war-dance, yelling out certain forms 
of words, and stripping off all their clothing, as they whirled 
more and more rapidly round. Ram Singh himself had 
served in the old Sikh army, and one of his first moves was 
to get a number of his emissaries enlisted into the army of 
the Maharajah of Cashmere. That ruler, it is said, would 
have taken a whole regiment of Kookas into his pay ; but 
for some reason or another this scheme fell to the ground. 
Possibly he took fright at the political influence which his 
new recruits might come in time to wield against him or 
his English allies. Ram Singh's followers, however, multi- 
plied apace ; and out of their number he chose his lieutenants, 
whose preaching in time swelled the total of converts to 
something like 100,000. Of these soubahs, or lieutenants, 
some twenty were distributed about the Punjab. The 
great bulk of their converts consisted of artisans and people 
of yet lower caste, who, having nothing to lose, indulged in 
wild dreams of future gain. Their leader's power over them 
appears to have been very great. They obeyed his orders as 


cheerfully as the Assassins of yore obeyed the Old Man of 
the Mountain. If he had a message to send to one of his 
lieutenants, however far away, a letter was entrusted to one 
of his disciples, who ran full speed to the next station, and 
handed it to another, who forthwith left his own work, and 
hastened in like manner to deliver the letter to a third. In 
order to clinch his power over his followers, Earn Singh 
contrived to interpolate his own name in a passage of the 
"Granth" the Sikh Bible which foretells the advent of 
another Guru, prophet or teacher. But, whatever the 
teachings of this new religious leader, there is reason to 
think that his ultimate aim was to restore the Sikhs to 
their old supremacy in the Punjab by means of a religions 
revival ; and he stirred up the religious fervour of his fol- 
lowers by impressing on them that their war was a war 
against the slayer of the sacred cow, which to their Euro- 
pean conquerors of course is not sacred, and has ceased to 
be so to many natives of India. But the insurrection was 
quickly suppressed. The whole band, which never numbered 
three hundred, was literally hunted down, and the ring- 
leaders blown from guns. This may appear severe punish- 
ment ; but it is to be borne in mind that though the number 
of insurgents who were taken with arms in their hands was 
only small, they had behind them a body of nearly ioo,OOO 
followers, bound together by one common fanaticism, who 
had to be taught by very prompt and severe action that our 
power in India is not to be assailed with impunity. 

The Sikhs are divided into numerous sects, the most im- 
portant being the Govind Sinhi community, comprehending 
the political association of the Sikh nation generally. The 
Sikh sect, as a religious and secret one, is rapidly diminishing. 

740. Silver Circle, Knights of the. A secret organisation 
formed in the Rocky Mountains in 1893 against the suspen- 
sion of silver coinage. The Knights threatened, in case the 
Sherman Law should be repealed, to compel Colorado to 
leave the American Union and unite with the republic of 
Mexico, which is a silver coinage country. The western 
states were at that time honeycombed with secret societies 
deliberating the question of secession. Many of these 
societies were armed organisations, and were, it is said, in 
the habit of holding moonlight meetings for purposes of 
drill. The members had secret signs and passwords to 
recognise one another in public. But the repeal of the 
Sherman Act in August 1893 crushed their hopes, and 
caused the collapse of the society. 


741. Sonderbare Gesellen. German societies, formed on the 
model of the English Odd Fellows, whose name they took, 
and of which the above is a literal translation. They now 
call themselves Freie Gesellen (Free Brethren), or Helfende 
Brlider (Helping Brethren). But, unlike their English pro- 
totypes, who have no other secrets than their signs, grips, 
and passwords, the German Gesellen are closely connected 
with Freemasonry, which, as we have seen, is not so colour- 
less abroad as it is here, and they proclaim themselves an 
institution for the deliverance of nations from priests, super- 
stition, and fanaticism. The Order was introduced into 
Germany in 1870, and gradually into Switzerland, France, 
Holland, Mexico, Peru, Chili, Sweden, Spain, and even some 
Polynesian islands, so that now it counts upwards of fifty 
grand lodges and nearly eight thousand lodges, exclusive of 
English ones (724). 

742. Sopkisiens. "The Sacred Order of the Sophisiens," 
or Followers of Wisdom, was founded by some French 
generals engaged in the expedition to Egypt (1798-99), and 
was to a certain extent secret. But some of its pursuits 
oozed out, and were to be found in a book, partly in MS. 
and partly printed, the title of which is " Melanges relatifs 
& 1'ordre sacre" des Sophisiens, e'tabli dans les Pyramides 
de la Republique franqaise," in 410. (See No. 494 in the 
catalogue of Lerouge.) Where is the book now ? 

743. Star of Bethlehem. This Order claims a very ancient 
origin, having, it is alleged, been founded during the first 
century of the Christian era. In the thirteenth century it 
was an order of monks called Bethlehemites, closely identified 
with the Church of the Nativity built by the Empress 
Helena in the year 330, in the centre of which is the grotto 
of the Nativity, where a star is inlaid in the marble floor in 
commemoration of the star which shone over Bethlehem. 
The Order was introduced into England in 1257, and soon 
became a benevolent order, and members were called Knights 
of the Star of Bethlehem. Women were admitted to member- 
ship in 1408. In 1681 it was introduced into America by 
Giles Cory, of ye City of London, but fanaticism soon drove 
it out of that continent, for in September 1694 the grand 
commander was cruelly put to death "for holding meetings 
in ye dead hours of ye night." It was reintroduced into 
New York in 1869 by A. Gross of Newcastle-on-Tyne. In 
1884 the members dropped the title of Knights, and the 
original name of Order of the Star of Bethlehem was re- 


744. Thirteen, The. To Balzac's fertile imagination we 
are indebted for the book entitled Les Treize, the fictitious 
story of a society of thirteen persons who during the First 
Empire bound themselves by fearful oaths, and for objects 
the author dare no more reveal than the names of the 
members, mutually to support one another. The work con- 
sists of three tales, the first being the most interesting for 
us, since it pretends to record the stormy career of Ferragus, 
one of the associates, and chief of the Devorants spoken 
of in the French Workmen's Unions (369). A society of 
thirteen (not secret) has recently been founded in London, 
in imitation, I assume, of a society formed in 1857 at 
Bordeaux for the same purpose as the London one, namely, 
by force of example to extirpate the superstition regarding 
the number thirteen, of which very few persons know the 
origin. In the ancient Indian pack of cards, consisting of 
seventy-eight cards, of which the first twenty-two have 
special names, the designation of card xiii. is " Death," and 
hence all the evil influences ascribed to that number ! 

745. Tdbaccological Society. When in 531 Theodora from 
a ballet girl had become the wife of the Emperor Justinian I., 
she wished to be surrounded by philosophers, especially the 
expounders of Pythagoras. But for once the philosophers 
stood on their dignity, and declined imperial patronage. 
This led to their persecution, and the closing of their schools 
and academies ; they were not allowed to hold meetings. 
But Pythagoreans must meet, hence they met in secret, first 
in a ruined temple of Ceres on the banks of the Ilissus, and 
afterwards in an octagonal temple, built by one of them, at 
the foot of Mount Hymettus. They called themselves Ped- 
nosophers, which in a philologically incorrect manner they 
interpreted as meaning " Children of Wisdom." For their 
symbol they adopted the anemone, which flower was said to 
have sprung from the blood of Adonis, wounded by a wild 
boar so philosophy arose afresh from philosophy persecuted 
by superstition. At first women and children were ad- 
mitted, but they were told part only of the secret, whatever 
it was. The sign was crossing the arms on the breast, so 
that the index finger touched the lips. The sacred word 
was theus-theos, " Hope in God." The chief of the Order 
was known to but a few members by his real name ; to the 
rest he passed under a pseudonym. There were different 
degrees in the Order, which perpetuated itself until 1672 in 
various countries, England included. In this year Charles 
II. prohibited all secret societies, and the Pednosophers 


changed their name to Tobaccologers, and adopted the 
tobacco plant as their emblem, its red flower suggesting to 
them philosophy persecuted by Justinian and others. At 
their meetings they discussed chiefly academical subjects ; in 
fact, modern academies owe to them their origin. Many men 
of note belonged to the Order, which was divided into four 
degrees the glamour of secrecy must be kept up to the last ! 
The members in the lodge wore a triangular apron. To- 
wards the end of the last century the Order declined in this 
country, and its papers, its records, and mysteries eventually 
fell into the hands of the French Marquis d'Etanduere, who 
left them to his son, at whose death they were examined by a 
M. Doussin, to whom he had left them ; and this M. Doussin 
thereupon reconstituted the society at Poitiers in 1806, 
where it continued till about the year 1848. The tobacco 
plant, its culture and manufacture, were the subjects of 
symbolical instructions, and for the real names of the towns 
where lodges existed, the names of localities famous for fine 
sorts of tobacco were substituted. Persons known to belong 
to the society popularly went by the designation of snuff- 

746. Turf, Society of the. When the failure of the Car- 
bonaro conspiracy, and especially its non-success in its 
attempt on Macerata (562), led to the temporary suppres- 
sion of the Carbanaro society, the youths of Italy, who had 
hoped to distinguish themselves by fighting and driving the 
Austrian out of Italy, felt sorely disappointed. The more 
rational ones submitted to the inevitable, and returned to 
peaceful occupations. But the more hot-headed and restless 
members of the society sought outlets for their exuberant 
spirits in forming associations of various kinds, and some- 
times of the most objectionable character. Such a one was 
the Compagnia della Teppa, or Turf Society, which arose at 
Milan in iSiS. 1 

Two derivations of the name of the society are given. 

The members of the society wore plush hats, and it was 
a regulation that this plush was to be cut as short and as 

1 The account which follows is taken chiefly from the Cento Anni of 
Kovani, who relied, in his turn, on the statement of one Milesi, a member 
of the Turf Society. There is also a report of the police, which finally 
suppressed the society, but this report is inaccessible to the public. In the 
Ambrosinian Library at Milan there is a MS. in several volumes, written 
by Prebendary Mantovani, giving the history of the Teppa, but this 
information reached the author too late to be utilised here. As, however, 
Milesi refers to that MS., he probably incorporated in his own account its 
most important details, so that we may safely conclude that in Rovani's 
work we have all that is known about the Teppa. 



smooth as turf. The other, and more probable, origin of the 
name is the fact that the members held their meetings at 
first on the lawns of beautiful turf in the Piazza Castello at 
Milan. Their pursuits may be described as a revival of 
Mohocking ; they bound themselves to beat every man they 
met in the streets after dark, which practice, however, was 
chiefly resorted to against men having handsome wives, whom 
members of the society wished forcibly, or with consent, to 
disgust with their husbands or abduct from their homes ; 
and a certain amount of ridicule attaching to the infliction 
of such a beating, the victims in most cases made no public 
complaint. Of course, in many cases it was the Turfists 
who got the worst of the encounter. The Austrian police 
shut its eyes to all these proceedings, of which, through its 
spies, it was fully cognisant, on the principle that it was 
better these young men should vent their overflow of spirits, 
their physical and mental energies, on such follies, and even 
on criminal exploits, than employ them in political schemes 
and pursuits, which would be certain to be directed against 
Austrian rule and rulers. The society might have subsisted 
longer than it did had it not grown foolhardy by long impu- 
nity. What at last compelled the police to interfere was as 
follows : 

There lived in the Via Pennacchiari a dwarf known by the 
nickname of Gasgiott, who earned his living by artificial- 
flower making. He was of a violent and quarrelsome 
temper, but thought himself a great favourite with the 
women; none of them, he fancied, could withstand him. 
One night, as some members of the Teppa happened to be 
in the Via Pennacchiari, a girl complained to one of them, 
Milesi (the author of the MS. consulted by Rovani?), a 
man of athletic proportions, that Gasgiott had grossly 
insulted her. Milesi bestowed on the dwarf a sound thrash- 
ing, and carrying him to an inn, where Baron Bontempo, 
the chief of the Teppa, was waiting for him, suggested 
shutting up the dwarf, with scanty food, for some time 
in the country to " cool his blood," which was done. But 
one idea suggests another: the capture of one dwarf led 
to a regular hunt after the species, and in a short time 
about a dozen of them were shut up in a mansion belong- 
ing to Baron Bontempo, called Simonetta, and situate outside 
the walls of Milan. Then another thought suggested itself 
to the members of the Teppa. 

Among the fine pretences with which they sought to 
justify their questionable proceedings was the allegation 


that it was their duty to redress wrongs of which the law 
took no cognisance. Now, they argued, there are every 
year hundreds of men, young men, just entering life, and 
married men with families, ruined through the wiles and 
the extravagance of designing women, whom the law cannot 
touch for the injuries they have inflicted on their victims. 
Many women, notorious for such conduct, some of them 
ladies of position, and connected with aristocratic families, 
were then living at Milan. It struck the Turfists they 
would be suitable companions for the imprisoned dwarfs. 
The idea was carried out. About ten ladies were by treachery 
or force brought to Simonetta, and there shut up with the 
dwarfs. The orgy that ensued, says Rovani, could only be 
described by the pen of an Aretino. But it is easy to 
understand that a number of ladies, so entrapped, would 
not quietly submit to such abduction or the advances of 
the dwarfs. The authors of the mischief were only too 
glad to release them on the very next day, and the dwarfs 
also. As all the prisoners had been brought to the mansion 
by roundabout ways, and in close carriages, and were taken- 
away in the same manner, they had no clue to the position 
of their prison ; but a scheme like this could not be carried 
out without a good many persons being let into the secret ; 
the ladies who had been carried off cried aloud for vengeance, 
and many young men, belonging to respectable families, who 
had joined the society from curiosity, or, as they fancied, to 
increase their own importance, seeing the dangerous practices 
in which they had involved themselves, were ready to give 
information. The police could no longer shut its eyes and 
pretend ignorance, and so one morning, in the year 1821, 
more than sixty members of the society were arrested, and, 
for want of more suitable accommodation, at first imprisoned 
in the convent of St. Mark, whence some were sent to 
Szegedin and Komorn, or drafted into the army. Many 
others were arrested afterwards; some of the members 
made their escape, having been warned beforehand. Thus 
the society collapsed, between three and four years after 
its foundation. 

The members recognised one another by the one saluting 
the other with both hands joined, whereupon the other put 
his right hand to his side, as if going to place it on the 
hilt of his sword. There were only two degrees, that of 
captain and that of simple brother; the former was bound 
to initiate four new members. General meetings were always 
held in the same place, special ones in different localities, 


which were constantly changed. The society was, moreover, 
divided into two grand centres, the centre of Nobles and that 
of Commoners. 

747. Utopia. A society founded at Prague in the fifties, 
and which had such success that in 1885 it reckoned eighty- 
five lodges in Germany, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, and 
other countries. A council of the league was held at Leipzig 
in 1876, and another at Prague in 1883. The president of 
every lodge is called Uhu (screech-owl) ; at manifestations of 
joy they cry " Aha ! " and at transgressions against the laws of 
Utopia, " Oho ! " The members are divided into three degrees : 
Squires, Younkers, and Knights ; guests are called Pilgrims. 
The German name of the society is Allschlaraffia ; Schlaraf- 
fenland in German means the "land of milk and honey," 
the land of Cocagne, where roast-pigeons fly into your 
mouth when you open it, and roasted pigs run about the 
streets with knife and fork in their backs. From the name, 
the character of the society may be inferred. 

748. Wahdbees. This sect, the members of which attracted 
considerable attention in 1 87 1 , on account of their suspected 
connection with the murders of Chief-Justice Norman at 
Calcutta, and of Lord Mayo in 1872, has the following 
origin: About 1740 a Mohammedan reformer appeared at 
Nejd, named Abdu'l Wahab, and conquered great part of 
Arabia from the Turks. He died in 1787, having founded a 
sect known as the Wahabees. The word Wahab signifies a 
Bestower of Blessings, and is one of the epithets of God, 
and Abdul Wahab means the servant of the All Bountiful. 
The Wahabees took Mecca and Medina, and almost expelled 
the Turk from the land of the Prophet. But in 1818 the 
power of these fierce reformers their doctrine being a kind of 
Islam Socinianism, allowing no title to adoration to Moham- 
med waned in Arabia, to reappear in India under a new 
leader, one Saiyid Ahmad, who had been a godless trooper 
in the plundering bands of Amir Khan, the first Nawab 
of Tonk. But in 1816 he went to Delhi to study law, and 
his fervid imagination drank in greedily the new subject. 
He became absorbed in meditation, which degenerated into 
epileptic trances, in which he saw visions. In three years 
he left Delhi as a new prophet, and journeying to Patna 
and Calcutta, was surrounded by admiring crowds, who 
hung upon his accents, and received with ecstasy the 
divine lesson to slay the infidel, and drive the armies of 
the foreigner from India. In 1823 he passed through 
Bombay to Rohilkhand, and having there raised an army 


of the faithful, he crossed the land of the Five Rivers, and 
settled like a thundercloud on the mountains to the north- 
east of Peshawur. Since then the rebel camp thus founded 
has been fed from the head centre at Patna with bands of 
fanatics, and money raised by taxing the faithful. To account 
for such success, the reader will have to bear in mind that 
in Mohammedan countries a doctor of civil law, such as 
Saiyid Ahmad was, may hold the issues of peace or war in 
his hands, for with Mohammedans the law and the gospel 
go together, and the Koran represents both. Akbar, the 
greatest Mohammedan monarch, was nearly hurled from the 
height of his power by a decision of the Jaunpur lawyers, 
declaring that rebellion against him was lawful. And 
the Wahabee doctrine is, that war must be made on all 
who are not of their faith, and especially against the 
British Government, as the great oppressor of the Moham- 
medan world. Twenty sanguinary campaigns against this 
rebel host, aided by the surrounding Afghan tribes, have 
failed to dislodge them ; and they remain to encourage any 
invader of India, any enemy of the English, to whom they 
would undoubtedly afford immense assistance. Though the 
general impression in England and India seems to be that 
the murder of Mr. Norman is not to be attributed to a 
Wahabee plot, yet so little is known of the constitution, 
numerical strength, and aims of the secret societies of India, 
that an overweening confidence in the loyalty of the alien 
masses as the Times curiously enough terms them on the 
part of the English residents in India, is greatly to be con- 
demned, for there still exists an active propaganda of fanatic 
Wahabees at great Mussulman centres ; and though the vast 
Mussulman community throughout India look on the fanatics 
with dislike or indifference, yet they need careful looking- 
after by Government (" Cyclopaedia of India," by Surgeon- 
General Edward Balfour. Three vols. London, 1885). 

A few lines higher up we referred to secret societies of 
India; from among these we may specially mention the 
Mina robber settlement at Shahjahanpur, which town formed 
part of the possessions of the Rohilla Patans, whose domi- 
nion was overthrown by the British in 1774. The Minas 
are the descendants of Rohilla chiefs, and the district they 
occupy being the centre of a small tract of land, entirely 
surrounded by independent native states, affords them refuge 
and ready means of escape when pressed by the British 
police. And they are doubtless fostered and protected by 
the minor chiefs and head-men of native states, who share 


the spoil. They are supposed to form a corporation some- 
what similar to the Garduna (306-311). It has been 
suggested that the Minas, possessing a splendid physique 
and animal courage, the very qualities needed for such a 
purpose, should be utilised in frontier and border forces, 
as the Mazbis, a similar marauding tribe, were utilised and 


VOL. I. 

Page 35, line 12 from top, delete 'may.' 

Page 36, line 5. To ' the religion of Buddha still survives,' add ' in 
its integrity.' It may be remembered that in February 1895 an ancient 
and highly -artistic image of Buddha was brought from Ceylon to be 
set up in the temple of Budh-Gaya, in Bengal, which the Buddhists 
regard as the most sacred spot on earth. The ceremony of setting up 
the image led to serious riots between the Buddhists and a crowd of 
Hindoo devotees who objected to it. The legal proceedings which 
ensued proved abortive, in consequence of the complicated questions 
of law involved therein. 

A work published at the beginning of this year (1897) by the 
Clarendon Press, and entitled 'A Record of the Buddhist Religion 
as practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695). By 
I-tsing. Translated by J. Takakusu, B.A., M.D. With a letter from 
Professor F. Max Muller,' is of great value for the history of Buddhism, 
on the rise, growth, and development of which this work gives ample 
and reliable information. 

Page 36. In 38 it is stated that there is no proof of the real 
existence of Buddha. The recent discovery by Dr. Fiihrer of the 
spot where Buddha is reputed to have been born, the Lumbini garden, 
as also of the stone pillar therein, with the inscription, ' Here the 
worshipful was born,' is no evidence, as at first sight it might appear, 
of the actual existence in the flesh of Buddha. Tradition says that he 
was born in the locality named, a"hd that centuries after his supposed 
birth a certain king caused a stone pillar to be set up to record the 
fact. The discovery amounts to an identification of the spot pointed 
out in the tradition. But this qualification is not intended to detract 
from the merit of Dr. Fuhrer's discovery, the effect of deep research 
and ingenious reasoning, the results of which he has given to the 
world in a very lucid demonstration. The discovery is a very preg- 
nant one. 

Page 45. Addendum to 51. 'The temple of Hathor, at Dendera, 
inferior in size to the temples at Karnak only, surpasses them in 
beauty. It was in this temple that the zodiac, famous in the annals 
of Egyptology, was discovered. It is engraved in Denon's " Egypt." 
From the more modern researches instituted, it would appear that 
the temple was erected, not, as has been asserted, in the time of the 
Ptolemies, but rather in the most ancient dynasties. The goddess 
Hathor cosmically represents the darkness, out of which is born the 
light, hence the sun daily springs from her. She was the prototype 
of the Black Virgins of Roman Catholicism.' 



Page 53, line 13 from bottom, delete 'a' before ' hierogrammaticaV 
Page 64, line 1 5 from bottom, for ' offered ' read ' offer.' 
Page 99, line 12 from top, delete ' ) ' after ' it.' 
Page 113, line 14 from top, for 'said' read 'affirmed.' 
Page 142, 178. Waldo. According to a genealogy compiled by 
Morris Charles Jones (publication undated), the Waldo family is 
descended from ' Thomas Waldo of Lions,' one of the first who publicly 
renounced the doctrines of the Church of Rome. The representative 
of the English branch of the family came to this country in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. 

Page 152, line 3 from top, for ' Hostes' read 'Nostes.' 
Page 168, 213. Vehm. Add: 'The last-named work 011 the Vehm 
in our list of authorities under the heading of " Free Judges " is that 
of Theodor Lindner. It treats the subject fully, one may say exhaus- 
tively, comprising more than 670 large, closely-printed pages. His 
summing up on the character and working of the institution, which 
we may accept as final, is that the Vehm, though to some extent a 
palliative of the lawlessness of the times, was yet liable to great abuses, 
since great and powerful persons always could have sentences passed 
on them by one Court annulled by another. Besides, what was the 
good of passing sentences which could not be executed ? From the 
accounts given by Lindner accounts based on official documents 
it is clear that public order and security were never in a worse plight 
than during the most flourishing days of the Vehm. Nay, the tribunal 
offered many a villain the opportunity of plunging honest people into 
trouble and expense. The Vehm neither purified nor improved legal 
procedure, but threw it into greater confusion.' 

Page 169, 215. Beati Paoli. Add: 'Gioachimo, or Giovacchino, 
as his name is sometimes written, was a Calabresian Cistercian monk, 
and abbot of Curacio, whose fame as a prophet was so great that King 
Richard I. when passing through Southern Italy wished to converse 
with him, but came to the conclusion that the prophet was an " idle 
babbler" ; moreover, all the predictions he uttered anent what was 
to happen in the Holy Land proved wrong. Still, he appears to have 
been a man of parts ; he was deeply versea in theology, and the author 
of many works. Dante speaks of his prophetic powers in the Paradise, 
c. xii. 

'John of Parma lived in the twelfth century, and his book Evangelium 
Sternum was publicly burnt by order of Pope Alexander IV. in 1258.' 
Page 173, line n from bottom, for 'Toulouse' read 'Tours.' 
Page 175, line 21 from top, for 'amd' read 'and.' 
Page 198, 5 239. Add: 'From the Humanitarian for March 1897 
I learn that there is actually at the present day an Astrological Society 
in London, at the annual meeting of which Mr. Alan Leo gave "a very 
interesting address," in which he said that astrology " was built upon 
a beautiful symbology, the symbols of which were the same to-day 
as at the beginning ; the circle, which represents the sun ; the half- 
circle, which means the moon ; and the cross, representing the earth. 
A cross over the circle is Mars or War, a cross under the circle, Venus 
or Love. The Sun, Mars, and Venus represent the Spirit. In the 
half-circle are all the planets relating to the mind. A cross over the 
half-circle is Saturn or the Devil ; the half-circle over the cross is 
Jupiter or Jehovah, the Higher Mind. Every person is born under 


some influence, and the study of astrology enables people correctly to 
see the qualities they have in them. The speaker challenged any man 
to show that astrology is not true ; sooner or later it will become the 
religion of the world." Surely after this dogmatic and lucid exposition, 
our public schools and universities will at once add the study of 
astrology to their curriculum ! Sir Richard Phillips called astrology 
the mother of the sciences, though herself the daughter of superstition.' 

Page 224, line 17 from bottom, for 'Epologue' read 'Apologue,' and 
for ' Apilogue ' read ' Epilogue.' 

Page 230, 280. The Rosicrucians. At the end of 280 add : ' In 
the anonymous publication " Das Ganze oiler geheimen Ordensverbin- 
dungen" (Full Account of all Secret Orders), Leipzig, 1805, evidently 
written by one fully initiated, I find the following note on this 
Master Pianco : " He had long been a Mason, before he became a 
Rosicrucian. His chief was a hybrid between man and beast. No 
honest Christian could cope with him without fear of being flayed 
alive. If doubts were suggested to him, he uttered blasphemies, of 
which the most violent miscreant would have been ashamed. Pianco 
shook off the dust of his chamber, and fled the companionship of such 
heathens." This sheds a rather curious light on the composition and 
character of the Rosicrucian fraternity, "whose bear was supposed to 
dance to none but the most genteelest of tunes." ' 

Page 231, 281. Asiatic Brethren. Add : ' As soon as we are indis- 
creet enough to pry behind the scenes of secret societies the illusion 
their outward seeming grandeur produces vanishes, and the hollowness 
of their pretences and shallowness of their charlatanism become ap- 
parent. The Order of the " Asiatic Brethren," who, as our text states, 
took so high-sounding a title, in their private transactions proved but 
a poor and pitiful lot. Marcus Ben Bind we have seen that they 
affected Jewish names was a member who was most active in develop- 
ing the Order. He introduced the " cabalistic nonsense " and fanciful 
inventions which formed its basis, and most of its papers were his 
property. These the chiefs cajoled out of him, giving him no other 
compensation than making him Ocker-Harim, or Chief Custodian of 
the Archives. When he complained, he suffered for it (probably he was 
imprisoned). But the chiefs, nevertheless, admitted and admired his 
merits and profound wisdom, as he kept adding cabalistic and Hebrew 
terms to their ritual. They made use of him, promising him great 
things ; but when he asked for money, the wire-pullers behind the 
curtain refused it ; they needed a great deal for themselves ; he was to 
be satisfied with the crumbs which fell from the rich men's tables. 
Then he rebelled, and finally resigned, and his revelations were a treat 
for the outside " cowans." ' 

Page 258, 306. The Garduna. Add: 'The Spanish word garduna 
means a marten, and it is with regard to the well-known qualities of 
that animal that in Spain a clever and expert thief is familiarly known 
as a garduno.' 

Page 270, 321. The Camorra. Add : 'According to the law of the 
28th September 1822 of the Bourbon police, "secret or quasi-secret 
associations are condemned to the third degree in chains ; the chiefs to 
the gallows, and a fine of from one thousand to four thousand ducats." 
And again, according to the law of the 24th June 1828, "the meeting 
of two persons is sufficient to constitute a secret society." And yet the 
Camorra was not touched.' 


Page 274, 325. The Camorra. Add: 'The recently-published 
" Stories of Naples and the Camorra," by the late Charles Grant, afford 
but a faint reflex of the terrible character of the Camorra. Whoso 
wishes to thoroughly study the subject should read " I Vermi : Studi 
Storici su le Classe Pericolose in Napoli di Francesco Mastriani " 
(Xapoli, 1877. 5 vols.). And the present writer has been among the 
Camorristi at Naples, and found in them none of the redeeming features 
Mr. Grant allows them : they are all unmitigated scoundrels.' 

Page 299, line 14 from bottom, for ' dates' read 'date.' 

Page 316, 364. The German Union. Add: 'The inner history of 
the German Union presents some curious features. Bahrdt, its reputed 
founder, was in 1777 in London, and there initiated into Freemasonry. 
He had but a poor opinion of German Freemasonry, and, therefore, on 
his return to Germany visited none of the lodges. But a high official 
of the Imperial Chamber at Wetzlar, Von Ditfurth, suggested to him 
the formation of a society which should carry out the true objects of 
Freemasonry, viz., the restoration of human rights, and the free use of 
reason. In 1785, Bahrdt received an anonymous letter, containing 
the plan of the German Union. The letter was signed, " From some 
Masons, your great admirers." In the same year he was visited by an 
Englishman, who urged him to establish a lodge, promising to connect 
it with English Masonry. Bahrdt showed him the scheme or the Union, 
which the Englishman highly approved of. Bahrdt founded a lodge, 
consisting of five or six of his friends and sixteen young men. But 
the lodge was denounced as a financial speculation. Bahrdt grew 
uneasy, especially when, in 1 787, he received another anonymous com- 
munication from the same source as the first, announcing the formation 
of a German Union, which he was invited to join. The letter contained 
printed details and forms of oaths, which were afterwards pxiblished in 
the book "More Notes than Text." Bahrdt eagerly embraced the 
offer, and exerted himself to extend the German Union. He became 
acquainted with a Dr. Pott, who had the reputation of being a wag, 
making a fool of everybody, and perhaps in consequence of this new 
acquaintance he, in 1788, lost a thousand dollars through the Union to 
which he devoted all his time. In the summer of the same year hi 
received from Berlin as Bahrdt alleges the MS. of the satire on the 
" Edict of Religion," which he got printed at Vienna. This, as well 
as the publication of " More Notes than Text," and the treachery of 
Roper, led, as mentioned in the account of the German Union, to his 
final ruin.' 


Page 60, $ 439. African Architects. Add: 'A few additional de- 
tails on the " African Architects " may not prove uninteresting. The 
Order was divided into two sections, the first of which comprised five 
degrees : (i) The Apprentice of Egyptian secrets, called Menf.s Mvsce ; 
(2) the Initiate into Agean secrets ; (3) the Cosmopolitan ; (4) the Chris- 
tian Philosopher ; (5) the Aletophile, or Lover of Truth. The second or 
inner section of the Order comprised : (i)Armiger, who was told what 
Fos Braeder Law and the word Giilde signified ; (2) Miles, who was in- 
formed that the letters G and L did not mean geometry and logic, but 
were the initials of the founder of the Order ; (3) Eques, or knights, who 


were invested with a ring they wore on the finger of the right hand, 
or on the watch. The ring was formed of gold love-knots, and the 
letters R.S. Usually the members called themselves jEdiles or Archi- 
tects, because architecture was the science they most pursued. Their 
mathematics consisted in producing clever variations of the triangle, 
square, and number X. At their meetings they spoke Latin ; all their 
books were bound in red morocco, with gilt edges. Their chief archives 
were at a place in Switzerland, which was never to be revealed, and 
which, among its treasures, comprised the papers of the Grand Master, 
George Evelyn of Wotton, in Surrey, the seat of which John Evelyn 
has left us an account. The hall of initiation was either occupied by 
a choice library, or its walls beautifully painted. " I found," wrote 
one of the members, " such a hall at N., built over a barn, and which 
you would never have taken fora lodge. The hall had many windows, 
and was adorned with statues. There was a dark chamber, a banquet- 
ing-hall, a bedroom for travellers, and a well-appointed kitchen. 
Over the door of the hall stood a horse, which, when you pressed a 
spring, with a kick of its foot caused a fountain in the adjoining 
garden to play." I was told that this lodge was built by order of 
Frederick II. The introducer of candidates wore a dress of blue satin ; 
the Master sat at a table, on which were placed globes and mathemati- 
cal instruments. Candidates were to be men of science or artists, who 
had to submit proofs of their skill. Their rules of procedure in general 
were formulated on those of the Academic Francaise.' 

Pay* 134, 514. Tae-ping-wang. Add: ' Tae-ping-wang called 
himself the King of Peace, and proclaimed himself the younger brother 
of Jesus Christ, appointed to establish a universal kingdom and com- 
munion of the faithful. We cannot assume this Chinese leader to have 
had any knowledge of the dreams of European Rosicrucians, and yet 
these latter in the T/tesaurinella Chiimica-aurea (244) predicted the advent 
of a mysterious personage they called Elias Artista, who was to estab- 
lish the rule of Christ in a new world. Tae-ping-wang thus appears, 
curiously enough, as a Chinese Artista.' 

Page 139, 519. Europe after the Congress of Vienna. Add: ' The 
opinions as to the consequences of the downfall of Napoleon, expressed 
in this paragraph, will probably excite hostile criticism, as they did 
when on a former occasion I expressed myself to the same effect. This 
is not the place to discuss the question ; but if the record, in these 
pages, of the secret societies which arose after the Congress of Vienna 
be not sufficient to satisfy the critic and the reader of the correctness 
of my views, and I be challenged to the discussion, I will not de- 
cline it' 

Page 160, 545. The Carbonari. Add: 'The Code of Carbonarism 
is found most fully in " The Memoirs of the Secret Societies of the 
South of Italy, particularly the Carbonari" (London, 1821). This 
work, translated from the original French MS., was the production of 
Baron Bertholdy, a converted Jew, who, however, retained the habits 
and manners of his race. He was about the above date, and probably 
till about 1825, the Russian Ambassador to the Papal Court. Of a 
restless and inquisitive disposition, he delighted in political intrigue, 
and was mixed up with all tumults and popular agitations. He was 
said to know everything, and be ubiquitous ; his sinister physiognomy 
and inquisitorial prying gained him among the Neapolitans the 
sobriquet of the " Wandering Jew." ' 


Page 207, 60 1. Polish Patriotism. Add: 'The opinions here ex- 
pressed may, like those of 519 (see note thereon), challenge contradic- 
tion, but as they are based on facts, they can be substantiated. Here I 
content myself with referring to M. C. Courriere, an admirer of the 
Poles, who in his " History of Contemporaneous Literature among the 
Sclavonians " (Paris, 1 879), confesses that in the wars which led to the 
dismemberment of the kingdom, the Poles were more often fighting for 
the preservation of their aristocratic privileges than for national liberty. 
The Polish poet Julius Slowacki (b. 1809, d. 1851), styled by Nickiewicz 
the " Satan of Poetry," speaking in the name of the people, thus ad- 
dressed the poet Sigismund Krasinski : 

" To believe thee, son of the nobleman, 
It were virtue in us to endure slavery." 

And Slowacki himself was of gentle birth. Certes, sounder notions as 
to Polish patriotism prevail in this generation than were current in 
former times, but we still hear too much about the "crime" of the 
partition of Poland. The same reasons which led to that partition are 
the only justification for our present interference in Turkey.' 

Page 259, 650. Baron Stein. Add : ' The generally-accepted state- 
ment is that Stein founded, or was one of the founders of, the Tugend- 
bund ; but the first idea of it was suggested by Henry Bardeleben, whom 
Stein declared to be patriotic, but short-sighted. Historians say that 
Stein was a friend and protector of the Union, but in his correspondence 
we find passages like the following : " If there are well-meaning 
persons who are pleased to belong to secret societies, why should we 
quarrel with such weakness '( . . . The Union of Virtue, founded in 
1812, is respectable because of its good intentions, but hitherto it has 
done no work ; it is very angry with the French, but its anger appears 
to me like the anger of dreaming sheep." And of Jahn, whom it was 
proposed to introduce to him, he said : " Don't let the grotesque (fratzen- 
haften) fellow come near me." And yet Jahn, as is well known, and as 
our text partially shows, rendered great service to the German people. 

Curiously enough another Baron Stein, who cannot be identified, 
though he is described in the journals of the day (1781 to 1788) as 
Privy Councillor to the Count Palatine of Cologne, travelled about 
Suabia and the Lower Rhine, inviting people of rank to join a secret 
society, presenting them with leaden medals of Pope Pius VI., and pro- 
mising to get them installed Knights of the Papal Order of the Golden 
Spur. Stein called his Order that of Jesus Christ. Under the pretence 
or writing a topographical work on Suabia, he endeavoured to make 
useful acquaintances and obtain influence, but failed ; the journals of 
the day pronounced his Order to be somewhat of a swindle, and it 
collapsed in consequence.' 

Page 260, 651. Tugendbund. ' It was partly owing to these dis- 
sensions that what is called the rising of Germany to expel the French 
resulted in the end merely in the formation of a Free Corps, which 
with all his efforts LUtzow could only bring up to a strength of three 
thousand combatants. There was really no spontaneous rising, though 
there were isolated instances of national enthusiasm and individual 
bravery. The King of Prussia, to whom Scharnhorst had proposed 
the appeal to the loyalty and patriotism of his people, had so little faith 
in either, that for a long time he refused the appeal to be made, but 


when, during his stay at Breslau, eighty waggons full of volunteers 
made their appearance, his faith in his subjects was restored, and he 
wept tears of joy ! The king was grateful for small mercies.' 

/'!ie 278, 666. Fenians: Origin of Name. Add: ' It is a curious 
coincidence if mere coincidence it be, and not the result of a connec- 
tion etymologically traceable with the tribe of Benjamin (19) that in 
French Romane the word Fenian should mean "idle," "lazy," an 
epithet which is justly applicable to the bulk of the members of that 
Irish association. I here merely throw out a hint ; the question de- 
serves following up.' 

Since writing my summary of Fenianism, I have perused Mr. John 
O'Leary's recently-published ' Recollections of Fenians and Fenian- 
ism.' The work is disappointing. It contains no revelations such as 
one might expect from a man deeply initiated into all the secrets of 
Fenianism. All we gather from it is that the association, at least the 
English branch of it, was always in want of funds, and that it never 
had any great chance of wresting Ireland from the grasp of England. 
Yet the author ends with these words, published only a few months 
ago, and which therefore deserve attention : 'But that spirit [longing 
for freedom] is not dead . . . but merely sleepeth ; and it there be men 
still in Ireland, and, still more, boys growing into men, willing to strive 
and struggle and sacrifice, if needs be, liberty or life for Ireland, to 
Fenianism more than to aught else is that spirit and feeling due.' 

In my list of ' Authorities Consulted,' John Rutherford's ' Secret 
History of the Fenian Conspiracy ' is included. Mr. O'Leary's opinion 
of this book is as follows : ' This is one horrible libel from beginning 
to end, and seems to be compiled altogether out of the reports of the 
various State trials, of the American Conventions, and a narrative of 
John O'Mahony's. All these were easily accessible sources, and there 
was nothing in the least "secret" about them. This "History" is ... 
as vile a book as I have ever read. John Rutherford is, of course, 
a false name, and I cannot make out that any one can give even a 
probable guess at the ruffian who used it.' And of course, also, Mr. 
O'Leary writes as a partisan of the other side. 

Page 299, 702. Human Leopards. Add: 'The leopards are said 
to worship an idol called Boofima, which is occasionally lent to friendly 
tribes for divination or incantation, and the members of the society 
derive their name from their custom of plunging three-pronged forks, 
or sharp -pointed cutting-knives, shaped like claws, and fixed in thick 
gloves they wear, into the bodies of the persons they attack. How 
curiously Boofima reminds one of Baphomet ! ' (204) 

' We may add that the West coast of Africa abounds with so-called 
secret societies, into which boys and girls are initiated when ten or 
twelve years of age ; but as their aims are trivial, their rites absurd or 
hideous, they intrinsically possess but little interest, though relatively 
they deserve attention, as showing the universally-diffused longing of 
man after mystery, and the readiness of medicine-men, shamans, bonzes, 
marabouts, priests, and mystery-mongers of all sorts, to minister to that 

Page 301, 705. Indian (North American) Societies. Add: 'Mana- 
bozko, according to the Indian legend, was a person of miraculous birth, 
who came to teach the Red men how to clear the forest, to sow their 
fields with grain, to read and write. He was known among the different 


tribes by the several names of Michabou, Chiabo, Tarenyawagon, 
and among the Ojibways on the southern shore of Lake Superior as 
Hiawatha, under which name he is familiar to Europeans through Long- 
fellow's " Indian Edda " bearing that title. The Iroquois worshipped 
him under his original name of Manabozko. Chibiabos, his friend, 
was a musician, the ruler of the Land of Spirits, or of Light, the Indian 
Apollo. In Indian folk-lore Hiawatha is a very different person from 
the hero of the poem. In the prose tales of the Red men he is a 
notorious liar, a cruel and treacherous destroyer of all he can get into 
his power.' 

Page 105. P.S. French and English journals of the 2oth and 2ist 
April 1897 have published to the world the fact that the tale of Diana 
Vaughan and her diabolic marriage, and the book of the mythical Dr. 
Bataille, were pure mystification by M. Ldo Taxil, the reported convert 
to Roman Catholic orthodoxy, having no foundation whatever in reality. 
The public, the priests, the cardinals, yea. the pope himself, were taken 
in by them and they got no more than they deserved. It was, no 
doubt, one of the finest and grandest hoaxes of this century, and says 
but little in favour of our intellectual progress that it should be possible 
in our day. If its revelation will teach superstitious people a lesson, 
they may in future be saved from the charge of rendering themselves 
supremely ridiculous. 


[ Tlie figures refer to pages\ 

ABC Friends, 291 

Abbreviations, Masonic, 1 5 

Abel, family of, 3 

Abelites, 291 

Aberdeen, Masonic deputation 

sent to, 59 

Abiff, Hiram, 3, 4, 5, 6 
Abruzzi, societies in, 180 
Acacia in Masonry, 24, 25, 27 
Accepted Masons, 10 
Accoltellatori, 200 
Acting Company, French, 204 
Adam, 3, 6 

the first Mason, 8 

Administrative process against 

Nihilists, 252, 256 
Adonai, 3, 6 
Adoniram, 97 

Adoptive Masonic Lodges, 82 
^Eneis quoted, 25 
Africa, Masonry in, 98 
African Architects, 60, 330 

Hemp-smokers, 298 

Agliardi, Cardinal, 104 

Ahmad of Ahsa, 268 

Akbar, 325 

Alcock, Sir Rutherford, 138 

Alexander I. of Russia, 144, 146, 

147, 154,215, 216 

II. of Russia, 209 

Ali, Mehemet, 185 

Ali Pasha, 147 

Almusseri, African society, 291 

Alphabet, Masonic, 15 

" Alpina," Swiss Grand Lodge, 97 

Alvarez, Captain, 101 

America, Freemasonry in, 98 

American societies, 297, 298, 299, 

Amru, a carpenter, 5 

Anarchists at Prague, 127 
Ancient and Accepted Scotch rite, 

13, 55, 92 
Ancient Reformed Rite of Masonry, 

J 3 

Ancients, Academy of the, 291 
Anderson, James, u, no 
Androgynous Masonry, 84-90 
Anne, Empress of Russia, 96 
Annichiarico, Giro, 180 
Anonymous society, 292 
Anti-Masonic party, 292 

- Publications, 103, 104 
Anti-Masons, 292 
Anti-Napoleonic Masonry, 66, 67 
Anti-Semitic policy of Russia, 242 
Antiqyity of Masonry, fabulous, 8 
Antonini, General, 189 
Anubis, 28, 29 

Apocalypse, Knights of the, 292 
Apophasimenes society, 1 88 
Apprentice, Masonic initiation, 21 
Arabic figures, origin of, 1 5 
Architect, Grand Master, 34-36 
Architects, African, 60 
Arena, conspiracy of, 197 
Areoiti, 293 
Argonauts, 94 

Armenian demonstrations in 1895 
and 1896, 213 

society, Anti-Russian, 212, 

213, 242 

Arndt, the poet, 259 
Artista, Elias, 331 
Ashmole, antiquary, 9 
Asia, Initiated Brethren of, 73 

Masonry in, 98 
Asiatic Brethren, 329 
Asimakis, a Hetairist traitor, 147 
Assassins of Christ in Masonry, 91 
Associated Patriots, 202 
Astrological society in London, 328 




Athelstan and Masonry in England, 


" Athenaeum " quoted, 2 1 7 
Augustus, Stanislaus, 97 
Ausonia, ancient name of Italy, 

165, 167 
Avengers, 294 


BABEUF, 113 
Babi Koran, 266 
Babis, 263-269 

attribute special qualities to 

number 19, 266 
Babism, doctrines of, 265 

progress of, 264 

Bakunin, 218 

Balkis, Queen of Sheba, 4, 7 
Barabas Brethren, 179 
Bardina Sophia, a Nihilist, 221 
Basilidean system of agriculture, 

Basle, International Congress at, 


Bataille, Dr., his book on Devil- 
worship, 105, 334 

Behais, a Babi sect, 266 

Bel, component part of Jabulon, 31 

Belfort, revolutionary attempt at, 

Bell. See Ivory 

" Belly Banders," 295 

- Paaro, 294 
Benjamin, tribe of, 333 
Benoni, friend of Hiram, 5 
Bentinck, Lord William, 170, 


Berlin Congress, 2 1 1 
Berne, Council of, persecutes 

Masons, 102 
Bertholdy, Baron, 331 
Beyan, or Bab " Expositor," 265 
Biran, Marquis of, 47 
Biren, favourite of Empress Anne 

of Russia, 96 

Bismarck and Canossa, 258 
Biyyan. See Beyan 
Black Flag, Chinese society, 1 33 
Knights, 260, 261 

- Needle society, 198 
Order, 257 

Virgins, 327 

Blanc, Louis, 1 1 3 

Blanqui, chief of the " Seasons " 

society, 205 
accused of having betrayed 

the society, 205 
Blazing Star of Masonry, 17, 28 

Star, Order of the, 55 
Bliicher, General, 259 
Blue Lotus Hall, 132 

Masonry, 18 

Blunders of Ipsilanti, 148, 149 

Boaz, 17 

Bonaparte, Joseph, 186 

Lucien, 178 

Bonanni forges list of Grand 

Masters, 47 

Bonneville, Chevalier de, 5 5 
" Book of Constitutions [Masonic] 

for Ireland," 8 

Bourbons and Carbonari, 171 
Brazen Sea of Solomon's temple, 5 
Break-of-Day Boys, 271 
Bridge of Swords, Chinese, 134 
Brigands formed into secret so- 
ciety, 171 

Erode, Madam, 261 
Bruce, Robert, 51, 52 
Brunswick Convention, 59 

Duke of, 6 1, 62 

Buddha, birthplace, life, and image 

of, 327 

Builders' dispute in London, 114 
Bull-roarer, 305 
Bull's Head, society of the, 47 
Burke, Thomas, 281 
Burschenschaft, 261, 262 
Byron, Lord, 186 

CAGLIOSTRO, 44, 61, 78, 79, 80 
Cain, 3, 6 
Cairo, lodge of, 48 
Calabria, Duke of, 173 

societies in, 1 80 

Calderari, 171, 172, 184 
Calif ornian society, 294 
Calvary, Mount, 40, 42 
Cambaceres, 64, 65, 67 
Cambridge secret society, 294 
Camorra, character of the, 329, 330 
Canada, Fenian raids into, 279, 


Cannibalism in Africa, 299 
Canosa, Prince of, 171, 184 



Cantu, Cesare, 169 

Cape Coast Castle, Masonic lodge 

at, 98 

Capitula Canonicorum, 57 
Capo d'Istrias, Count, 143, 146,147 
Caravats, Irish society, 274 
Carbonari, 157-177. 331 
and Guelphs, 1 78 

demand constitution from 

King of Naples, 173 

in Lombardy and Venetia, 

Carbonarism in Spain, 142 

marks transition period in 

history of secret societies, 174 

Carbonaro charter proposed to 
England, 169 

degree, most secret, 167 

manifesto, 166 

symbols, signification of, 165 

Carey, James, shot by O'Donnell, 


Caroline, Queen, 73 
Carrascosa, General, 172 
Castle Tavern, London, 93 
Catherine II., 97 
Cats and Dogs, 195 
Cavendish, Lord F., 281 
Cellamare, conspiracy of, 312 
Centenaries of Masonic lodges, 98 
Cento Anni by Rovani, 321 
Centres, Italian, 179 
Ceremonies, ridiculous, at initia- 
tions still practised, 274 
Certiticates of the Decisi, 182, 183 
Chain, society of the, 85 
Chalturin, 229, 230 
Charcoal-burners, 157, 158 
Charles I. initiated into Masonry, 9 

- II. initiated into Masonry, 9 

- III. of Naples, 73 
Charles Albert, 190 
Charles, Archduke, 260 
Charlottenburg, Order of, 295 
Charter of Cologne, 9 
Chartres, Duke of, 12,55 
Chartists, Portuguese, 313 
Chen-kin-Lung, 137 
Cherkesoff, Prince, 218 
Chester Castle attacked by Fenians, 

279, 281 

Chevaliers Bienfaisants, 62 
Chibiabos, 301, 334 
Chicago, chief seat of Anarchism, 

Chicago, Fenian Convention at, 
276, 285 

Children of the Widow, 27 

of Wisdom, 320 

Chinese lodges, 134 

Church, the, and Carbonari, 175 
General, 180 

Masons, 295 

Christ's martyrdom represented in 
Carbonarism, 162 

Cincinnati, Fenian Convention at, 

Citations before Masonic tribunals, 
92, 108 

Civil war in France, 119 

Clan-na-Gael, 282, 283, 285 

Clement V., Pope, 296 

XII., 11, 100 

Clerkenwell House of Detention, 
Fenian attack on, 280 

Clermont, Chapter of, 55, 57 

" Clio," lodge at Moscow, 97 

Clover leaves, 66 

Cluseret, General, 121, 280 

Cock-lane ghost, 104 

Collegium Muriorum, 10 

Colletta, advocate, 172 

Cologne, 10 

Commune, 113 

Communistic societies, 206 

Communists defended by Inter- 
national, 123 

Companions of Penelope, 85 

Company of Death, 200 

Comuneros, 139-142, 176 

Conceptionistas, 140 

Conciliator e e i Carbonari quoted , 1 69 

Concluding ceremony of Knights 
Templars' initiation, 50 

Concordists, 260 

Congo secret societies, 295 

Congregazione Catholica Apos- 
tolica Romana, 194 

Congress of Wilhelmsbad, u, 61 

Consalvi, Cardinal, 195 

Consistorials, 193 

Constantini, Santa, 192 

Constitution alleged to have been 
granted by Tsar. 232 

Contributions levied by Inter- 
national, 124 

Convention at Brunswick, 59 

Coping Stone, the, 60, 61 

Corcoran, General, 275 

Corders, Irish society, 274 



Correspondence, revolutionary, 

how carried on, 189 
Cory, Giles, 319 
Cosmopolitans, 187 
Cosse-Brissac, Duke of, 47 
Costume of Masons in lodge, 16 

of Princes Rose-Croix, 41 
Cougourde, the, 295 

Council of the Emperors of the 

East and West, 92 

of the Knights of the East, 55 

Cousinage, bon, 158 
Coustos, John, 101 
Cromwell, Thomas, leaves the 

Masons ; 10,000 per annum, 74 
Cross, the, 33 
Cruelties practised on Babis, 264, 

practised on Nihilist 

prisoners, 251 
- practised on Siberian exiles, 

243, 245, 252 
Crusaders, Masons alleged to be 

descended from, 1 1 
Customs, Masonic, 14 


DANGERS threatening London, 1 1 8 
Death, society of, 176 
Decisi, 180, 181, 182-184 
Defenders, Irish society, 271 

of the Faith, 140, 142 
Defoliators, Androgynous society, 


Degaieff, Nihilist, 238 
Oelahodde, a French spy, 204, 205 
Delphic priesthood, 184 
" Democritos" by Weber, 258 
Derwentwater, Lord, 54 
Desaguliers, Dr., 1 1 
Deschamps' "Societes Secretes," 104 
Deutsch, Simon, member of 

"Young Turkey "party, 210,212 
" Devil in the Nineteenth Century, 

the," 105 

Devil-worship, 105, 295 
DeVorants, 320 

De Witt, D6rring,66, 167, 168, 194 
Diffusion of Freemasonry, 96 
Dionysiacs, 9, 10 
Discovery of statutes of Triad 

society, 132 
Dog-Star, 28 
Doheny, Michael, Fenian, 275 

Donegal, Marquis of, 271 
j Dorring. See De Witt 
Doussin, M., 321 

Dramatic portion of mysteries, 27 
Drenteln, General, 225 
Dressier, Anarchist, 127 
Druids, modern, 295 
Dudley, Mrs., attempts Rossa's 

life, 282 
Duk-Duk, 295 
Dumouriez, General, 63 
Dunkirk Masonic lodge, 54 
Dyornik, 226, 249, 250 
Dynamite outrages, 281 


EAGLE and Pelican, Knights of 
the, 40 

Eckert, Dr. E. E., quoted, 62, 104 

Eclectic rite, 14 

Egbo society, 295 

Egyptian Masonry, 78, 79 
society, secret, 185 

Eleutheria, password, 194 

Elohim, 3 

Elpidin, Russian bookseller at 
Geneva, 253 

Emigrants, Nihilist, 253 

Emiliani, Signor, 188 

Emmanuel, Victor, 187 

Empire, French, and International, 

Encampments, 49 

England, International in, 118 

English opposition to Masonry, 103 

Enoch, 3 

Epirotes, 147 

Eugene, Prince, 65 

European Patriots, or White Pil- 
grims, Calabrian sociefy, 180 

Eve, 3 

Evelyn, George, of Wotton, 33 1 

Exhibition of 1862, 116 

Ezelis, Babi sect, 266 



Families, the, French society, 205 

Fanor, a Mason, 5 

Farmakis, a Hetairist, 153, 155 

Farmassoni, a Russian sect, 92, 93 

Felicity, Order of, 86 

Fellow-craft degree, 23, 24 



Female Nihilists, 223, 227, 238, 244 

Fendeurs, 158, 159 

Fenian attacks, various, 280, 282, 

bonds, 278 

dynamite outrages, 281 
Investigating Committee, 276 

Litany, 278, 279 

raids into Canada, 279 

sisterhood, 276 

Fenianism, comic aspects of, 284 

special Commission on, 285 

spreads into England, 277 

Fenians, 275-287, 333 
Ferdinand IV., King of Naples, 73 
VII., King of Spain, 96, 140, 

I., King of the Two Sicilies, 

171, 174, 181 
Fessler's rite, 13 
Fides, password of Odd Fellows, 


Fieschi attempts life of Louis 

Philippe, 204 

Finances, Nihilistic, 246 

Findel, Masonic writer, 109 

Fire, sanctuary of, 6 

Sons of, 4 

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 272 

Fleury, the actor, 63 

Fontanelli, General, 179 

Fourier, Socialist, 114 

France, Carbonarism in, 176 

Masonry in, 54 

regenerated, 68 

Francis, Duke of Tuscany, after- 
wards Emperor of Germany, 72, 
98, 102 

Francis I., King of France, 1 57, 166 

Franco- Prussian war and Inter- 
national, 122 

Fraternal Democrats, 114 

Fraternitad Iberica, 86 

Fraternity of Royal Ark Mariners, 


Fraticelli, an ascetic sect, 296 
Frederick the Great, 207 
Frederick II., King of Prussia, 60 

I., King of Sweden, 102 

Augustus III., King of 

Poland, 103 

William III., 62 

"Freiheit," 126, 127 

French rite of Masonry, 13 

secret societies, causes of, 206 

French secret societies, v 


" Freemason " quoted, 109 
Freemasonry, alleged early origin 

of, 8 

decay of, 108 

division of its history, 9 

in Spain, 140 

Masonic opinions of, 109 

of present, in Italy, 76 
possesses no exclusive know- 
ledge, 107 

summoning sovereigns, 108 

vain pretences of, 106 

vanity of its ritual, 107 
Freemasons discovered at Naples,73 
marriages of, 109 

operative and speculative, 9 
persecuted, 100-105. &ealso 

Masons and Masonry 
French workmen visting London, 

Friends of Greece, 193 

of Truth, 202 

Friendship, Order of, 257 
Fiihrer, Dr., his discovery of 

Buddha's birthplace, 237 


GABRINO, Augustino, 292 
Galatis, a Hetairist, 145, 146 
Galatz, 149, 151 
Garden Street mine, 231 
Garduna, meaning of word, 329 
Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 187, 190 

Menotti, 211 

Gasgiott, a dwarf, 322 

Gatshina, attempt on Tsar's life 

at, 237 
Genesis and development of a new 

creed, 267 

Geneva, workmen's congress at, 1 1 7 
Georgakis, Hetairist chief, 147, 149, 

^ 152, 153, 155 

German Empire, proposed re- 
establishment of, 260 
" German Helvetic Directory," 97 
Union, 260, 330 

workmen in London, 114 

Germany and Carbonarism, 1 76 
- Freemasonry in, 1 1, 98 

full of secret societies, 257 

retrogression of, 258 



Ghee Hin association, 133 
Giardiniere, 177 
Gibraltar, Masonic lodge at, 96 
Gideon, password of Orangemen, 


G in Blazing Star, 35 
Gioachimo, Cistercian monk, 328 
Gnosis of Grand Master Architect, i 


Gnostic sect in Russia, 92 
Goats, 296 

Goldenberg, a Nihilist, 225, 226 
Golden Lily Hui, 137 

Orchid District, 132 

Gon, Frederick von, 303 
Good Cousins. See Carbonari 
Gordon, General, 134 

George, Master of Grand 

Lodge, 101 

Gorenovitch, Nicholas, Nihilist, 

223, 228 
Gormogones, 93 
Gormones, 93 
Gramont, Duke of, 47 
Grand Arch of the Hetairia, 145, 


Army of Republic (American), 

Copt, 79 s , 80 

- Elect of Carbonari, 163 

Lodge of England first meets 
at York, 5 1 

Lodge of Three Globes at 

Berlin, 13 

Master Architect, 35 
Master Grand Elect of Car- 

bonari, 164 
- Master of Orangemen, 273 

Orient, 12, 56, 64, 65, 66, 69, 

73, 82, 92, 94, 140 
"Granth," the Sikh Bible, 318 
Greece, liberation of, 144 
Green Island, 297 
Gregory XVI., Pope, 189, 191 
Grinevizki, Ignatius, throws bomb 

which kills the Tsar, 231 
Grips in Freemasonry, 23, 26, 45 

Hetairia, 145 

Gross, A., re-introduces Star of 

Bethlehem into New York, 319 
Grossing, F. R. von, adventurer, 

88, 89 

QugumoB, an adventurer, 59 
Guinea, secret society in, 294 
Giinzburg, Sophia, Nihilist, 244 


HAD-HAD, bird messenger of the 

genii of fire, 6 
Haji Seyyid Kazim, 268 
Half-yearly word of command of 

Grand Orient, 66 
Hamilton, George, 97 
' Hamlet " quoted, 28 
Hardenberg, Count, 259 
Harmony, Order of, 89 
Harugari, 297 
Hathor, temple of, at Dendera, 


Hawk, symbol of Etesian wind, 28 
Hearts of Steel, 271 
Helena, Empress, 319 
Helfmann, Jessy, 231 
Hemp-smokers, African, 298 
Heredom, a corruption of Latin 

hceredium, 52 

Heriz-Smith, Rev. E. J., 294 
Heroden, 51, 52 
Heroine of Jericho, 273, 298 
Heron, symbol of south wind, 28 
Herzen, Socialist, 218 
Hetairia, 143-156 

fate of the, 1 54 

final success of the, 156 

first members of, 145 

laid under the ban, 1 50 

Philomuse, 143 
Hiawatha, 334 

Hibernians, Ancient Order of, 275 
Higgins, Francis, 272 
High degrees in Masonry, n, 14 
Hiram Abiff, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 2C, 30 

legend of, explained, 26 

slain at west door, 6, 27 

Hiram, King of Tyre, 3, 30 
Hofer, Andreas, 197 
Hogarth ridicules Masons, 109 
Hohenloh-Schillingfurst, Prince, 

Holland, Masonry in, 98 

persecutes Masons, 100 

Holy of Holies in Grand Master 

Architect Lodge, 34 
Holy Union, 194 
House of Oblivion, 268 
"Hudibras" quoted. 95 
Hund, Baron, n, 57 
Hung, meaning of term, 131 
Hung League, 131 
seal of, 135 


Hunger-strikes among Nihilists, 

Hunters, American, at Ravenna, 

1 86 

a Canadian society, 299 

Huse"anawer, Virginian society, 300 
Hydromancy of Cagliostro, 80 

IGXATIEFF, Russian Minister of 
the Interior, 233 

" Illegal " men in Russia, 249 

Illuminati, league between Masons 
and German, 62 

Italian society to restore 

Napoleon, 199 

Masonic, in Italy, 72, 73 

Independents aim at indepen- 
dence of Italy, 184 

India, Masonic lodges in, 98 

Indian (North American) societies, 
300, 301, 302, 334 

Initiated Brethren of Asia, 73 

Initiation, Apprentice, 21 

Carbonarism, 160 

Chinese societies, 132, 135 

- Comuneros, 141 

Fellow-craft, 23 

Grand Architect, 35 

- Irish societies, 270-275 

- Kafir. 305 

Knight of Kadosh, 37 

- Masonry, at Venice, 75 

Master, 24 

- Misraim, 45 

Modern Knights Templars, 49 

- Mopses, 85 

Purrah, 313 

- Itoyal Arch, 30 

liose-Croix, 41, 42, 43 

I. N. R. I., attestation of signature 
of Italian litterateurs, 1 80 

its meaning in Rose-Croix, 43 

International, 113-126 

doctrines of, 117 

excommunicates Masons, 7 1 

Invisibles, obscure Italian society, 

Ipsilanti, 145, 147-149, I5 2 > 1 53, 


Irad, son of Enoch, 3 
Irish Master, 54 
people, 279 

Irish societies, 270-287 
Iroquois mysteries, 301 
Italian confederates, 199 

lodges under Napoleon I., 75 

societies, various, 199 

Italy, proposed partition of, 193, 


Ivory, E. J., tried for conspiracy, 

JABAL, son of Lamech, 4 
Jabulon, Master Mason's word, 31 
Jachin, column of porch of 

Temple, 17 
Jah, one of the components of 

Jabulon, 31 

Jahn, founder of the Turner, 259 
James II. initiated into Masonry, 9 
Jehovah creates Adam, 3 
Jehu, French society of, 302 
Jemal-ed-din attempts dethrone- 
ment of Shah, 269 
Jericho, Heroine of, 298 
Jerusalem, clerical, typifying 

Rome, 57 
Jesuitical influences in Masonry, 

57, 62, 70, 83 
Ji-Koh, officer in Chinese society, 


John, St., Brethren of, 10 
John VI., Emperor of Brazil, issues 

edict against all secret societies, 

1 02 

Jubal, inventor of the harp, 4 
Ju-ju houses, 296 


KADOSH, a term of honour, 37 

Kafir initiation, 305 

Kaljushnia, Mary, a second Zas- 

sulic, 238 

Karairas, Hetairist, i;i 
Karpokratians, sect of, 302 
Katansky, Russian official, 238 
Kelly, Fenian, 279, 280 
Kharkhoff, residence assigned to 

Zassulic, 223 
Kilwinning, chief seat of Masonic 

Order, 51 
Kldbergoll, Micronesian society, 




Knigge, Baron de, 14 
Knight of Kadosh, 55 
Knights and Ladies of Joy, 84 

Guelphic, 178 

of Apocalypse, 292 

of Beneficence, 62 

of Christ, 47 

of Eagle and Pelican, 40 
of Liberty, 305 

of Lion, 305 

of Maria Theresa, 302 

of Pythias, 3 1 5 

of Queen of Prussia, 259 

of Silver Circle, 3 1 8 

of Sun, 28th degree of Scotch 

rite, 14 

French degree, 5 5 

in favour of Napoleon, 

Templars, Masons pretend to 

be descended from, 9, n, 51 
modern, 47-50, 208 

the Order of, 302, 303 
Knowledge not diffused by 

Masonry, 107 

Know-Nothings, American, 303 
Koh, Chinese term for elder, 132 
Ko-lao-Hui society, 136, 137 
Konarski, Simon, a chief of Young 

Poland, 208 
Kopper, von, founds Order of 

African Architects, 60 
Kotzebue stabbed by the student 

Sand, 262 
Krapotkine, Prince Alexis, 225 

Prince Peter, 219 
Ku-Klux Klan, Southern States 

society, 303-305 
Kunz de Kauffungen, 157 
Kurnai, Australian society, 305 
Kurratu'l 'Ayn, a Bab martyr, 

263, 265 

LACORNE, dancing-master, and 

Pirlet, a tailor, invent degree 

of " Council of the Emperors of 

the East and West," 92 

Ladder, mysterious, in Masonry, 37 

Ladies kidnapped by Turf society, 

Ladies of St. James of the Sword 

of Calatrava, 84, 85 
of St. John of Jerusalem, 84 

La Fayette, General, 176, 187, 202 
Lainez, James, General of Jesuits,. 


Lantech, 3, 6 

Land and Liberty, Russian so- 
ciety, 221, 223, 225 
Larmenius, successor of Molay, 47 
Latini, a Carbonaro society, 179 
Lausanne, workmen's congress at, 


Lavater, Master of " German Hel- 
vetic Directory " lodge, 97 
Lavillana, Marquis of, 101 
Lavroff, Nihilist, 218, 239, 253 
Lay bach, Congress at, 173 
Ledru, a physician, obtains pos- 
session of the charter of Lar- 
menius, 47 

Leopards, Human, 299, 333 
Lessing's (G. E.) opinion of 

Masonry, 36 

Lessing, Louis, a student, assassi- 
nated, 258 

Letters of Young Italy intercepted 
by, and recovered from, Austrian 
police, 189 
Leviticon society, 48 

work by a Greek monk, 48 

Lewis, English Masonic term, an- 
swering to French Louveteau, 14 
Liberty, Knights of, 305 
Li Hung Chang, 1 33 
Limburg, Goats at, 296, 297 
Lion, Knights of the, 305 
Lion's grip in Masonry, 26, 27 
List of Grand Masters of Temple,. 

fictitious, 47 

Litany, Fenian, 278, 279 
Literature, Masonic, 109, 1 10 

Nihilistic, 254 

Litterateurs. Italian, 179 
Liverpool, Lord, opposes Masonry,. 

Lizogoob, Dmitri, Nihilist martyr,. 


Lodge, arrangement of Masonic, 
16, 17 

in Adoptive Masonry, 83 

in rite of Misraim, 45 

of Eose-Croix, 40, 41 

opening of, 1 8 

Lodges founded by Cagliostro, 80- 

number of, 99 

of Carbonari, 158, 15 

Logos, the, 31 



London, dangers threatening, 118 

Nihilist club in, 246 . 

secret Italian society in, 186 

Trades' Union Congress in, 


Loris-Melikoff, Count, 230 
Louis XII. protects Waldenses, 1 58 

XlVt suppresses Modern 

Knights Templars, 47 

of Bourbon, Prince of Cler- 

mont, gives name to Chapter of 
Clermont, 57 

Philippe, 69, 204, 205 

Louveteau, French Masonic term 
answering to English Lewis, 14, 


Lovers of Pleasure, 87 

Ludicrous Masonic degree, 94, 95 

Ludlam's Cave, satirical society, 

Lumbini garden, Buddha's birth- 
place, 327 

Lux ex tenebris, password in Mis- 
raim degree, 45 

Lyons, Communistic riots at, 123 



Macerata, Carbonaro attempt at, 


Mackey, Masonic writer, 109 
Macrobius quoted, 14 
Mad Councillors, comic society, 306 
Magi, Order of the, 306 
Magnan, Marshal, 70 
Magus, the, of Trowel society, 72 
Mahabone, Masonic word, 26 
Maharajas, Indian sect, 306 
Mahdi, the, 263 
Mahomedans rise against Chinese 

Government, 133 
Mahomed Reza assassinates Shah 

of Persia, 269 
Mainwaring, Colonel, 9 
Maison, probable etymon of 

Masonry, 10 

Manabozko, Indian deity, 301, 334 
Manchester, Fenian attack on 

police van in, 279 
Mandan Ark, 310 
Manhes, General, 170 
Manichsean sect, 27 
Mano Negra, 307 

Mantchoos, present rulers of China 


Maria Louisa, 175 

Mari$Theresa, 102 

Mark Masonry, 92 

Marriages, Masonic, 109 

Marshall and Ramsay, 57 

Martin, St., French writer and 
mystic, 62 

Marx, Dr. Karl, 114, 126 

Mason, C. W., assists Chinese in- 
surgents, 137 

Masonic alphabet, 1 5 

charities, 52 

dating, 14 

O' >s, 23, 26, 45 


ge established in Persia, 

lodges in various countries, 96 

societies, whimsical, 72 

word, lost and found, 19 
Masonry, adoptive, 82 

aim of continental, 94 

androgynous, 84 

condemned by Congress of 
Trent in 1896, 104 
derivation of name, 10 

genuine, 19 

modern, is ineffective, 52 

opposed by priests, 68 

origin of, 10 

politically insignificant, 69 

spurious, 19 

" Masonry, the Way to Hell," 103 
Masons. See Freemasons 
Mason's Daughter, 89 
Massa, possible etymon of Masonry 


Master's word in Masonry, 25 
Mavromichalis, Petros, 146 
Mayo, Lord, assassinated, 324 
Mazzini, 188, 189 
Mediterranean password, 50 
Mehujael, grandson of Enoch, 3 
Melanesian societies, 307-309 
" Memoires pour servir a 1'Histoire 

du Jacobinisme," 103 
Memphis, rite of, 44, 46 
Menichini, Abbe, 172 
Menotti, Carbonari leader, 187 
Mesentsoff, General, 224, 225, 254 
Methusael invents sacred char- 
acters, 3 

a Hebrew miner, 5 
Mexico, Grand Lodge of, 98 



Michailoff, Alexander, 250 

Miguellists in Portugal, 313 

Milesi, member of Turf society, 
321, 322 

Mina robbers in India, 325 
Spanish patriot, 140 

Ming dynasty, 132 

Mirski's attempt on life of 
Drenteln, 225 

Mirza Yahya, 266 

Misericordia, Societa della, 177 

Misley, Henry, 187 

Misraim, rite of, 14, 44, 68 

Mitchel, John, Fenian, 275, 277 

Modena, Duke of, 175, 195 

prisons of, 175 

Modern Knights Templars, 47-50 

Moffat mansion, headquarters of 
American Fenians, 277 

Mohammed Ali, the Bab, 263 

Molay, James, 56, 91 

Molly Maguires, 274, 275 

Monks of the Screw, 72 

"Monthly Magazine" quoted, 109 

Mopses, 85, 1 02 

Moreau, General, 196 

Morelli, Italian officer, 172, 174 

Moreno, Garcia, 99 

Morgan, William, 292, 299 

Mosaic floor in Masons' lodge, 16 

Mosel Club, 257 

Motto of Modern Knights Tem- 
plars, 50 

Mumbo Jumbo, 309 

Murat, King, and Carbonari, 1 70 

Lucien, 69 

Queen Caroline, 170 

" Murray's Magazine" quoted, 283 

Mustard-Seed, Order of the, 91 

" Mysteres les plus Secrets de la 


NAAMAH, sister of Tubal-Cain, 6 
Names of Armenian committees, 

212, 213 

of Carbonaro officers, 162 

Naples, Freemasonry in, 73 
Napoleon I., attempt to seize him 

while travelling, 197 

favours Masonry, 64, 65 
favours Modern Knights 

Templars, 48 

Napoleon I., German feeling 
against, 258 

his secret police, 312 

societies against, 196-198 

societies in favour of, 198 
Napoleon, Joseph, 12, 64 
Napoleon III., 69, 70, 187 
Nasreddin, Crown Prince of Per- 
sia, 263 

National Freemasonry, 208 

Knights, Italian, 199 

League, Irish, 283 

Nechayetf, Sergei, a pioneer of 

Nihilism, 218 

New Pomeranian society, 295 
New York, Fenian convention at, 


Nicholas I. becomes emperor, 216 
Nihilism, founders of, 218 
Nihilist club in London, 246 

emigrants, 253 

finances, 246 

literature, 254 

manifesto of 1885, 240 

meaning of term, 217 

measures of safety, 249 

preparations for assassinating 
Tsar, 241 

printing press, secret, 247 
prisoners, 250 

proclamation of 1881, 232 
proclamations in walking- 
sticks, 246 

stores discovered, 234, 236, 
240, 241, 242, 245, 246 

trials, 220, 221, 222, 225, 226, 

228, 234, 235, 236, 240, 241, 244, 
255, 256 

Nihilists, 217-256 

in England, 239 
Nile, inundation of, 29 
Nilometer, 32 
Ninirod, first hunter, 4 

N, letter standing for nostri with 

Jesuits, 62 
Noachites, or Royal Ark Mariners, 


or Russian Knights, 94 

Noah, his descendants, 4 

- Grand, title of president of 

Noachites, 93 
Nola, defection of royal soldiers 

at, 172 
Norman, murder of Chief-Justice, 




North, The, Russian society, 215 
No.stiz, Baron, founds society of 

"Knights of the Queen of 

Prussia," 259 
Notre- Dame of Paris set on fire by 

students, 203 
Number 19 venerated by Babis, 


OAK- BOYS, 270 

Oath of Apprentice in Masonry 

of Calderari, 172 

of Carbonaro, 161, 163 

of Fellow-craft in Masonry, 24 

of Master in Masonry, 26 

of Mosel Club, 257 

of Reds of the Mountain, 206 
of Republican Brother Pro- 
tector, 171 

of Ribbonman, 272 
of St. Patrick Boys, 272 

of Unita Italiana, 200 


Ob or Obi, 295 
Obeah. See Egbo 
Obeeyahism. See Egbo 
"Obelisk and Freemasonry," by 

Dr. Weisse, 8 
Observance, Relaxed, 59 

- Strict, 57 

Obuchoff, a Cossack, 219 
Oceania, Freemasonry in, 98 
Odd Fellows, 309 
Ode, password, 194 
Ouessa, Nihilist assassinations at, 


O'Donnell shoots James Carey, 281 
Officers of Argonauts, 94 

of Masonic lodge, 16, 17 

of Rose-Croix degree, 40 

of Royal Arch degree, 30 
O-Kee-Pa, Red Indian society, 310 
O'Leary, John, his " Recollections 

of Fenians and Fenianism," 333 
Oliver, Masonic writer, 109 
O'Mahoney, Colonel John, 275, 

276, 277 

Omladina, 210, 211 
On, component part of word Jabu- 

lon, 31 

Operative masonry ceases, 52 
Operative masons, 9, 51 
Orangemen, 272 
Order and Progress, student's 

association in France, 203 

Order of Friendship, 257 

of the Temple, 14 
Origin of the alpnabet, 1 5 
*- of term Fenian, 278, 333 
Orleans, Duke of, 69 
Oro-Tetifa, a Tahitian god, 293 
Osiris, 27, 28 
Oudet, Colonel James Joseph, 196, 


PACIFIC Union, 194 

Padillo, John, 140 

Palmerston, Lord, 187, 189 

Panizzi, 189 

Panslavism, 210, 211 

Pantheists, 310 

Papal Bulls against Masonry, 100, 

Paris, arrest of Nihilists in, 244 

its destruction planned, 121 
Parma, Duchess of, 175 

John of, 328 
Partition of Poland, 207 

" Party of the People " in Russia, 


Passports, how obtained by Nihil- 
ists, 249 

Passwords in Masonry, 23, 26, 31, 

32, 45> 50 

in Hetairia, 145 

in Roman Catholic Apostolic 

congregation, 194 
of Odd Fellows, 300 

Patriotic Order Sons of America, 

reformers, 193 

society, 208 
Payne, George, 1 1 
Pednosophers. See Tobaccological 


Pedro, Don, 142 

Pe-lin-Kiao, Chinese society, 131 
Pellico, Silvio, 176 
Pentagon, Cagliostro's, 79, 80 
" People, going among the," in 

Russia, 219 

Pepe, General, 172, 174 
Perak, Chinese secret societies in, 

Perfection, Masonic rite of, 14 

Perovskaia, Sophia, 227, 231, 238 
Persecution of Freemasonry, n, 



Persigny, M. de, 53 
Pestel, Colonel, 216 
Pfenniger, Prefect of Ziirich, 219 
Phi- Beta-Kappa society, 311 
Philadelphia lodge at Verviers, 53 
Philadelphian rites introduced 

into French army, 196 
Philadelphians in Calabria, 180 

of Besai^on, 196 

Philip the Fair, 56 
Philip V. of Spain, 101 
Philo, writer on Masonry, 106 
Philosophic Scotch rite of Masonry, 


Phoenix Park murders, 127, 281 

Pianco, Master, 329 

Pichegru conspires against Napo- 
leon, 197 

Pierre, Delahodde's alias, 205 

Pilgrims, a French society. 3 1 1 

Pirlet. See Lacorne 

Pius IX., Pope, 191 

Platonica, afterwards Italian Con- 
federates, 199 

Poe, E. A., quoted, 129 

Poland, Masonry in, 97 

independence of, 115 

partition of, 207 

revolutionary party of, and 

Nihilists, 239 

Police, secret, 312 

Polignac, Prince Julius de, 195 

Polish patriots, 207, 331 

secret national government, 

208, 209 

Pope's flight from Rome, 192 

Portugal, Masonry in, 96 

Portuguese societies, 3 1 3 

Prim, Marshal, 108 

Primitive Scotch rite, 13 

Principi Summo Patriarcho, 167 

Printing press, secret Nihilistic, 
247, 249 

Prison, Nihilists in, 250 

" Proofs of a Conspiracy," by 
Hobison, 103 

Protestant Irish societies, 271, 272 

Proverb, Italian, 108 

Prussian secret police, 312 

Publications of Quatuor Coronati 
lodge, 1 10 

"Punch," quoted, 117 

Purrah, The, African society, 313- 

Pythias, Knights of, 315 


QUATUOR Coronati lodge, 1 10 

Queen of England threatened by 
Anarchists, 124 

Questions asked of Masonic Ap- 
prentice, 23 

Quezeda, Captain, 140 


RADETZKY enters Milan, 190 
Radnor, Lord, denounces Free- 
masons, 103 

Ragon, Masonic writer, 109 
Raising of aspirant in Masonry, 26 

Osiris, painting of, 28 

Ramsay, Chevalier Andreas, n, 

54, 55- 93 

Ram Singh, a Sikh, 317 
Rancliffe, Lord, president of Noa- 

chites, 93 
Raven, Baron, chief of Relaxed 

Observance, 59 

Ravenna, Accoltellatori at, 200 
Rays, The, Anti-Napoleonic so- 
ciety, 197 
Rebeccaites, 315 
Reclus, Elysde, Anarchist, 109 
" Rectangular " referred to, 92 
Red Cross of Constantine and 

Rome, Order of, 92 
Red Men society, 3 1 5 
Redemption, Order of the, 3 1 5 
Reform needed in Masonry^ 77 
Reformed Masonic rite, 14 
Regeneration, Society of Univer- 
sal, 316 

Registrar of the Dead, 184 
Relaxed Observance, 59, 94 
Report on Fenian Brotherhood, 276 
Republic proclaimed in France, 

Republican Brother Protector's 

oath, 171 
Results of downfall of Napoleon, 


Reviving the International, at- 
tempt at, 1 26 

Revolutionary Club, 199 

Revolutions attempted in Italy, 

Rhetz, Conrad von, founder of 
Argonauts, 94 



Rhigas, Constantinos, Greek poet, 


Rhodocanakis, Prince, 92 
Rhombos, 301, 305 
Ribbonmen, 271, 272 
Riego, the Hampden of Spain, 101 
Right- Boys, 270 
Rights of Man society, 204 
" Rite of Egyptian Masonry," 78 
Rites of Adoptive lodges, 82, 83 
Rochelle, revolutionary attempt 

at, 202 

Rohilla Patans, 325 
Rose-Croix lodge, 40 

Prince of, 40 

Rose, German Order of the, 88, 89 

Knights and Nymphs of the, 


Rosenwald, Lady of, 88 
Rosicrucianism, u, 329 
Rosicrucians not Rose-Croix, 40 
Rossa, O'Donovan, 280, 282, 286 
Rossi, life and death of, 190-192 
Royal Ark Marine%^o3 

Carboneria, 1 59^ 

Russia, Freemasonry in, 96 
Russian Union of Safety, 214 
Russians of rank going among the 

people, 219, 220 

Rutherford, John, his "Secret 
History of the Fenian Con- 
spiracy," 333 


SACRED Battalion of Hetairia, 149, 

I5 153 
Safety, measures of, adopted by 

Nihilists, 249 
Saheb-ez-Zeman, the Lord of Ages, 


Saint- Agnan, Viscount, 179 
Saint-Simon, 1 1 3 
Saint John, Brethren of, 10 
Martin's Hall, workmen's 

meeting at, 117 

Patrick Boys, 272 

Saiyid Ahmad, Wahab leader, 324 

Saltpetrers, 316 

Sam-Sings, 133 

Sam Tian society, 133 

" Sanctuary, The," explains rite of 

Memphis, 46 
Sand, Louis, 262 

Sanfedisti, 194 

Sankofsky's attempt on Tchere- 

vin's life, 234 

Sarawak, secret society in, 133 
Satirical society, 302, 303 
Savary, Minister of Police, 67 
Savid Yahya Darabi, 264 
Schismatic rites, 91, 92 
Schlaraffenland, 324 
Schmalz, Councillor, 261 
Schools, Society of, 203 
Schroder's rite, 14 
Schropfer, 59, fc'o 
Scotch degrees, 1 1 

Ladies of France, 86 
rite, 65 

rites of Masonry, 13 

sign, grand, 35' 

Scotland, Masonry in, 51 

Scythers, 208 

Seasons, the, a French secret 

society, 205 
Secret printing presses of Nihilists, 


societies, aims of, 9 

Sekko, monastery of, 155 
Seliverskoff, General, 244 
Selvaggi, secret society, 199 
Senegambia, secret society in, 291 
Septembrists in Portugal, 313 
Seth, alleged founder of Order of 

Harmony, 89 

family, 8 

Seven steps of mysterious ladder 

in Masonry, 37-39 
Severe, Duke of San, 73 
Shah, late, opposed by Babis, 264 
Shanavests, Irish society, 274 
Sheba, Queen of, 4, 5 
Sherwood reveals plot to dethrone 

Alexander I. of Russia, 215 
Shiites, 267 

Shirtless, the, French society, 202 
Siberian exiles, 243 
Sibley, Ebenezer, 93 
Sicilian societies, 193 
Sign of Orangemen, 273 
Signs in Masonry, 23 

in rite of Misraim, 45 
of Hetairia. 1 45 

of Modern Knights Templars, 


Sikh Fanatics, 316-318 
Silvati, 172, 174 
Silver Circle, Knights of the, 318 



Simonetta, country house belong- 
ing to Turf society, 323 
Sioux rites, 310 
Sirius, 28, 29 
Slavonian Conf ederation,proposed , 

Sleeping Lion, French society to 

restore Napoleon, 305 
Socialistic systems, 114 
Society of the Chain, 85 

of Schools, 203 

Solomon 3-5, 7, 30 
Solovieff, 223, 226 
Sonderbare Gesellen, 319 
Sonnet quoted, 186 
Sons of Fire, 4 

of Mars, 186 

of St. George, 275 

of Thought, 4 
Sophisiens, 319 
Sovereign Chapter of the Scotch 

Ladies of France, 86 
Prince Masons of St. John of 

Jerusalem, 92 
Sovereigns summoned before 

Masonic tribunals, 108 
Spain, Carbonarism in, 176 

Freemasonry in, 96 

secret societies in, 1 39 

Spanish secret societies divided 

into four parties, 142 
Special Commission on Fenianism, 


Spectres meeting in a tomb, 202 
Speculative Masons, 9 
Spratt, Edward, 8 
Spurious Masonic degrees, 19 
Stabbers, Committee of, 200 
Star of Bethlehem, 319 
Stark, Dr., 59, 6 1 
Stein, Baron, 258, 332 

Privy Councillor, 332 
Stephanovitch establishes secret 

printing press at Kieff, 247 
Stephens, the Fenian, 277, 279 
Stepniak, 214, 228, 254 
Straits Settlements, Chinese 

societies in, 133 
Strasbourg, Masonic Grand Lodge 

at, 10 

Strict Observance, 11, 57, 61, 97 
Strozzio, Count Filippo, 72 
Stuart, Charles, 52, 54, 57, 58 
Student riots in Russia, 243, 244 
Russian, found dead, 245 

Sublime Knight elected, 5 5 
Subterranean Prague, 211 
Sudeikin, Colonel, 237, 238 
Sufites, 48 
Suliotes, 148 
Sun Wen, 133 

- Yet Sun, 133 
and zodiac symbolised, 45 
Sunnites, 267 
Supreme Grand Council, 65, 69, 

Surrey tavern, Surrey Street, 

Strand, 93 

Sweden, Freemasonry in, 97 
Swedenborg, rite of, 14 
Swedish Masonic rite, 14 

ritual, ancient, 97 

Switzerland, Freemasonry in, 97 


TAAKOA, a Polynesian deity, 293 
Tae-ping-wang, Chinese leader, 

132, 33i 

Tahitian society, 293 
Tai-Koh, chief of Chinese secret 

society, 132 
Tallard, Count, helps to found 

secret society in court of Louis 

XIV., 47 

Tangaroa. See Taaroa 

Tartar dynasty in China, 131 

Tau, books of, 3 
triple, 32 

Tcherevin's (General) life at- 
tempted, 234 

Temple, the, Johannite c'lurch in 
Paris, 49 

Teppa, Compagnia della, 321 

Terror, Russian party of, 222 

Terrorists in France, 302 

Test, severe, of a member's fidelity, 

Theobald, patron saint of Carbon- 
ari, 158 

Theodora, wife of Emperor Jus- 
tinian I., 320 

Th'ien - Hauw - Hoi'h, Chinese 
society, 131 

Third Division of Russian police, 

Thirteen, number, why considered 
ominous, 320 

the, societies, 320 



Thirty-one, Tuscan society, 199 
Thot, Egyptian deity, 29 
Three Globes, Masonic lodge, 60 
Threshers, Irish society, 27 1 
Tirol, secret league against France 

in, 197 
Titles, extraordinary, introduced 

into Masonry, 45 
Tobaccological society, 320, 32 1 
Todtenbund, 176 
Toland, John, 310 
Tolstoi, Count, 234, 239 
Tongola. See Taaroa 
Torres, lodges of Comuneros, 

Torrubia, Peter, betrays Masons, 

"Traveller's Narrative, A," quoted, 


Treachery of Fenian leaders, 277 
Trent, Anti- Masonic Congress at, 

Trepoff, General, fired at by 

Zassulic, 224 
Triad society, 132 
Triangle, double, 31 

golden, 7 

mystic, 7 

Triangles in Royal Arch, 31 

Triangular altar, 7 

Trinitarii, 184 

Trinosophists, 69 

Troubelskoi, Prince, 26 

Trowel, the, whimsical- Masonic 

society, 72 
True Poles, 207 
Tsakaloff, Athanasius, Hetairist, 

Tsar Alexander II., assassinated, 


Tsar, precaution taken on travel- 
ling of, 233 
Tsar's appeal to Russian society, 


coronation, 235 

liie attempted, 226-228, 230, 

240, 245, 246 

reply to Nihilist proclama- 
tion, 233 

responsibility, 243 

Tschudy, Baron, 55 
Tsing-lien-Kiao, 131 
Tsings, the, 131, 134 
T, symbolic, 3, 5, 7 
Tubal-Cain, 4, 6 

Tugendbund, 258-262, 332 
Turf, Society of the, 321-324 
"Turk, the, and the French Sol- 
dier," book written by Oudet, 

Turkey, Freemasonry in, 98 
Turks and Hetairia, 144-156 
Turner, or gymnasts in Germany, 


Tuscany, Duke of, 98 
Tynan, P. J., Fenian, 281, 286 


UKRIVAHELI, or Concealers of 
Nihilists, 250 

Ulrich, Duke of Wiirtemberg, 1 57 

Unconditionals, inner section of 
German Union, 261 

Union for the Public Weal, Rus- 
sian, 215 

of Boyards, 2 1 5 

of Safety, Russian, 214 

of Virtue. See Tugendbund 

Unionists, German, 257 

Unions, Workmen's, 114 

Unita Italiana, 200 

United Irishmen, 271, 272 

Slavonians, 2 1 5 

Utah, secret societies in, 275 

Utopia, a comic society, 324 

VAUGHAN, Miss Diana, 104 
Vault under Solomon's Temple, 
Master's word hidden therein, 7 

under Solomon's Temple, 

Master's word discovered, 31 
Vehm, the, Lindner's work on, 


Veils, passing the, Masonic cere- 
mony, 32 

Vendicatori, Sicilian society, 294 
Vendite of Carbonari, 158, 159 
Venice, Masonry in, 74 
Vienna, Anarchists at, 127 

Congress of, its results, 331 

early Masonic lodge at, 10 

Visible, the, among Guelphic 

Knights, 178 
Vogt, founder of 

Mosel Club, 




WAHAB, meaning of term, 324 
Wahabees, Indian sect, 324-326 
Waldo, family of, 328 
Wales, Prince of, Grand Master of 

English Freemasons, 103 
Wang -lung, leader of Chinese 

society, 131 

Warrington, Masonic lodge of, 9 
Weber, C. J., German author, 

quoted, 258 
Weisse, Dr. J. A., author of 

" Obelisk and Freemasonry," 

quoted, 8 
Wellington, Duke of, reported 

offer of crown of Italy to, 185 
White-Boys, Irish society, 270 

Lily> Chinese society, 131, 


Pilgrims, Calabrian society, 

i So 

Whites and Reds in Poland, 209 

Whizzer, 301, 305 

Wilhelmsbad, Congress of, 11, 59, 

Wilson, General Robert, 187 

Thomas, founder of Order of 

Orangemen, 273 

Will of the People, Russian so- 
ciety, 223, 228, 238, 250 

William II., Norman king, 294 

Winter Palace, explosion in, 228 

Witt. See De Witt 

Wittgenstein, Prince, member of 
Tungendbund, 259 

Wolf in Masonry, 14 

Women, Greek and Arab, in 
Masonic lodges, 186 

not admitted to European 

Freemasonry, 82 

Wonderful Association, Chinese 

society, 131 
Wood store of the Globe and 

Glory, Masonic society, 86 
Word, the Lost, 31, 42 


XANTHOS, E., of Patmos, a Free- 
mason and Hetairist, 144 

YAKKER, John, Masonic writer 

quoted, 109 

Yellow (.'ap, Chinese society, 131 
York Masons, antiquity of, 5 1 

rite of Masonry, 13 

Young Germany, 258 

Italy, 175, 188, 191 

Poland, 208 

Turkey, 210, 212 

ZAMBECCARI, Livio, a Mazzinist, 

1 88 

Zappatori, Italian labourers, 103 
Zassulic, Vera, 223 
Zerubbabel, Royal Arch officer, 30 
Zinzendorf, Count, 60, 91 

rite of, 14 

Zundelevic, Aaron, establishes 

secret Nihilist press at St. 

Petersburg, 248 
Zurich, Masonic Grand Lodge at, 

International Congress ;it, 



Printed by BALLANTYNK, HANSON & Co. 
Edinburgh & London 

<fi(otes on 

Published by 




tytytes on Standard and ^cent Works 
published by Qeorge <: I(ed e way 

DURING the past ten or twelve years the litera- 
ture of the Occult Sciences and Philosophy 
has assumed a fresh importance, and, as a consequence, 
has remarkably increased in the chief countries of the 

This literature has always existed in England, and 
it is here that its new developments have, for the 
most part, originated. But, previously to the year 
1886, the publication of works on this subject was 
in the hands of amateurs, and their circulation was 
limited to the resources of book-depots belonging to 
one or two private societies. At that period, how- 
ever, Mr. GEORGE REDWAY began to undertake the 
production of books by eminent occultists, both living 
and dead, and, with the interruption of the few years 
following the sale of his original business, he has 
continued to issue in a popular form, and at a mode- 
rate price, most of the best works that have appeared 
of their kind in the language. The following succinct 
account of the entire series, which has been published 
from time to time under his auspices, including recent 
additions, will be useful to students of the subject as 
a guide in the choice of books, and will give at the 
same time a comprehensive idea of the extent and 
importance of Mr. Redway's enterprise in this depart- 
ment of literature. 


The plan followed is one of merely informal enu- 
meration, so that the various works must not be 
regarded as classified in the order of their import- 
ance, which would be difficult or impossible; while 
a grouping under subject-headings, having regard to 
the scope of the bibliography, has been deemed un- 
necessary. For convenience in reference only, the 
works of Mr. A. E. Waite have been placed in a 
separate section under the name of the author. 

ANNA KINQSFORD. Her Life, Letters, Diary, and Work. By 
her Collaborator, EDWARD MAITLAND. Illustrated with Por- 
traits, Views, Facsimiles, &c. Two vols. Demy 8vo, 315. 6d. net. 

The genesis of the New Gospel of Interpretation, which found its first 
expression in "The Perfect Way," is here fully set forth by the " surviving 
recipient " of the gospel, and these two volumes are of great and even im- 
perishable interest. By its profound mystical importance, to set aside the 
beauty of its literary form, " The Perfect Way" marked a new period in 
the religious thought of the age, finding its appropriate complement in 
" Clothed with the Sun,'' the book of Mrs. Kingsford's illuminations. 
Now this life of the seeress explains and completes both, and it is not 
surprising that it has been the most successful work of its kind published 
during the past twelve months. 

With Introduction by ALFRED RUSSEI. WALLACE, D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.S. Crown 8vo, 55. net. 

Though appearing under a name previously unknown in psychological 
literature, this work has been welcomed as perhaps the best existing 
exposition of the philosophy of Spiritualism. As Dr. Wallace explains in 
his preface, it founds a philosophy of the universe and of human nature on 
the facts of psychical research, the basis of which philosophy is necessarily 
the familiar proposition that faith must be justified by knowledge. The 
consideration is divided into two parts, the first dealing with the experi- 
mental facts, and the second with "theory and inferences," set forth in a 
manner which has been rightly characterised as really powerful and origi- 
nal ; some of the author's most important material is derived from modern 
scientific conceptions as to the constitution of matter and ether. 

( 3 ) 

THE IMITATION OF 5' AN KARA. Being a Collection of 
several Texts bearing on the Advaita. By MANILAL N. DVIVIDI. 
Crown Svo, 55. net. 

This is a production of the Bombay Press. The Oriental texts in ques- 
tion number 658, and have been derived from the Upanishads, the Institutes 
of Manu, the Mahabhirata, and other sacred writings, the Sanskrit originals 
being also given. Seeing that for the most part they were in existence 
before the birth of S'ankara, they must be regarded as the spirit which 
guided that teacher, and are thus not his imitation, but that which he 
himself followed. 

OCCULTISM. A Record of Forty Years' Experience in the 
Crown Svo, 55. net. 

The "modern mystery" is, of course, Spiritualism, and perhaps this 
crisp and eminently readable narrative has a little suffered by some in- 
exactitude in its title. The author is well known not only in the sphere 
of liberal theology, but in that of letters, and as his identity is in no way 
concealed by the narrative for those who have any acquaintance with the 
movement, it is to be regretted that his name has been suppressed. 

NEO-PLATONISM. Porphyry, the Philosopher, to his Wife, 
Marcella. Now first translated into English by ALICE ZIMMERN. 
With Preface by RICHARD GARNETT, C.B., LL.D. Crown Svo, 
35. 6d. net 

Marcella was a widow whom the philosopher espoused late in his life 
from an intellectual interest in the welfare and education of the children 
whom she had borne to her first husband. Porphyry was the pupil of 
Plotinus as Plotinus was of Ammonius Saccas. The letter, preserved 
in the Ambrosian Library of Milan, is, unfortunately, imperfect at the 
end. With the preface of Dr. Garnett and Miss Zimmern's admirable 
introduction on Neo-Platonism, it is presented under the best auspices 
to English readers. 

New and Revised Edition, with Chapters on Phantasms and 
Apparitions. Crown Svo, 53. net. 

The work of Dr. Wallace and the "Researches" of Professor Crookes 
have been always, from the evidential standpoint, the Jakin and Bohaz 
of the edifice of modern Spiritualism in England. Both are much too 
well known to require description or advertisement. The extensions of 
the present edition deal with objective apparitions and the raison tfitre 
of phantasms, each having special reference to the theories of Psychical 

( 4 ) 

ANIMAL MAGNETISM; or, Mesmerism and its Pheno- 
mena. By the late WILLIAM GREGORY, M.D., F.R.S.E. 
Fourth Edition. With Introduction by the late " M.A. (Oxon)." 
Demy 8vo, 6s. net. 

Since the days of Dr. Gregory and the classic mesmerists whom we 
connect broadly with his period, animal magnetism has assumed a new 
and possibly more scientific terminology ; but it is a matter of surprise, on 
re-reading this standard treatise, to note how trivial have been the advances 
made since the subject has been taken into account by the professional 
"modern scientist." The experiments of this careful observer have lost 
none of their importance, and the introduction of Mr. Stainton Moses, 
written for a previous edition, now very rare, will enhance the value of the 
work in the eyes of all English Spiritualists. 

book in the world. For the exclusive use of Initiates. By 
PAPUS. Translated by A. P. MORTON. With numerous Illus- 
trations. Crown 8vo, 55. net. 

Ostensibly, the " Tarot " is a method of divination comprised in seventy- 
eight symbols, from which our modern cards have descended. The fact*bf 
its existence seems to have been first discovered by a French archaeologist 
at the close of the eighteenth century, and he connected its figures with 
primitive Egyptian symbolism. The subject was further developed by 
Eliphas Le"vi, who regarded it as the first book of humanity, and thought 
that all problems of science, philosophy, and religion could be solved by 
means of its combinations. The work of Papus, who has attained similar 
conclusions, is the first formal and elaborate treatise upon the whole of this 
interesting question, and he claims to give, also for the first time, the Key 
to the construction and application of the "Tarot." 


Interpreted by the Tarot Trumps. Translated from a MS. of 
ELIPHAS LEVI, and Edited by Dr. WYNN WESTCOTT. With 
Eight Coloured Plates. Crown 8vo, 75. 6d. net. 

A special interest attaches to this publication, which has not been printed 
in the language of the original. The MS., with its carefully drawn figures, 
was written in an interleaved copy of a small Latin treatise by Trithemius, 
and sent to Baron Spedalieri, circa 1861 ; it is the subject of reference in 
one of Le'vi's letters to that disciple, by whom it was ultimately presented 
to Mr. Edward Maitland. Mr. Maitland seems to have regarded it as a 
commentary on the work of Trithemius, which goes to show that he did 
not read it : it was not until it passed into the possession of Dr. Westcott 
that it was discovered to be an original and highly interesting ritual of 

( 5 ) 

Occult Laws of Nature governing Mesmeric Phenomena. By A. 
P. SINNETT. Second Edition. 2s. 6d. net 

In addition to the sources of occult knowledge with which Mr. Sinnett 
claims to be connected, he has had considerable experience as a practical 
mesmerist, and is therefore entitled to speak upon his subject with personal 
as well as derived authority. 


A Treatise written for the personal use of those who are ignorant 
of the Eastern Wisdom. By MABEL COLLINS. Imperial 32mo, 
is. 6d. net. 

A series of aphorisms or maxims partly referable to Oriental Scriptures, 
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less popular because of the unhappy controversy of which it subsequently 
became the centre. 

THE STORY OF THE YEAR. A Record of Feasts and Cere- 
monies. By MABEL COLLINS. Imperial 32mo, is. 6d. net. 

A sequel to "Light on the Path" and a kind of Theosophical companion 
to the Calendar ; suggestive, and with an interior meaning. 

METHODS. Sixth and Revised Edition. By ROSA BAUGHAN. 
With Five Plates. Demy 8vo, is. net. 

The most popular introduction to the study of the Hand ever published 
in England. It has been in circulation for ten years, and is still always in 
demand. The present revised edition supersedes all others, and those who 
have earlier impressions will do well to consult this. 

Mediaeval. By C. W. KING. Second Edition. With Wood- 
cuts and Plates. Royal 8vo, IDS. 6d. net. 

Mr. King is our only authority on the attractive but perplexing subject 
of the Gnostic sects, and this second edition of his standard work is so 
much an enlargement upon the first that it is almost entitled to rank as 
an independent treatise. It is here offered to the public at half its original 
cost, and, when the present remainder is exhausted, the copies now avail- 
able at a small price will become much enhanced in value. Without being 
apparently a mystic, and writing rather from the standpoint of history and 
numismatics, the author approaches his subject sympathetically, and is 
in most respects an authoritative guide. 

( 6 ) 

CURIUS TRISMEQISTUS. Rendered into English by 
Perfect Way." With Illustrations. 410. Imitation Parchment. 
IDS. 6d. net. 

Despite its attribution, " The Virgin of the World" represents a school 
of initiation which is usually regarded as distinct from that which produced 
the other writings referred to Hermes Trismegistus. It differs, on the 
one hand, from the "Divine Pymander," which, perhaps, connects more 
closely with Neo-Platonism of the Christian era; and, on the other, from 
the "Golden Treatise," which cannot be dated much earlier than the 
fifteenth century. " Asclepios on Initiation," the "Definitions of Ascle- 
pios," and some "Fragments of Hermes," are included in the volume, 
which is an indispensable companion to Chambers' valuable edition of the 
other works ascribed to Hermes. 

THE KABBALAH UNVEILED. Containing Three Books of 
the Zohar. Translated from the Chaldee and Hebrew text by 
S. L. MACGREGOR MATHERS. Post 8vo. With Diagrams. 

[Out of print. 

No attempt has as yet been made in English to furnish a complete and 
catholic account of the developments of Kabbalistic literature, though the 
keys of the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures are both said to be contained 
therein. The literature is indeed so large, and presents so many difficulties 
of interpretation, that the few scholars competent for the task have evidently 
shrunk from undertaking it. In the absence of any other source of in- 
formation, the work of Mr. Mathers has been in considerable demand. 
It translates in extenso certain important books of the Zohar, giving an 
interlinear commentary on the first, and copious notes to the others. 
There is also a long introduction, which is informing and valuable. 

MAGIC, WHITE AND BLACK; or, The Science of 
Finite and Infinite Life. By FRANZ HARTMANN, M.D. 
Third Edition, revised and enlarged. Crown 8vo. Frontispiece 
and Woodcuts. 6s. net. 

A presentation of magical doctrine from a Theosophical standpoint. 
The ethical value has been regarded as high by authorities in the same 
line of thought, and Dr. Hartmann's treatise, enlarged and revised for 
each successive edition, has been singularly successful. 

( 7 ) 

THE KEY OF SOLOMON THE KINO. Now first translated 
from Ancient MSS. in the British Museum, by S. L. MACGREGOR 
MATHERS. With numerous Plates. Crown 410, 255. net. 

A scholarly edition of what is regarded as " the original work on practical 
magic," based upon the best texts, and crowded with talismanic and other 
figures. It gives the actual mode of operation, which should enable any 
person so disposed to call up and discharge spirits, as well as full instruc- 
tions for other departments of ceremonial magic. It must, however, be 
observed that the " Keys of Solomon" are referred to the domain of 
White Magic, and do not, therefore, deal with evil spirits evoked for evil 
purposes. The " Keys of Solomon the King" are, further, to be dis- 
tinguished from those of Solomon the Rabbi, which have not yet been 

neutics of Astrology and Holy Writ. Edited by ANNA 
BONUS KINGSFORD. With numerous Symbolical Illustrations. 
4to. Parchment. IDS. 6d. net. 

An old astrological maxim tells us that Sapiens dominabitur astris, and 
this work is actually a formal treatise upon the method of ruling the planets 
by the law of grace. In other words, our destinies are written in the stars, 
but it is possible to erase or rectify the record. This very curious book, 
practically the sole treatise upon the spiritual side of astrology, was first 
published in 1649, and its authorship remains unknown. It connects on 
the one side with the Paracelsian doctrine of interior stars and external 
signatures, and on the other with the modern interpretations of Eliphas 
L6vi ; indeed, the maxim of the French Magus, "When we think that 
we are reading in the stars, it is in ourselves we read," would be an admir- 
able motto for the title-page. The late Dr. Kingsford's preface to the 
reprint deals with the " true method of interpreting Holy Scripture," and 
attracted considerable attention at the time of its first appearance. 

THE ASTROLOGER'S GUIDE. Being the One Hundred and 
Forty-six Considerations of Guido Bonatus, and the Choicest 
Aphorisms of the Seven Segments of Cardan. Edited by W. 
ELDON SERJEANT. Demy 8vo, 75. 6d. net. 

Bonatus was a Florentine astrologer of the thirteenth century, who was 
famous for his successful predictions, but he ultimately became a Franciscan. 
Jerome Cardan, who is a greater name in the starry science, was a skilful 
physician, and to him mathematics are indebted for developments of 
importance. The present reprint is the translation of Henry Coley as 
regards Bonatus, and that of William Lilly as regards Cardan, who 
nourished in the sixteenth century. Mr. Serjeant's edition places two rare 
works within the reach of all who are interested. 

POSTHUMOUS HUMANITY: A Study of Phantoms. 

By ADOLPHE D'AssiER. Translated and Annotated by HENRY 
S. OLCOTT, President of the Theosophical Society. Crown 8vo, 
75. 6d. net. 

A presentation of facts establishing the existence of a posthumous per- 
sonality, not only as regards man, but other animals, and even vegetables. 
Shortly put, it is an attempt to demonstrate the occult doctrine of the 
fluidic form. From one point of view, this study of psychic phenomena 
offers an unattractive contrast to the mystic doctrine of union with the 
Divine, but this is because it deals only with the elementary spheres of 
transcendental experience, and it must not be regarded as less remarkable 
or less suggestive because its inferences are somewhat dismal. 


By HENRY S. OLCOTT. Crown 8vo, 75. 6d. net. 

A series of lectures presenting the alternative between Theosophy and 
Materialism, and dealing comprehensively with old Western Magic, modern 
Spiritualism, Eastern Sociology and Eastern, especially Indian, Religions. 
It is perhaps the most successful work ever published by Col. Olcott 
scholarly, well expressed, at once popular and attractive in form. It has 
had a wide sale, and deserved it. 


Compiled from information supplied by her Relatives and Friends, 
and Edited by A. P. SINNETT. With Portrait. Demy 8vo, 
los. 6d. net. 

Madame Blavatsky was herself a mirror or epitome of the occult sciences. 
She personified all their wisdom, all their extravagance, while she also 
incorporated into her history most of the accusations which have been 
made against them. Her story is here told with Mr. Sinnett's well-known 
ease of style and considerable literary skill. It is not now a complete life, 
for not only has the subject passed away since it was written, but much 
additional knowledge has been made public concerning her. It deserves 
and would repay rewriting, and yet, as it stands, it is always fresh and 
interesting. There is not, however, the same living and moving portraiture 
of Madame Blavatsky which is to be found in the brilliant, though un- 
happily hostile, biography of M. Solovyoff. 

( 9 ) 

Translated from the German by C. C. MASSEY. 8vo. Two vols. 
IDS. 6d. net. 

These noble volumes are the outcome of a happy combination on the 
one hand, an author who is among the first of living German Mystics ; on 
the other, a translator who is himself a Mystic, and of established repute 
among many like-thinking in England. It is impossible in a brief space 
to present a satisfactory analysis of a work which is so important and at 
the same time so voluminous. The author explains that he has attempted 
" to erect a philosophical fabric of doctrine on the empirical basis of the 
sleep-life," and to disprove the "false presumption" that "our Ego is 
wholly embraced in self-consciousness." It is maintained that an analysis" 
of the dream-life exhibits the Ego as exceeding that limit. A very similar 
doctrine was propounded in Fichte's "Way to the Blessed Life," namely, 
that only a small portion of our being is illuminated by the sun of con- 

THE INDIAN RELIGIONS; or, Results of the Myste- 
rious Buddhism. By HARGRAVE JENNINGS. 8vo, 6s. net. 

Sufficient attention has not been given to the very curious speculations 
in this volume, some of which are highly suggestive, though marred by 
inaccuracies, extravagances, and a determined effort to write in a bizarre 
fashion. By the way, at the time of its publication it was accepted as a 
new work, but it was really edited for the publishers from materials in 
earlier volumes by Mr. Jennings, now long since out of print and exceed- 
ingly rare, as, for example, " Curious Things of the Outside World." The 
work thus possesses a certain bibliographical value apart from the occult 
lucubrations, which have always attracted a certain class of minds to the 
author of the " Rosicrucians." 

8vo, 55. net. 

Miss Baughan has for many years possessed an almost unrivalled reputa- 
tion as a professional palmist, and would seem to be no less skilled in dis- 
cerning the future by means of the lines on the hand than was Mdlle. 
Lenormand by the help of the combinations of cartomancy. At the same 
time, Miss Baughan, in her published works, is prudently disinclined to 
check the old doctrine of chiromancy by the result of her personal observa- 
tion. The three occult sciences dealt with in this book are elucidated in a 
practical manner, and their connection very clearly exhibited. 

COTTON. With Twelve Plates. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. net. 

A less elaborate treatise thar that noticed above, the late Mrs. Cotton's 
book is elementary only, and the clear text, which is assisted by excellent 
illustrations, has proved useful to many beginners. 

THE TAROT: Its Occult Signification, Use in Fortune- 
Telling, and Method of Play. By S. L. MACGREGOR 
MATHERS. With Pack of 78 Tarot Cards, 55. net. 

This little work, as will be seen, is designed to accompany a set of Tarot 
cards, and it makes no pretension to deal in an elaborate manner with the 
complex symbolism of the " book of antique initiation ; " but it may serve 
as a syllabus or introduction to the more ambitious exposition by Papus, 
and has been found useful in cartomancy by those disinclined towards the 
study of a larger and more technical work. 

8vo, IDS. 6d. net. 

The occult philosophy of Paracelsus concerning Magic, Pneumatology, 
Sorcery, Alchemy, Astrology, and Medicine, is here set forth and explained 
according to the tenets of Theosophy. It has, therefore, considerable 
interest for the followers of this school, while the attempt to interpret 
an old teacher of occult philosophy from the standpoint of later views is 
not without importance for the more general student of the subject. 
Dr. Hartmann's concise digest has thus been always in requisition. 

The Mystery which hath been Hidden for Ages and 
from Generations. With Plates. Large 8vo, 153. net. 

This voluminous treatise, thus suggestively entitled, is scarcely capable 
of brief description, so large is the field of occult interest which it covers. 
Perhaps the best which can be said of it in this place is that the author 
claims to have been initiated by several secret societies possessing an occult 
tradition, and that his work has been regarded by capable judges as indi- 
cating an access to sources of information which could not well be attained 
by the ordinary methods of study. 

PHILOSOPHER. An Introduction to the Study of his Works. 
By FRANZ HARTMANN, M.D. Demy 8vo, IDS. 6d. net. 

Here Dr. Hartmann has followed the same plan as in the case of the 
"Life and Writings of Paracelsus." We have first an account of the 
mystic, and then a compendious digest of his doctrine arranged in sections, 
with a Theosophical commentary. The reader who is not a Theosophist 
can dispense with the commentary, and will still have a handbook to the 
writings of Boehme which will be more valuable, because more sympa- 
thetic, than that of Bishop Martensen. 

( II ) 

MADAME ISABEL DE STEIGER. With a Preface by J. W. 
BRODIE-INNES. Crown 8vo, 33. 6d. net. 

The work of the great German Mystic, Eckartshausen, embodying per- 
haps the most profound instruction ever offered concerning the esoteric 
mysteries of Christianity, this treatise, prized by a select few in its original 
tongue, and familiar also to others in its French translation, is here given 
for the first time in an English version, with some annotations by the trans- 
lator, a lady well known in occult circles, and a transcendentalist as well 
as an artist. Mr. Brodie-Innes contributes a short preface which will be of 
value to those who are acquainted with his remarkable work on the " True 
Church of Christ" a work, it may be added, which, in a more recent 
aspect, represents much of the mystic teaching to be found in " The Cloud 
on the Sanctuary." 

Occult Science, Theosophy, and the Catholic Faith. Second 
Edition. By C. G. HARRISON. Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. net. 

Mr. Harrison regards Transcendentalism, and especially its Theosophic 
development, from the standpoint of esoteric Christianity, and in a slight 
degree he connects with the school of Eckartshausen. His impeachment of 
Madame Blavatsky, if not entirely new, embodies many original elements, 
and has attracted some attention. The little work is exceedingly clear and 

8vo, 35. 6d. net. 

Presented under the guise of a novel, and possessing an artistic excellence 
which is rare in works of fiction. ' ' A Professor of Alchemy " is really the 
life of the celebrated French adept, Denys Zachaire, very slightly coloured 
by romance. The alchemist has himself written the history of his quest 
after the Magnum Opus, and the story by "Percy Ross" is a kind of 
idealised supplement thereto, which heightens the interest surrounding 
one of the most remarkable personages in the whole range of Hermetic 


Rev. JOHN NEVIUS, D.D. Crown 8vo, 7s. 6d. net. 

The work of an American who spent forty years of his life as a missionary 
in China, and there had the subject of Diabolical Possession forced upon 
him. Contains the result of his experiences and researches, and valu- 
able bibliographical additions. Interesting from any point of view, but 
especially from that of the Christian occultist. 

A BLANK PAGE. A Story for the Bereaved. By PILGRIM. 
Crown 8vo, 55. net. 

A graceful and touching story dealing suggestively with the experiences of 
Modern Spiritualism. It is certainly the best, perhaps the one spiritualistic 
novel which has appeared in England. 

thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged. Two vols. Demy 8vo, 
i, us. 6d. net. 

A new work rather than a new edition, the result of twenty-five years' 
study and research, and truly encyclopaedic in its range, extending from 
Egyptian Mysteries to the latest doings of the Nihilists, and including 160 
Secret Organisations in all. It is the only book of its kind, and is not 
likely to be superseded. 

HUMAN MAGNETISM; or, How to Hypnotise. By 

JAMES COATES. Crown 8vo, 55. net. 

A practical work by a writer whose long experience qualifies him to 
speak with authority. The instructions are full, explicit, and illustrated 
with admirable photographs ; but it is more than a book of instruction, it 
is also a critical account of the subject up to date, from the standpoint of 
Animal Magnetism, enriched and qualified by a full acquaintance with all 
Continental theories. 

ZENIA THE VESTAL; or, The Problem of Vibrations. 

By MARGARET B. PEEKE. Second Edition. Small 4to, 55. net 

An occult novel, which claims, however, to be inspired by direct occul 
teaching, derived from existing centres of initiation. It is in any case a 
fascinating story, having a genuine romantic motive, some admirable 
pictures of European travel, and some living characters. 

For any of the Books in this List apply to 
the Publisher 


Works by <Mr. ^Arthur Sdward Waite 

DEVIL-WORSHIP IN FRANCE; or, The Question of 
Lucifer. A Record of Things Seen and Heard in the Secret 
Societies, according to the Evidence of Initiates. By A. E. WAITE. 
Crown 8vo, 55. net. 

An exhaustive examination of all the evidence fabricated in France con- 
cerning the actual existence of a religion of Lucifer. In addition to its 
occult interest, it constitutes a most remarkable contribution to the litera- 
ture of Freemasonry, as that fraternity is the subject of special accusation 
in connection with devil-worship by a host of French writers, some of whom 
are high-grade Masons. This, Mr. Waite's latest work, has received marked 
recognition from the general press. 

TRANSCENDENTAL MAGIC; Its Doctrine and Ritual. 

By ELIPHAS LEVI. Now for the first time translated into English 
by A. E. WAITE. With all the Original Illustrations, a Bio- 
graphical Preface, copious Index, and Portrait of the French 
Magus. Demy 8vo, 1 55. net 

An unabridged and faithful rendering of Eliphas Le"vi's most important 
work, which in the original is so well known by students as scarcely to 
need description. The present translation will, no doubt, become a text- 
book for English readers. Eliphas Le"vi may be, to some extent, regarded 
as the founder of modern occultism, and he is certainly the most brilliant 
and accomplished of all the expositors of transcendental science and philo- 
sophy. The " Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie" marks an epoch in 
esoteric literature, and it is here made accessible to all. 

THE TURBA PHILOSOPHORUM. Translated into English, 
with the variations of the Shorter Recension, explanations of 
obscure terms, and parallels from the Byzantine Alchemists. By 
A. E. WAITE. Crown 8vo, 6s. net. 

The " Turba Philosophorum " is the most ancient Latin treatise on 
Alchemy and the Great Work ; it is the subject of continual reference by 
all later adepts, ranking second only to the writings of Hermes Trisme- 
gistus, and recognised as a final authority in the " practice of the philo- 
sophers." While it has been the subject of innumerable commentaries, 
and of the most pious veneration on the part of Hermetic students, this 
curious fountain-head of alchemical literature in the West has never been 
previously translated. 

( 14 ) 

THE MYSTERIES OF MAGIC: A Digest of the Writ- 
ings Of Eliphas LeVi. With Biographical and Critical Essay 
by A. E. WAITE. Revised Edition. Crown 8vo, IDs. 6d. net. 

This work fulfils a purpose quite distinct from that of " Transcendental 
Magic," inasmuch as it is not simply translation, but presents in an 
abridged and digested form the entire writings of Eliphas Le"vi which had 
appeared up to the time of its publication. Mr. Waite's extended sum- 
mary has been generally appreciated, and the large impression issued in 
1886 being exhausted, this revised and enlarged edition, following a new 
and improved plan, has been recently issued. 


Founded on their own Manifestoes, and on Facts and Documents 
collected from the Writings of Initiated Brethren. By A. E. 
WAITE. With Illustrations. Crown 8vo, 75. 6d. net 

Written from the historical standpoint, giving the chief documents in 
extenso, together with an elaborate summary and analysis of the various 
views which have prevailed from time to time about "The Virgin Fraternity 
of the Rose." Mr. Waite's account has been accepted as the standard, as 
it is indeed the only serious source of information, upon the subject in 

THE OCCULT SCIENCES: A Compendium of Trans- 
cendental Doctrine and Practice. By A. E. WAITE. 
Crown 8vo, 6s. net. 

To furnish a preliminary and elementary account of the various divisions 
of the transcendental sciences has been attempted by more than one writer, 
but not usually from a sympathetic standpoint, and not certainly as the 
result of any considerable knowledge or research. The present work deals 
with almost all the occult sciences, from Alchemy to the minor methods 
of Divination ; it has also an historical section, giving some account of 
Mystics, Rosicrucians, and the esoteric side of Freemasonry. Lastly, the 
modern phenomena connected with Mesmerism and Spiritism, together 
with the claims of Theosophy, are dealt with in a comprehensive survey. 
This work of Mr. Waite has been particularly successful, and is always in 

( 15 ) 

on materials collected in 1815 and supplemented by Recent 
Researches. By A. E. WAITE. Demy 8vo, IDS. 6d. net. 

Alchemical, like Kabbalistic, literature is far too technical and too 
established in exegetical difficulties for ordinary readers to find much satis- 
faction in its perusal. But the lives of the seekers after the Magnum Opus, 
the Quintessence, and the Universal Medicine are in many cases romantic 
records which will interest those who care little comparatively for the 
pursuit which engrossed them. The biography of Cagliostro related in 
this volume has much the same adventurous element as Gil Bias or 
Guzman d'Alfarache. There is also a large bibliography, and an intro- 
duction dealing with the modern interpretations of alchemical symbolism. 
Persons who wish to know the evidence for transmutation in the past 
as a fact of physical science will be astonished at its extent and convincing 


Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by A. E. WAITE. 410, 
IDS. 6d. net. 

The first four treatises published by the renowned Eugenius Philalethes, 
in the order of their publication, with the Latin passages translated into 
English, an introduction and notes. The edition, in itself unpretending, 
has, at the same time, proved of considerable interest to lovers of the 
Royalist Mystic on account of the unique biographical materials contained 
in the preface. The works here reprinted are, moreover, rare in their 
original editions, and command high prices, so that this edition, in the old 
orthography, offers a cheap substitute to students. 


Including the Rites and Mysteries of Goe'tic Theurgy, Sorcery, 
and Infernal Necromancy. By A. E. WAITE. Crown 410. 

[/ the press. 


Mr. GEORGE RED WAY is also the Agent for the following 
Works of Mr. A. E. WAITE, first published by JAMES 
ELLIOTT &> Co., and including an unique series of 
Hermetic translations : 

PARACELSUS. Now for the first time translated, faithfully 
and unabridged, into English. Edited, with 0. Biographical Pre- 
face, Elucidatory Notes, a copious Hermetic Vocabulary, and 
Index, by A. E. WAITE. Two vols. Crown 410, 2, I2s. 6d. net. 

THE HERMETIC MUSEUM. Restored and Enlarged, com- 
prising TWENTY-TWO Treatises on the Mysteries of Alchemy and 
the composition of the Medicine of the Philosophers. Now first 
done into English from the rare Latin Edition of 1678. With all 
the Illustrations reproduced in facsimile by a photographic process. 
Two vols. Small 4to, 2, 2s. net. 

concerning the Treasure of the Philosopher's Stone. 

Translated from the much-prized Aldine Edition of 1546, and 
Edited with Preface and Index. The Original Illustrations photo- 
graphically reproduced. Crown 8vo, I2s. 6d. net. 

MARVELS, concerning the Blessed Treasure of the 
Philosopher's Stone. By BENEDICTUS FIGULUS. With a 
Life of the Author by A. E. WAITE. Crown 8vo, I2s. 6d. net. 

VALENTINE. With the Commentary of Theodore Kerckringius, 
the Physician. Translated from the Latin Edition of 1685, with 
Biographical and Critical Introduction, by A. E. WAITE. En- 
graved Title and Plates of Alchemical Vessels. Crown 8vo, 
IDS. 6d. net. 


Translated from the First Hamburg Edition of 1676, and Edited, 
with a Biographical Introduction, an Account of Kelley's relations 
with the celebrated Dr. Dee, and a Transcript of the so-called 
"Book of St. Dunstan," by A. E. WAITE. With Illustrations. 
Crown 8vo, 75. 6d. net. 

COLLECTANEA CHEMICA. Being certain Select Treatises on 
Alchemy and Hermetic Medicine, by EIREN^EUS PHILALETHES, 
Note by A. E. WAITE. Crown 8vo, 73. 6d. net. 

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